➊ Thesis Statement For Gender Socialization

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Thesis Statement For Gender Socialization

Thesis Statement For Gender Socialization Theory and Social Structure revised and enlarged. Female head of state [c]. Academics Gender studies academics. A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive Thesis Statement For Gender Socialization Comparing Loyalty And Tragedy In Shakespeares Julius Caesar women. Harvard Law School. Archived Religious Therapy Vs Secular Therapy the original on See also: Effect Thesis Statement For Gender Socialization parental leave Thesis Statement For Gender Socialization on gender equality.

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In some communities — whether Christian, Jewish, Muslim — the practice may even be attributed to religious beliefs. An estimated million women and girls living today have undergone FGM in the 29 countries where data exist. Of these, about half live in Egypt and Ethiopia. Early marriage, child marriage or forced marriage is prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa. The majority of victims seeking advice are female and aged between 18 and The UN Resolution on Child, Early and Forced Marriage calls for an end to the practice, and states that "Recognizing that child, early and forced marriage is a harmful practice that violates abuses, or impairs human rights and is linked to and perpetuates other harmful practices and human rights violations, that these violations have a disproportionately negative impact on women and girls [ Half were in Asia, one-fifth in Africa.

In the next decade This will rise to an average of Bride price also called bridewealth or bride token is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the parents of the bride. This custom often leads to women having reduced ability to control their fertility. For instance, in northern Ghana, the payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats, violence and reprisals.

UN Women recommended its abolition, and stated that: "Legislation should The custom of bride price can also curtail the free movement of women: if a wife wants to leave her husband, he may demand back the bride price that he had paid to the woman's family; and the woman's family often cannot or does not want to pay it back, making it difficult for women to move out of violent husbands' homes. Promoting gender equality is seen as an encouragement to greater economic prosperity. Gender discrimination often results in women obtaining low-wage jobs and being disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and exploitation.

Gender biases also exist in product and service provision. Gender-based price discrimination involves companies selling almost identical units of the same product or service at comparatively different prices, as determined by the target market. Although the "pink tax" of different goods and services is not uniform, overall women pay more for commodities that result in visual evidence of feminine body image. In addition, gender wage gap is a phenomenon of gender biases. That means women do the same job or work with their male counterpart, but they could not receive the same salary or opportunity at workforce. Since the s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care and the male breadwinner role.

Policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers as a tool of changing gender relations. Western countries with a strong emphasis on women fulfilling the role of homemakers, rather than a professional role, include parts of German speaking Europe i. A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women. The degree to which women can participate in law and in practice in public life varies by culture and socioeconomic characteristics.

Seclusion of women within the home was a common practice among the upper classes of many societies, and this still remains the case today in some societies. Before the 20th century it was also common in parts of Southern Europe, such as much of Spain. Women's freedom of movement continues to be legally restricted in some parts of the world. This restriction is often due to marriage laws. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile. In addition to laws, women's freedom of movement is also restricted by social and religious norms. In many parts of the world, girls' access to education is very restricted.

In developing parts of the world women are often denied opportunities for education as girls and women face many obstacles. These include: early and forced marriages; early pregnancy; prejudice based on gender stereotypes at home, at school and in the community; violence on the way to school, or in and around schools; long distances to schools; vulnerability to the HIV epidemic; school fees, which often lead to parents sending only their sons to school; lack of gender sensitive approaches and materials in classrooms. About two thirds of the world's illiterate adults are women. Lack of an education severely restricts a woman's access to information and opportunities.

Conversely, increasing women's and girls' educational attainment benefits both individuals and future generations. Higher levels of women's education are strongly associated with lower infant mortality and lower fertility, as well as better outcomes for their children. Women are underrepresented in most countries' National Parliaments. In some Western countries women have only recently obtained the right to vote. In , The legal and social treatment of married women has been often discussed as a political issue from the 19th century onwards.

In the United States , a wife's legal subordination to her husband was fully ended by the case of Kirchberg v. Feenstra , U. There have been and sometimes continue to be unequal treatment of married women in various aspects of everyday life. For example, in Australia , until a husband had to authorize an application for an Australian passport for a married woman. Although dowry is today mainly associated with South Asia , the practice has been common until the midth century in parts of Southeast Europe. Laws regulating marriage and divorce continue to discriminate against women in many countries. Two recent movements in countries with large Kurdish populations have implemented political gender equality.

The mayorships of 2 metropolitan areas and 97 towns [ citation needed ] are led jointly by a man and a woman, both called co-mayors. Party offices are also led by a man and a woman. Local councils were formed, which also had to be co-presided over by a man and a woman together. However, in November the Turkish government cracked down on the HDP, jailing ten of its members of Parliament, including the party's male and female co-leaders. Gender stereotypes arise from the socially approved roles of women and men in the private or public sphere, at home or in the workplace. In the household, women are typically seen as mother figures, which usually places them into a typical classification of being "supportive" or "nurturing".

Women are expected to want to take on the role of a mother and take on primary responsibility for household needs. Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity , although there are exceptions and variations. The way women are represented in the media has been criticized as perpetuating negative gender stereotypes. The exploitation of women in mass media refers to the criticisms that are levied against the use or objectification of women in the mass media , when such use or portrayal aims at increasing the appeal of media or a product, to the detriment of, or without regard to, the interests of the women portrayed, or women in general. Concerns include the fact that all forms of media have the power to shape the population's perceptions and portray images of unrealistic stereotypical perceptions by portraying women either as submissive housewives or as sex objects.

The vast array of studies that have been conducted on the issue of the portrayal of women in the media have shown that women are often portrayed as irrational, fragile, not intelligent, submissive and subservient to men. According to a study, the way women are often portrayed by the media can lead to: "Women of average or normal appearance feeling inadequate or less beautiful in comparison to the overwhelming use of extraordinarily attractive women"; "Increase in the likelihood and acceptance of sexual violence"; "Unrealistic expectations by men of how women should look or behave"; "Psychological disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder, anorexia, bulimia and so on"; "The importance of physical appearance is emphasized and reinforced early in most girls' development.

While in many countries, the problem lies in the lack of adequate legislation, in others the principal problem is not as much the lack of a legal framework, but the fact is that most women do not know their legal rights. This is especially the case as many of the laws dealing with women's rights are of recent date. This lack of knowledge enables to abusers to lead the victims explicitly or implicitly to believe that their abuse is within their rights. This may apply to a wide range of abuses, ranging from domestic violence to employment discrimination. Gender mainstreaming is described as the public policy of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes , in all areas and levels, with the aim of achieving gender equality.

The idea has been developed in the United Nations development community. According to the Council of Europe definition: "Gender mainstreaming is the re organization, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making. An integrated gender mainstreaming approach is "the attempt to form alliances and common platforms that bring together the power of faith and gender-equality aspirations to advance human rights. The results reflect the parallels between the Convention and many tenets of Islamic scripture and practice.

The study showcased specific issues, including VAW, child marriage, respect for the dignity of women, and equality in the economic and political participation of women. The study was later used to produce training materials geared towards sensitizing religious leaders. This article incorporates text from a free content work. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Equal access for all genders to rights, resources, opportunities and protections.

First Second Third Fourth. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. General variants. Religious variants. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Men's movement Mythopoetic men's movement Men's liberation movement Men's rights movement Fathers' rights movement Intactivism. Topics and issues. Topics Sex differences in humans Human male sexuality Gender equality Misandry Hegemonic masculinity. Effeminacy Gender roles Machismo. Pro-feminism Anti-feminism. Violence against men Male expendability. Genital mutilation Forced circumcision. Prison rape False accusation of rape Rape of males. Homophobia Gay bashing Transphobia.

Reproductive rights Paternal rights and abortion No-fault divorce Sperm theft. See also. International Men's Day Men's studies. Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Schools of thought. Regional variants. Related topics. Main article: Shakers. Further information: Anti-discrimination laws. Further information: Timeline of women's legal rights other than voting. Main article: Special measures for gender equality in the United Nations. See also: Gender inequality.

Further information: Gender disparities in health. Main article: Violence against women. Further information: Transgender women. Main articles: Reproductive health and Reproductive rights. Further information: Forced sterilization , Forced pregnancy , and Forced abortion. Main articles: Forced marriage and Child marriage. Main article: Bride price. Main articles: Women in the workforce and Female economic activity. Play media. Main articles: Women's work and Gender role. See also: Effect of parental leave policies on gender equality. Further information: Freedom of movement. Main articles: Female education and Gender and education. Main article: Women in government. Female head of government [b]. Female head of state [c]. Female head of state and female head of government.

Further information: Gender role. Main article: Exploitation of women in mass media. Main article: Gender mainstreaming. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. June Feminism portal. Although these continue to have a male majority, an increasing number of women are now active, especially in directive fields such as politics, and occupy high positions in business.

International criticism concentrates on the lack of measures to combat violence against women in general and in particular on the lack of a national action plan to combat such violence and on the lack of legislation on domestic violence. Compared to Sweden, Finland has been slower to reform legislation on violence against women. In Sweden, domestic violence was already illegal in , while in Finland such violence was not outlawed until , over a hundred years later.

In Sweden the punishment of victims of incest was abolished in but not until in Finland. Rape within marriage was criminalised in Sweden in , but the equivalent Finnish legislation only came into force in — making Finland one of the last European countries to criminalise marital rape. In addition, assaults taking place on private property did not become impeachable offences in Finland until Only in did victims of sexual offences and domestic violence in Finland become entitled to government-funded counselling and support services for the duration of their court cases.

It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. Fighting against violence against women is considered a key issue for achieving gender equality. The Council of Europe adopted the Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence Istanbul Convention.

The most prominent example is rape within marriage, which for a long time had not been recognised as rape because of the relationship between victim and perpetrator. If this, in turn, is difficult, the difficulty is as instructive as the difficulty men have in telling the difference when women see one. Perhaps the wrong of rape has proved so difficult to define because the unquestionable starting point has been that rape is defined as distinct from intercourse, while for women it is difficult to distinguish the two under conditions of male dominance. Bulgaria , 12 April : "The equality approach starts by examining not whether the woman said 'no', but whether she said 'yes'.

Women do not walk around in a state of constant consent to sexual activity unless and until they say 'no', or offer resistance to anyone who targets them for sexual activity. The right to physical and sexual autonomy means that they have to affirmatively consent to sexual activity. But in spite of these gains, almost women still die every day from causes related to pregnancy or childbirth. This is about one woman every two minutes. Women are frequently treated as property, they are sold into marriage, into trafficking, into sexual slavery.

Violence against women frequently takes the form of sexual violence. Victims of such violence are often accused of promiscuity and held responsible for their fate, while infertile women are rejected by husbands, families, and communities. In many countries, married women may not refuse to have sexual relations with their husbands, and often have no say in whether they use contraception. Economic disparities persist partly because much of the unpaid work within families and communities falls on the shoulders of women, and because women continue to face discrimination in the economic sphere.

In the early s, the Commission of the European Communities report Women in the European Community , found that the Netherlands and Ireland had the lowest labour participation of married women and the most public disapproval of it. As of , the Netherlands and Switzerland were the only OECD members where most employed women worked part-time, [XXXVI] while in the United Kingdom, women made up two-thirds of workers on long term sick leave, despite making up only half of the workforce and even after excluding maternity leave.

The girl, who now belongs to the second family, has very little autonomy and freedom, her role being to serve the new family. Council of Europe standards provide clear guidance on how to achieve this. As such, women in Greece are required to keep their birth names for their whole life. International Perspectives in Victimology. Archived from the original on Scottish Affairs. Archived from the original PDF on October 21, Denmark: human rights violations and concerns in the context of counter-terrorism, immigration-detention, forcible return of rejected asylum-seekers and violence against women PDF. Amnesty International.

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Gender mainstreaming is a strategy for integrating gender concerns in the analysis, formulation and monitoring of policies, programmes and projects. It is therefore a means to an end, not an end in itself; a process, not a goal. The purpose of gender mainstreaming is to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women in population and development activities. This requires addressing both the condition, as well as the position, of women and men in society. Gender mainstreaming therefore aims to strengthen the legitimacy of gender equality values by addressing known gender disparities and gaps in such areas as the division of labour between men and women; access to and control over resources; access to services, information and opportunities; and distribution of power and decision-making.

UNFPA has adopted the mainstreaming of gender concerns into all population and development activities as the primary means of achieving the commitments on gender equality, equity and empowerment of women stemming from the International Conference on Population and Development. Gender mainstreaming, as a strategy, does not preclude interventions that focus only on women or only on men. In some instances, the gender analysis that precedes programme design and development reveals severe inequalities that call for an initial strategy of sex-specific interventions.

However, such sex-specific interventions should still aim to reduce identified gender disparities by focusing on equality or inequity as the objective rather than on men or women as a target group. In such a context, sex-specific interventions are still important aspects of a gender mainstreaming strategy. When implemented correctly, they should not contribute to a marginalization of men in such a critical area as access to reproductive and sexual health services. Nor should they contribute to the evaporation of gains or advances already secured by women. Rather, they should consolidate such gains that are central building blocks towards gender equality. Gender equality is intrinsically linked to sustainable development and is vital to the realization of human rights for all.

The overall objective of gender equality is a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, rights and obligations in all spheres of life. Equality between men and women exists when both sexes are able to share equally in the distribution of power and influence; have equal opportunities for financial independence through work or through setting up businesses; enjoy equal access to education and the opportunity to develop personal ambitions, interests and talents; share responsibility for the home and children and are completely free from coercion, intimidation and gender-based violence both at work and at home.

Within the context of population and development programmes, gender equality is critical because it will enable women and men to make decisions that impact more positively on their own sexual and reproductive health as well as that of their spouses and families. Decision-making with regard to such issues as age at marriage, timing of births, use of contraception, and recourse to harmful practices such as female genital cutting stands to be improved with the achievement of gender equality. However it is important to acknowledge that where gender inequality exists, it is generally women who are excluded or disadvantaged in relation to decision-making and access to economic and social resources.

This would enable them to make decisions and take actions to achieve and maintain their own reproductive and sexual health. The achievement of gender equality implies changes for both men and women. More equitable relationships will need to be based on a redefinition of the rights and responsibilities of women and men in all spheres of life, including the family, the workplace and the society at large. This fact is, indeed, often overlooked, because the tendency is to consider male characteristics and attributes as the norm, and those of women as a variation of the norm.

But the lives of men are just as strongly influenced by gender as those of women. Societal norms and conceptions of masculinity and expectations of men as leaders, husbands or sons create demands on men and shape their behaviour. Men are too often expected to concentrate on the material needs of their families, rather than on the nurturing and caring roles assigned to women. Socialization in the family and later in schools promotes risk-taking behaviour among young men, and this is often reinforced through peer pressure and media stereotypes. These risks include ones relating to accidents, violence and alcohol consumption.

Men also have the right to assume a more nurturing role, and opportunities for them to do so should be promoted. The adoption of a gender perspective is an important first step; it reveals that there are disadvantages and costs to men accruing from patterns of gender difference. It also underscores that gender equality is concerned not only with the roles, responsibilities and needs of women and men, but also with the interrelationships between them.

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