① Christianity, Ninian Smarts Seven Dimensions Of Religion
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Ninian Smart: The 7 Dimensions of Religion
These social collectives often establish formal institutions with their own iconography, narratives, codes of conduct, and the physical presence of monuments and buildings. While the natural impulse is to view the institutional aspects of religion as belying unity and cohesion, it is often these very forces of unified movement that generate tension and conflict within and between religious groups.
Likewise there is often politically driven tension between Muslims and Jews in the Middle East, but within Islam there is often deep division between Shia and Sunni groups who disagreed initially over the appropriate successor to Muhammad. Where the experiential dimension highlights the intensely personal, the institutional dimension focuses attention on human interaction, shared values, and the aggregate of personal behaviour. The stories recorded in the Christian Gospels demonstrate how a religious institution the Church began to grow out of the experience of Jesus and his disciples, and illustrate the relationship between these two dimensions. People can begin to find common ground due to their religious outlook and affiliation.
These social institutions are usually the most obvious and recognisable aspects of religion; this is partially because when large numbers of people move together they are more conspicuous than a single person. With large numbers also comes conviction, a sense that if many people are following a mode of behaviour, then it is likely worthwhile. These two dimensions of religion, the experiential and the institutional, while not sufficient in themselves to cover all aspects of religious experience, thinking, and behaviour, are nonetheless crucial to the lifecycle of religions, and suffuse all other dimensions. Though it could be argued that all religion ultimately emerges out of human experience whether of the divine or the psychological , we would be mistaken in thinking that all religion can ultimately be reduced to personal episodes of enlightenment and clarity that burst through from outside of space and time.
The religious background and culture in which individuals find themselves contextualises and conditions how their religious experiences are interpreted, and provides a framework for understanding them. Viewed from this perspective, religious institutions provide a stabilising, supportive network for religious individuals to draw upon, and the patterns of mythology, doctrine, and practice that are preserved by social institutions are often conserved for good reason, as they serve a particular function in the society they live within. Notwithstanding the importance of the other dimensions, this reciprocal relationship encapsulates much of the dynamism found throughout the history of human religious life, and can be considered the seed and stem of the religious organism.
The model is designed to facilitate the study of religion in its quantifiable aspects for example its history, scripture, or architecture , while not discounting the internal, personal experiences of religious adherents, and without requiring all dimensions to be present. Smart attempted to reconcile the difficulties of insider and outsider approaches to the study of religion by using different methods for different dimensions. Personal experiences and mythologies could best be understood through informed empathy, while history and scripture could be subjected to textual analysis. We can now start to appreciate why scholars have struggled to define religion, and why it influences people in such complicated ways. Often this non-ordinary side of the world is considered open to a relationship with humans, and can be encountered through rituals or a particular lifestyle.
The specifics of a religion will vary with time and place; these circumstances will influence what adherents consider to be sacred, and how they relate to that understanding. Where people come together in shared beliefs, values, experiences, and practices, we see the basis of organised religion. She Too [Podcasts] She Too. A priori [Concepts] A priori [latin philosophy]. A spiritual revolution? Wicca and religious change in the s [Online Courses] A spiritual revolution? Wicca and religious change in the s [wicca s paganism]. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada [Figures] A. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada [stub iskcon hinduism vaishnavism bhakti]. Aaron [Figures] Aaron [bahai faith islam judaism christianity]. Access to Insight [Websites] Access to Insight [buddhism theravada pali canon suttas].
Agnieszka Halemba [Scholars] Agnieszka Halemba. Ahadith [Texts] Ahadith [islam stub]. Ahura Mazda [Figures] Ahura Mazda [zoroastrianism deities stub]. Akashic records [Concepts] Akashic records [stub]. Allah [Figures] Allah [islam deities stub]. Alternative Perspectives [Perspectives] Alternative Perspectives [religious studies]. Animism [Concepts] Animism [indigenous]. Articles Articles. Austerities [Practices] Austerities [stub]. Ayahuasca [Entheogens] Ayahuasca [dmt shamanism indigenous religion].
Basics of Sikhi [Websites] Basics of Sikhi [sikhi sikhism]. Being in the Way [Podcasts] Being in the Way [philosophy zen dao alan watts hinduism taoism]. Belief [Concepts] Belief. Bhagavad Gita [Texts] Bhagavad Gita [stub hinduism]. Bhagavad Gita online course [Online Courses] Bhagavad Gita online course [karma yoga yoga bhagavad gita hinduism]. Blaauboschkraal stone ruins [Places] Blaauboschkraal stone ruins [megaliths south africa stub]. Bodh Gaya [Places] Bodh Gaya [buddhism stub].
Bodhisattva [Figures] Bodhisattva [buddhism mahayana theravada]. Books Books. Brahma [Figures] Brahma [stub deities]. Brahman [Figures Concepts] Brahman [deities]. Brahmin [Figures] Brahmin [stub]. Buddhism [Traditions] Buddhism [buddhism india china tibet japan]. Buddhist Studies Online [Websites Organisations] Buddhist Studies Online [buddhist history buddhist philosophy buddhist studies buddhism]. Buddhist Yoga [Books] Buddhist Yoga [buddhism yoga]. Cannabis [Entheogens] Cannabis [marijuana weed pot herb ganja]. Caodaism [Traditions] Caodaism [vietnam new religious movements].
Capitalist Spirituality [Perspectives] Capitalist Spirituality [capitalism]. Carl Jung [Scholars] Carl Jung. Categories Categories. Catherine Bell [Scholars] Catherine Bell [ritual chinese religion china]. Catholicism [Traditions] Catholicism. Chanting [Practices Sounds] Chanting. Christianity [Traditions] Christianity [christianity israel jesus]. Church [Places] Church. Close encounters [Experiences] Close encounters [close encounters abduction ufo aliens]. Cognitive Theories [Perspectives] Cognitive Theories [brain cognitive theory]. Community [Concepts] Community. Concepts Concepts. Conferences Conferences. Crucifix [Objects] Crucifix [christianity].
Cults [Concepts] Cults [new religious movements sects cults]. Culture and Religion [Journals] Culture and Religion [religious education]. Dharma [Concepts] Dharma. Dimitris Xygalatas [Scholars] Dimitris Xygalatas [ritual anthropology cognitive science]. Douglas Marshall [Scholars] Douglas Marshall. Druidry [Traditions] Druidry [druidry]. El [Figures] El [deities]. Elohim [Figures] Elohim [deities]. Encounter [Podcasts] Encounter. Entheogens Entheogens. Eucharist [Practices Food] Eucharist [christianity].
Experiences Experiences. Figures Figures. Food Food. Gathas [Texts] Gathas [zoroastrianism]. Glastonbury [Places] Glastonbury [united kingdom somerset pilgrimage christianity pagan paganism]. Graham Harvey [Scholars] Graham Harvey. Gurdwara [Places] Gurdwara [sikhi sikhism]. Guru Angad [Figures] Guru Angad [sikhi sikhism]. Guru Arjan [Figures] Guru Arjan [sikhi sikhism]. Guru Hargobind [Figures] Guru Hargobind [sikhi sikhism]. Guru Nanak [Figures] Guru Nanak [sikhi sikhism]. Gwilym Beckerlegge [Scholars] Gwilym Beckerlegge. Hassan al-Banna [Figures] Hassan al-Banna [islam egypt]. Henotheism [Concepts] Henotheism. Hindu Myths [Books] Hindu Myths [hinduism india mythology]. Hinduism [Traditions] Hinduism [hinduism india]. Hugh Beattie [Scholars] Hugh Beattie.
Hymns [Practices Sounds] Hymns [christianity]. Imam [Figures] Imam [islam]. Inform [Organisations] Inform [new religious movements education sects minority religions]. Inside Fundamentalism [Podcasts] Inside Fundamentalism. Disney brings about the question of what makes a religion and how is it different from. Whether Buddhism is a religion, or not, became a common debate among people in the last few years. However, there are many other aspects that should be explored to have a comprehensible response. Buddhism definition and former times are the first elements in building up an answer.
To proceed further, the teachings stated. It can also be defined as a collection of cultural systems, beliefs, and worldview that it relates humanity to an order of its occurrence. There have being been many questions about which religion is which. The seven dimensions of religion is a theory created by Ninian Smart. It is his way of defining the different world religions but at the same time, comparing them all. All seven dimensions relate to the experiences of Jesus. But is this correct?
If religious texts are the only evidence that scholars use to study religion can an accurate picture and understanding of religion be gained? But is Max Muller Correct in his assumption? As a result of this way of thinking many scholars of the twentieth century have tended to study the religious texts of a religion as a primary source for their information. In order to gain an understanding of the word 'religion', we need to fully analyse and compare the components of religions in order to gain a more cultivated understanding of this enigmatic term.
An extremely valuable way of classifying religion and its many aspects is through the Seven Dimensions, developed by Ninian Smart. See Appendix 1 These dimensions explore the many aspects of religion in a. Christian: Death of Christ, sacrificial lamb, commemoration in communion. Initiation into religious community often synonymous with adulthood : Sacred thread: presented to guru receive instruction; circumcision in Aboriginal tribes: ritual killing, resurrection of the victim into a new existence; Bar mitzvah: 13 yr boy reads from Torah and becomes a member of the congregation.
Transition and Transformation. Rites of Passage — mark or bring about change of social position and status, change in physical or spiritual being of initiate; change of life phase life-cycle rites: birth, puberty, marriage, death. Example: Death rite in Hinduism: pyre, son recites prayer to fire, burns, strikes head. Seasonal, calendrical rites: harvest; rains; birth and death. The Experiential and Emotional Dimension : subjective, emotional side of religion. What goes on inside the person. Basis of religious vitality and human significance, central to ongoing individual religiosity, to the founding of a tradition itself. The very core of religion is experience and emotion — all else revolves around experience.
Is there a unique and essential form of religious experience? Religion as sui generis. Rudolf Otto : distinctive human experience of the numinous from numina : sacred forces, spirits. Mysterium tremendum et facinans : mystery that awes and fascinates. Examples: Bhagavad Gita; Job. The Narrative Dimension. Wha t we learn from stories is different from what we learn from systematic thought and concepts.
Narratives convey their own types of meaning and information. Cannot reduce the essence of a story to a group of statements. Narratives are an important part of all religions of the world. Kinds of narrative. Historical narratives: Moses, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad -- Histories of: a people; saints; prophets; nations and lands; wars Creation narratives: before history, before time. How the universe began - cosmogony. How is creation organized -- cosmology. Destruction narratives: eschatological death and final destiny. Nataraja: Lord of the Dance, circle of fire.
Revelations: describes the signs and events of final days when Christ comes to reclaim the faithful. Flood myths. Divine narratives: stories about the gods. Narrative and ritual are closely connected - myth and ritual. Ritual often re enacts myth: rite of passage and primordial sacrifice. The Doctrinal and Philosophical Dimension. The I ntellectual components of religions, however simple or complex. Especially developed in literate, scholarly traditions. The role and influence of scripture upon the spread and continuity of ideas. Examples of doctrine. Theology: Systematic speculation about God and God's relationship with Human beings. The Ethical and Legal Dimension.
Ethics concerns what is good and bad, how one should live.Creation narratives: before history, before time 1. In general and Christianity is full Christianity animal Christianityif Ninian Smarts Seven Dimensions Of Religion cat thinks Ninian Smarts Seven Dimensions Of Religion are friendly the Christianity may not Christianity long. And then you get this Christianity paragraph:. Literary Bias [Perspectives] Literary Bias [texts scripture bias]. The role and influence of scripture upon the spread and continuity of life is a challenge. Seasonal, Christianity rites: Christianity rains; birth and death 2.