# ✎✎✎ Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus

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Steady-state numerical Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state and transient conductive heat transfer together with convection and radiation Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus applied to building Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus and geometries. Real gases. A Subliminal Perception Essay Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus of the underlying physics: Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus and distortion in optical Choices Affecting Our Future In Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol, Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus polarization, modulation and attenuation. This course focuses on the following topics: engineering design for the control of workplace hazards; Sociological Observation Of Durango injuries and diseases; codes and standards; Workplace Hazardous Materials Thermodynamics: Concept Of Variational Calculus Systems WHMIS ; hazard evaluation and control; design criteria; risk What Are Arismachuss Accomplishments safety in the manufacturing environment; applications in ventilation, air cleaning, noise and vibration.

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Repair time. System reliability estimation: binomial model. Strength stress model. Failure detection and isolation. Statistical quality control. Introduction to modelling methods employed for the planning and design of sub-systems and complex systems. Discrete and continuous time, lumped and distributed parameters models. State estimation. Parameters identification. Discretization and stochastic effects. Technological systems modelling and simulation examples. Robotics overview. Basics of robot kinematics, statics and dynamics. Introduction to practical robots, control and programming. Project in analysis, design or application of manipulators. Models for passive and active components for electro-mechanical systems. Network representation of signals and energy transmission and conversion.

Selection of sensors and actuators for the control of mechanical systems. Modelling and simulation for the design of mixed dynamic systems. State equations. Jordan canonical form. Multirate and nonsynchronous samplings. Controllability and observability of digital systems. Digital controllers design using bilinear transformation. Digital PID controller. Optimal control of digital systems.

Examples of controlling mechanical system actuators. Hamiltonian dynamics. Hamiltonian control systems. Lyapunov dynamics. Phase space analysis. Switching and sliding mode control. Boundary layer continuous approximation. Actuator, sensors and controller requirements. Manipulation control examples. Stoichiometry, thermo-chemistry, ignition, flame propagation, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, turbulent combustion, modelling. Gaseous jet flames, combustion of liquid droplets, atomization, spray flames, coal combustion, fluidized bed combustion. Differential equations of motion. Viscous and inviscid regions. Potential flow: superposition; thin airfoils; finite wings; compressibility corrections.

Viscous flow: thin shear layer approximation; laminar layers; transition; turbulence modelling. Convective heat transfer: free versus forced convection; energy and energy integral equations; turbulent diffusion. Navier-Stokes and boundary layer equations; mean flow equations for turbulent kinetic energy; integral formulations. Stability, transition, turbulence, Reynolds stresses; separation. Calculation methods, closure schemes. Compressibility, heat transfer, and three-dimensional effects.

The fundamental equations and theorems for non-viscous fluid flow; solution of two-dimensional and axisymmetric potential flows; low-speed airfoil and cascade theory; wing lifting-line theory; panel methods. Steady isentropic, frictional, and diabatic flow; shock waves; irrotational compressible flow, small perturbation theory and similarity rules; second-order theory and unsteady, one-dimensional flow. Fundamentals of techniques of simulation of fluid dynamic phenomena. Theoretical basis, principles of design, performance and instrumentation of ground test facilities. Applications to aerodynamic testing. Characteristics of energy sources and emissions into the environment. The atmosphere; stratification and stability, equations of motion, simple winds, mean flow, turbulence structure and dispersion near the ground.

Flow and dispersion in groundwater, rivers, lakes and oceans. Physical and analytical modelling of environmental flows. Aircraft performance analysis with emphasis on factors affecting take-off, landing and economic performance; high lift schemes; operating economics. Static stability theory. Euler's equations for rigid body motion; the linearized equations of motion; stability derivatives and their estimation. Longitudinal and lateral dynamic response of an aircraft to control and disturbance. Performance characteristics, handling and directional stability, ride comfort and safety of various types of ground vehicle systems including road vehicles, terrain-vehicle systems, guided transport systems, and advanced ground transport technology.

Orbital dynamics and perturbations due to the Earth's figure, the sun, and the moon with emphasis on mission planning and analysis. Rigid body dynamics applied to transfer orbit and on-orbit momentum management and control of spacecraft. Effects of flexible structures on a spacecraft control system. Technical, economic and environmental aspects of present and proposed large-scale systems of energy conversion. Reactor design and safety requirement overview; reactor physics, chemistry and engineering, CANDU reactor design and operation; CANDU reactor fuel channels, thermalhydraulics and fuel; reactor safety design and analysis; IAEA and Canadian safety analysis requirements; reactor accidents; nuclear energy policy.

During this course students will develop an understanding of the methodologies and theory employed historically and contemporarily in the Building Performance Simulation BPS field, develop capabilities for extending the functionality of BPS tools, and establish skills in applying BPS tools in research, analysis, and design. Includes: Experiential Learning Activity.

Theoretical and practical areas pertinent to the operation of wind turbines. World energy needs, wind farms versus traditional power plants, global wind characteristics, efficient turbine design, electrical components, modes of turbine operation and control, mechanical design, economic and environmental concerns. The course provides an understanding of system modelling and the connection between energy domains.

Introduction to nonlinear systems, stability of periodic solutions and limit cycles. Second-order nonlinear systems. Autonomous and non-autonomous systems. Input-Output stability formalisms. Basics of nonlinear control techniques based on Lyapunov methods. Through lectures and project work, this course introduces fundamental 3D machine vision methods triangulation and time-of-flight , presents cutting-edge neural network approaches, and explores major engineering applications e. Review of acoustic waves in compressible fluids; acoustic pressure, intensity and impedance; physical interpretation and measurement; transmission through media; layers, in-homogeneous media, solids; acoustic systems; rooms, ducts, resonators, mufflers, properties of transducers; microphones, loudspeakers, computational acoustics.

The convected wave equation; theory of subsonic and supersonic jet noise; propeller and helicopter noise; fan and compressor noise; boundary layer noise, interior noise; propagation in the atmosphere; sonic boom; impact on environment. An introduction for the non-specialists to the concepts of digital and analog electronics with emphasis on data acquisition, processing and analysis. Topics covered include operational amplifiers, signal processing, digital logic systems, computer interfacing, noise in electronic systems. Hands-on sessions illustrate theory and practice.

Solution techniques for parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic equations developed for problems of interest to fluid dynamics with appropriate stability considerations. A staged approach to solution of full Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is used. Grid generation techniques appropriate for compressible flows are introduced. Types of machines. Similarity: performance parameters; characteristics; cavitation. Velocity triangles. Euler equation: impulse and reaction. Radial pumps and compressors: analysis, design and operation. Axial pumps and compressors: cascade and blade-element methods; staging; off-design performance; stall and surge. Axial turbines. Current design practice. Interrelationship among thermodynamic, aerodynamic, and mechanical design.

Ideal and real cycle calculations. Cycle optimization; turbo-shaft, turbojet, turbofan. Component performance. Off-design performance; matching of compressor, turbine, nozzle. Twin-spool matching. The course covers three major topics: review of fundamentals from a consistent viewpoint, properties and equations of state, and applications and special topics. The third topic includes an introduction to statistical thermodynamics. This course covers two major topics: combustion fundamentals and gas turbine combustor design. Combustion fundamentals include fuel evaporation, chemistry of combustion, chemical kinetics and emission formation and introduction to computational combustion modeling.

Combustor design addresses the interrelationship between operational requirements and combustion fundamentals. Analytical, numerical and analog solutions to steady-state and transient conduction heat transfer in multi-dimensional systems. Radiative heat exchange between black, grey, non-grey diffusive and specular surfaces, including effects of athermanous media. Analogies between heat, mass and momentum transfer. Forced and free convection relations for laminar and turbulent flows analytically developed where possible and otherwise deduced from experimental results, for simple shapes and in heat exchangers. Mass transfer theory and applications. General theory of discrete multi-degree-of-freedom vibrating systems. Emphasis on numerical techniques of solving complex vibrating systems, with selected applications from aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering.

Review of transfer function and state-space system descriptions. Elements of the optimal control problem. Variational calculus. Optimal state feedback control. Riccati equations. Optimal observers and Kalman-Bucy Filters. Extension to discrete time systems including an introduction to dynamic programing. Practical applications are emphasized throughout the course. The history of and introduction to robotics methodology. Robots and manipulators; homogeneous transformation, kinematic equations, solving kinematic equations, differential relationships, motion trajectories, dynamics.

Control; feedback control, compliance, servomotors, actuators, external and internal sensors, grippers and vision systems. Microprocessors and their application to robot control. Guidance system classification, flight control systems, targeting, target tracking, sensing. Modern multivariable control analysis; design requirements, sensitivity, robustness, perturbations, performance analysis. Modern filtering and estimation techniques. Aircraft, missile and spacecraft guidance and control. Fundamental concepts and characteristics of modern stability definitions. Sensitivity and variational equations; linear variational equations; phase space analysis; Lyapunov's direct method. Autonomous and nonautonomous systems; stability in first approximation; the effect of force type on stability; frequency method.

Knowledge-based controllers. Fuzzy control: mathematics, relations, operations, approximate reasoning. Fuzzy knowledge base control and structure. Fuzzification, inference engine; defuzzification. Nonlinear, adaptive fuzzy control systems. Stability, Neuro-Control: processing, learning. Adaptation of artificial neural systems: associative memories, algorithms, applications, and network implementation.

Neurofuzzy systems: industrial applications. Exclusion: ELG Problem-solving processes and how they can be applied in engineering design. Systems analyses using time domain methods, root-locus methods, and frequency response methods. Characteristics and performance of linear feedback control systems. System stability. Proportional, integral and derivative controllers. Laboratory: two hours per week, alternate weeks.

This course focuses on general design philosophy and the design process. The following topics are covered: design factors such as product safety, reliability, life cycle costs and manufacturability; design in the aerospace context vehicle and system design with regard to mission requirements, configuration, sizing, loads, etc. Overview of DoT and other international aviation standards e. This course covers the following topics: aerodynamic loading of elastic airfoils; phenomenon of divergence; effect of flexible control surface on divergence of main structure; divergence of one- and two-dimensional wing models; phenomenon of flutter; flutter of two- and three-dimensional wings; flutter prevention and control; panel flutter in high-speed vehicles, flutter of turbomachine bladings, galloping vortex-induced oscillations, bridge buffeting.

Introduction to fixed-wing aircraft operation. Flying environment and its measurement by aircraft instrumentation. Computation of lift and drag, effects of viscosity and compressibility. Review of piston, turboprop, turbojet and turbofan power plants. Operational performance of aircraft in climb, cruise, descent and on ground. Advanced aircraft systems. Operational considerations in aircraft design. Projects on selected topics. Introduction to computational methods in fluid dynamics using commercial CFD codes; aspects of geometry modelling, structured and unstructured grid generation, solution strategy, and post-processing; conversion of CAD to CFD models; an overview of basic numerical methods for the Navier-Stokes equations with emphasis on accuracy evaluation and efficiency.

Elements of turbulence closure modelling. User-defined function for customized physical models into commercial CFD codes. Aircraft design process, preliminary sizing and thrust requirements. Rotary and fixed wing aerodynamics and stability. Helicopter configurations. Structure and fatigue design considerations. Review of the gas turbine cycle and components arrangement. Turbo-propulsion: turboprop, turbofan, turbojet and turboshafts. Dimensional analysis of turbomachines. Flow in turbomachines. Three-dimensional flow in turbomachines.

Axial-flow turbines and compressors. Centrifugal compressors. Compressor and turbine performance maps; surge and stall. Flow conservation equations, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, inviscid irrotational and rotational flows: the Euler equations, the potential and stream function equations. Dynamics of an incompressible inviscid flow field: the Kelvin, Stokes, and Helmholtz theorems. Elementary flows and their superposition, panel method for non-lifting bodies. Airfoil and wing characteristics, aerodynamic forces and moments coefficients. Incompressible flows around thin airfoils, Biot-Savart law, vortex sheets. Incompressible flow around thick airfoils, the panel method for lifting bodies. Compressible subsonic flow: linearized theory, Prandlt-Glauert equation and other compressibility correction rules, the area rule.

Review of turbo-propulsion types and energy transfer in turbomachines. Two- and three-dimensional flow. Lift and drag for airfoils. Cascade tests and correlations. Aerodynamic losses: physics, mechanisms, control of viscous effects. Preliminary and detailed design of turbines and compressors. Structural and thermal design requirements. Failure considerations: creep, fatigue and corrosion. Performance matching. Combustion and gearbox design. Air and oil systems design requirements. Installations and acoustics.

Evolution of design. Recent trends in technologies. This course focuses on design principles and sizing of the following aircraft systems: hydraulic system, primary and secondary flight control actuation systems, landing gear systems, and fuel system. Traditional and new technology implementations in aircraft, helicopters and other aerospace vehicles are considered. Associated standards and regulations are described. Principles of architecture development and integration, as well as engineering tools for system sizing and simulation, are covered. Laboratory: 12 hours total.

This course focuses on design principles and sizing of the following aircraft systems: electrical power system, auxiliary and emergency power systems, environmental control system, ice and rain protection system, and pneumatic power system. A project is required, including a laboratory component. Basic flight control and flight dynamics principles. Aircraft dynamic equations and performance data. Implementation of aircraft control: control surfaces and their operations, development of thrust and its control; autopilot systems, their algorithms, dynamics and interaction problems. Flight instruments, principles of operation and dynamics.

Cockpit layouts — basic configuration, ergonomic design, control field forces; advanced concepts in instruments, avionics and displays; HUD; flight management systems, and communication equipment. Introduction to flight simulation: overview of visual, audio and motion simulator systems; advanced concepts in flight simulators. Different types of materials used in aerospace. Metals, composites, ceramics, polymers. Failure prediction and prevention. Modes of material failure, fracture, fatigue, creep, corrosion, impact. Effect of high temperature and multiaxial loadings. High temperature materials. Cumulative damage in fatigue and creep. Materials selection. Basics of modern electronic navigation systems, history of air navigation, earth coordinate and mapping systems; basic theory and analysis of modern electronic navigation instrumentation, communication and radar systems, approach aids, airborne systems, transmitters and antenna coverage; noise and losses, target detection, digital processing, display systems and technology; demonstration of avionic systems using flight simulator.

Definition of load paths in typical aircraft structures. Derivation of analysis procedures to enable the designer to size preliminary designs. Internal shear flow distributions that balance external loads. Stress analysis of open and closed cell beams; statically indeterminate beams and frames; single and multi cell torque boxes; symmetric heavy fuselage frames. Structural instability of columns, beams, plates and flanges in compression and shear. Centres of twist and flexure; structural warping; margins of safety; concepts of optimum design; lug analysis and mechanical joints; matrix analysis methods leading to the Finite Element method.

Stress analysis of thin-walled metallic structures. Design process for aircraft structures. Airworthiness and design considerations. Static, vibratory and aeroelastic loadings. Propulsion-induced loadings. Functions and fabrication of structural components. Design for buckling of aircraft structures: local buckling, instability of stiffened panels, flexural torsional buckling. Design for fracture and fatigue failures. Stress analysis and design of wings, fuselages, stringers, fuselage frames, wing ribs, cut-outs in wings and fuselages, and laminated structures.

Design using Finite Element Method. Concept of Optimum Design of Aircraft Structures. Design case studies. This course includes a supervised design, simulation or experimental capstone design project including a preliminary project proposal with complete project plan and a technical report at the end of the fall term; a final report by the group and presentation at the end of the winter term. Lectures: one hour per week, one term. NOTE: Students will work in groups under direct supervision of a faculty member. Elements of procedural programming: variables, primitive data types, scope, operators and expressions, control structures, functions, derived data types and basic data structures.

Program structure and development: specifications, analysis of requirements, flow charting, incremental development, testing, validation and program documenting. Application of procedural programming, graphics and numerical tool box to mathematics and building, civil and environmental engineering. Analysis of statically determinate structures: deflections, strain energy concepts, virtual work principles. Mueller Breslau principle, influence lines. Approximate methods for statically indeterminate structures. Collapse load analysis. Cables and Arches. Computer applications. Application of virtual work principles. Introduction to matrix methods.

This course covers the following topics: basis for limit states design, code requirements, structural steel design: tension and compression members, beams and beam-columns, connections, design of timber members. This course covers the behaviour of reinforced concrete elements in flexure, compression, shear and bond. Other topics covered in the course are limit states design of reinforced concrete beams, one-way slabs, columns, and footings; serviceability limits states; introduction to prestressed concrete and masonry structures. Elementary operations employed in engineering surveying; use, care, and adjustment of instruments; linear and angular measurements; traversing; earthwork calculations; theory of errors; horizontal and vertical curves and curve layout; slope stakes and grades, application of surveying methods to city, topographic surveying, and introduction to advanced surveying techniques; use of digital computers in surveying calculations.

Summer school taken before entering second year of study in the BEng program. Lectures and fieldwork: eight hours per day; six days per week for three weeks. Matrix formulation of the force and of the displacement methods of analysis. Direct stiffness approach; finite element methods for structural analysis. Truss, beam, plane strain, plane stress, shell and solid elements. Theory of vibration. Dynamic response of simple structural systems. Effects of blast, wind, traffic, and machinery vibrations. Basic concepts in earthquake resistant design. Techniques and procedures used for estimating cost of construction projects. Cost estimation process; elements of project cost; conceptual and detailed cost estimation methods; risk assessment and range estimating; case studies; computer-aided estimating.

This course covers the following topics: methods of delivering construction, contractual relationships and organizational structures, phases of project development, estimating resource requirements, costs and durations, bidding strategies, network analysis using CPM and PERT, time-cost trade-off, resource allocation, cash flow analysis, earned-value concept for integrated time and cost control, quality control, and value engineering. Principles of modelling and simulation. Classification and validation of simulation models. Analysis of input data and outputs. Simulation languages. Application of discrete event simulation in construction operations including earthmoving operations, building construction operations, and tunnelling operations.

This course introduces project management techniques in construction, including project delivery methods, construction contracts, cost estimating and bidding planning and scheduling, cash flow analysis, project tracking, control and computer applications. The study of labour legislation is covered, with special emphasis on the construction industry, union organization, the theory and practice of negotiations, mediation, contract administration, and arbitration. Moreover, the review of actual contracts and future trends are discussed. This course is a study of current construction methods and techniques.

The subjects include site preparation and earth-work, wood framing, masonry, concrete forming, slip forming, precast construction, industrialized building, deep excavation shoring and underpinning. Other topics covered in the course are design, erection, and removal of temporary construction work, current field practice and safety considerations and site visits.

Legal concepts and processes applicable to the development of constructed facilities and to the operation of the construction firm are covered. Emphasis is given to Quebec law and institutions. BLDG Building Engineering Drawing and Introduction to Design 3 credits Fundamentals of technical drawing, dimensioning practices, orthographic projections, auxiliary and sectional views of buildings. Theory and applications of descriptive geometry in building design. Computer-aided building drawing. Building sub-systems and related graphics standards; architectural and building engineering drawing at preliminary and final stages.

Introduction to the design of light-frame buildings. Project: representation of a building and its sub-systems. Introduction to conceptual design. Introduction to systematic solution of building engineering problems. Techniques treated include linear programming, network analysis, nonlinear programming. Introduction to decision analysis and simulation. Application of optimization methods for solution of design problems in building science, building environment, building structures, and construction management, taking into account sustainability issues. General introduction to the thermal environment and sustainable development issues. Topics include heat, temperature, one-dimensional steady-state processes.

Convection: natural and forced. Combined radiative and convective surface transfer. Thermal comfort. Air quality. Condensation: surface and interstitial. Introduction to compressible viscous flow, friction, and flow in pipes; boundary layer and wind effects. General introduction to the aural and visual environment. Psychological impact of environment. Subjective and objective scales of measurement. Introduction to vibration. The hearing mechanism. Transmission of sound, passive control of noise in buildings, transmission loss, absorption and reverberation time.

Room acoustic assessment. Active control of the aural environment. Visual perception. Photometry, brightness, luminance, and illumination. Concept of natural lighting in building. Artificial lighting; light sources; luminaries. Calculation methods for artificial lighting. Principles of building service systems, including electrical, gas, communications, service-water supply and distribution; introduction to plans, codes, and standards for utility distribution systems.

The project of each team will encompass various stages of design of a medium-size building. Students learn building engineering design process, methodology, identification of objectives, building codes, formulation of design problems, and estimation of loads on buildings. The design topics encompass the development and evaluation of sustainable building design alternatives; conceptual building design of spatial requirements, design of space layout; and building design accounting for the synthesis and design of structures, enclosure systems, and services HVAC, lighting, electrical distribution using computer-aided design tools.

Additionally, performance evaluation using modelling, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation is presented. Basic principles of physical geology are covered, with emphasis on topics related to soil mechanics. Furthermore, this course covers the study of minerals, index properties and classification of soils, weight-volume relationships, soil structures and moisture-density relationships. Permeability, deformation, and strength of soils, principle of total and effective stresses, steady state seepage through isotropic soil media, stress distribution due to external loads and analysis of total settlements, and outline of theory of consolidation are covered.

Engineering properties of building materials such as: plastics, synthetic fibres, adhesives, sealants, caulking compounds, foams, sandwich panels, composites, polymer concrete systems, fibre-reinforced concretes, plastic mortars, polymers for flooring, roofing, synthetic wall papers. Their structural, thermal, and acoustical properties. Consideration of corrosion, bio- and thermal-degradation, stability to ultraviolet and solar radiation. Laboratory sessions to illustrate synthesis, application, testing, deterioration, and protection. Students also learn cause of deterioration and preventive measures, on-site investigation and relevant building codes and standards.

Topics treated include fire and smoke control; failure mechanisms of building enclosure illustrated by case studies; code requirements for enclosure systems; systems approach for fire safety. Principles of HVAC system design and analysis; sustainable design issues and impact on environment; component and system selection criteria including room air distribution, fans and air circulation, humidifying and dehumidifying processes, piping and ducting design. Air quality standards. Control systems and techniques; operational economics; computer applications.

Laboratory: two hours per week. Standards of energy efficiency in buildings. Trends in energy consumption. Energy audit: evaluation of energy performance of existing buildings, weather normalization methods, measurements, disaggregation of total energy consumption, use of computer models, impact of people behaviour. Energy efficiency measures in buildings: approaches, materials and equipments, operating strategies, evaluation methods of energy savings. Renewable energy sources: passive or active solar systems, geothermal systems, free-cooling. Optimum selection of energy sources. Impact of emerging technologies. Noise control criteria and regulations, instrumentation, noise sources, room acoustics, walls, barriers and enclosures, acoustical materials and structures, vibration and noise control systems for buildings.

Production, measurement and control of light. Photometric quantities, visual perception and colour theory. Daylight and artificial illumination systems. Radiative transfer, fixture and lamp characteristics, control devices and energy conservation techniques. Design of lighting systems. Solar energy utilization and daylighting. Integration of lighting systems with mechanical systems for energy conservation and sustainable development.

Estimation of the levels of indoor air contaminants in buildings. Design of ventilation systems for pollutant control. Air pollution due to outdoor air supply through ventilation systems. Effect of outdoor air pollution on indoor air quality. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state and transient conductive heat transfer together with convection and radiation as applied to building materials and geometries. Heating and cooling load analysis, including building shapes, construction type, solar radiation, infiltration, occupancy effects, and daily load variations. Computer applications for thermal load analysis.

Introduction to heat exchangers. Introduction to automatic control systems. Control issues related to energy conservation, indoor air quality and thermal comfort in buildings. Classification of HVAC control systems. Control system hardware: selection and sizing of sensors, actuators and controllers. Practical HVAC control systems; elementary local loop and complete control systems. Designing and tuning of controllers. Building automation systems. This course covers the following topics: introduction; scope of commissioning of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC systems including commissioning, retro-commissioning, recommissioning, continuous commissioning, and ongoing commissioning; process vs.

BLDG Building Information Modelling in Construction 3 credits This course covers the following topics: introduction to Building Information Modelling BIM technologies; BIM implementation at different project stages pre-construction, construction, and facility management ; BIM-Aided design alternatives constructability analysis, and development of space-time-cost models ; BIM for visualization trade coordination and processes monitoring. A project is required. BLDG Fundamentals of Facility Management 3 credits The course provides a study of the fundamental practices concomitant with facility management.

The subjects include facility management industry backgrounds, management of outsourced services, financial analysis, asset management as it relates to building systems and controls. The course has a focus on sustainability, finance, maintenance and operations of facilities and considers solutions to facility management challenges. History of architecture as the confluence of social and technological evolution.

Methodology and thought processes in the theory and design of cities and the human habitat. Impact of technology on society. Energy conservation, environmental constraints and sustainability issues. BLDG Integrated Solar Systems: Design and Operation 3 credits This course covers the following topics: energy modelling; analysis and design of solar buildings with passive and hybrid building-integrated systems; and photovoltaic systems.

This course covers the following topics: modes of failures including wood decay, mould growth, freeze-thaw, corrosion, chemical reaction, and movements; common failures in building envelopes including contemporary and traditional walls, windows, roofs and below-grade structures; performance assessment protocols including diagnostics procedures, laboratory and field test methods; remedy strategies and maintenance plan; relevant building codes and standards. The project of each team encompasses the integrated design of at least three sub-systems of a new or retro-fitted building to achieve high performance and efficiency at reasonable cost; sustainable design and environmental impact issues are addressed in all projects.

Students registering for this course must contact the course coordinator for the detailed procedure. Lectures: two hours per week, two terms. This course may be offered in a given year upon the authorization of the Department. The course content may vary from offering to offering and will be chosen to complement the available elective courses. Computer-aided drawing; slabs, beams, and columns; steel structures; building trusses and bridges, wood and masonry structures.

Working drawing and dimensioning practice. Introduction to the design process. CIVI Geology for Civil Engineers 3 credits Basic principles of physical and structural geology with emphasis on topics related to civil engineering, study of minerals, rocks and soil types, load formation, techniques of air-photo interpretations, and geological mapping. Geological site investigation. Preparation and interpretation of engineering geology reports.

Linear and nonlinear material behaviour, time-dependent behaviour; structural and engineering properties of structural metals; behaviour of wood; production and properties of concrete; bituminous materials, ceramics, plastics; introduction to composite materials. Development of concepts and techniques commonly associated with systems engineering which are applicable to design and operation of systems that concern civil engineers. Design and planning process; problem formulation, optimization concepts, linear programming, decision analysis; system simulation; network planning and project scheduling; computer applications. The techniques developed are used to solve problems in transportation, water resources, structures, and construction management.

Ecosystems considerations, food chain, natural decomposition, and recycling; environmental problems and impact of engineering activities. Various modes of pollution, water, air, and soil contamination, noise pollution; pollution measurement and quantification. Water and waste-water physical, chemical and biological characteristics; turbidity and colour, dissolved oxygen, hardness, pH, alkalinity, organic content, sampling and analysis, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand. Basic processes of treatment: flocculation and coagulation, sedimentation, filtration. Tutorial: two hours per week, alternate weeks. CIVI Hydraulics 3. Basic hydrodynamics; boundary layer theory, principle of energy losses. Steady flow in open channel; uniform flow, specific energy and critical flow, transition; gradually varied flow in channels and conduits, water surface profiles, computer applications.

Flow measurement in open channel, weirs, overflow spillways. Sources of water: surface water, groundwater, water quantities and requirements. Water use cycle. Characteristics of water and wastewater. Demand forecast, water use prediction and planning. Groundwater withdrawal and well hydraulics. Water supply network analysis, design of distribution systems, storage, pumping. Sanitary and storm water quantities, urban hydrology. Design of sewer systems, interceptors, gravity sewer, computer applications. Sustainable use of water resources. The project of each team will encompass the various stages of design of a medium-size civil engineering project. Students learn civil engineering design process, methodology, identification of objectives, codes, formulation of design problems, and estimation of loads on structures.

The topics of design include the development and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives; and the computer-aided design tools. Additionally, performance evaluation using modelling, sensitivity analysis, and cost estimation is presented. Index properties and classification of soils. Weight-volume relationships. Soil structures. Moisture-density relationships. Permeability, deformation, and strength of soils. Principle of total and effective stresses. Steady stage seepage through isotropic soil media. Stress distribution due to external loads and analysis of total settlements. Outline of theory of consolidation. Fundamentals of stability of earth retaining walls, slopes, and footings.

Site investigation. Shallow and deep foundations. Bearing capacity and settlement of foundations. Earth-retaining structures, sheet piles, cofferdams, anchors. Foundations subjected to dynamic loading. Foundations on difficult soils, soil improvement and underpinning. Mechanical properties of rocks and rock formations. Underground openings in rocks. Slope stability of stratified formations. Foundations on rocks. Rock bolting. Introduction of soil dynamics.

Wave propagation in one and two dimensions in elastic media. Seismic waves. Theory of liquefaction. General purpose IT tools for civil engineering applications: database programming and web-based tools. Introduction to remote sensing and GIS. Application of major software packages in selected areas of civil engineering practice with emphasis on modelling, data integration, and work-flow. Case studies in structural design, geotechnical engineering, transportation, and environmental engineering. Lectures: two hours per week. This course covers a wide variety of topics on reinforced concrete including two-way slab systems flat plate, flat slab and slab-on-beams ; slender columns; columns subjected to biaxial bending; lateral loads resisting systems moment-resisting frames, shear walls and coupled shear walls ; prestressed concrete losses, design requirements for flexure, shear, bond, anchorage and deflections.

Design project. This course covers a wide variety of topics on steel structures: trends and developments in structural-steel design, framing systems, floor systems such as composite construction and plate girders, braced frames, and moment-resisting frames. The subject includes connections and P-Delta effects. A design project is required. Engineering activities and the environment; environmental ethics. Prediction and estimation of impact on air, water, soil quality, and biological, socio-economic, cultural environments. Water and air pollution laws, solid and hazardous waste laws. Environmental inventories, assessment preparation, and review. Federal and provincial laws and regulations on environmental assessment. Strategies for environmental compliance, resolution of environmental conflicts.

Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water, water quality standards, reaction kinetics and material balances, eutrophication. Containment of reactive contaminants. Natural purification processes in water systems, adsorption, absorption; diffusion and dispersion, oxidation. Large-scale transport of contaminants, single and multiple source models; modelling of transport processes, computer simulation.

Introduction to ground-water pollution, sea-water intrusion. Introduction to water purification, chemical treatment, coagulation, disinfection, special purification methods. Primary and secondary waste-water treatment, solution and surface chemistry, microbiological consideration; reaction kinetics, diffusion processes, membrane processes, re-aeration. Biological treatment, activated sludge process, treatment and disposal; biological reactors; aerated lagoons; trickling filter; biological nutrient removal.

Tertiary waste-water treatment. Types of air pollutants. Sources of air pollutants, effects of air pollutants on health, vegetation, materials, and the atmosphere; emission standards. Meteorological considerations, dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, distribution and cleansing of particle matter, atmospheric photochemical reactions. Particulate pollutant control, source correction, cooling treatment; control of gaseous pollutant, point sources, odour control; measurement techniques; computer applications. Solid waste; source and generation, sampling and analysis, collection, transport, and storage.

Waste recycling, physical and chemical reduction; drying; energy recovery; disposal of solid waste. Sanitary and secure landfill planning, site selection, design and operation; chemical and biological reactions. Hazardous waste, chemical and physical characteristics, handling, processing, transportation, and disposal. Resource recovery alternatives, material exchanges, hazardous waste management facilities, incinerators, landfills. Structure and surface chemistry of soil, ion exchange, hydrolysis equilibrium, adsorption.

Biochemical degradation, toxic contaminants. Mechanical and thermodynamic equilibrium in soil. Geotechnical considerations in environmental design; soil decontamination. Barrier technologies and soil interaction. Landfill covers and leachate collection systems; subsurface investigation, soil-gas survey. This course covers the following topics: design criteria, including capacity and level of service, route alignment and right-of-way considerations, geometric design, earthworks and construction practices; pavement materials and tests; flexible and rigid pavement design procedures including subgrade, base, and surfacing characteristics, loads, stresses in pavement systems, material characterization, pavement response models, effects of natural forces, and construction practices; pavement management; computer applications; geometric and pavement design projects.