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The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, making the diversion of funds possible. Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, calling him an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while others say he "saved Central America". In , near the end of the Iran—Iraq War, the U. The incident further worsened already tense Iran—United States relations.
Until the early s, the United States had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but the gap had been narrowed. At the same time, oil prices in fell to one third of the previous level; oil was the primary source of Soviet export revenues. These factors contributed to a stagnant Soviet economy during Mikhail Gorbachev 's tenure. Meanwhile, Reagan escalated the rhetoric. In his famous speech to religious fundamentalists, he outlined his strategy for victory. First, he labeled the Soviet system an " Evil Empire " and a failure—its demise would be a godsend for the world.
Second, Reagan explained his strategy was an arms buildup that would leave the Soviets far behind, with no choice but to negotiate arms reduction. Finally, displaying his characteristic optimism, he praised liberal democracy and promised that such a system eventually would triumph over Soviet communism. Reagan appreciated the revolutionary change in the direction of the Soviet policy with Mikhail Gorbachev , and shifted to diplomacy, intending to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements. To the astonishment of the world, and the chagrin of Reagan's most conservative supporters, they agreed to abolish all nuclear weapons. Gorbachev then asked the end of SDI. Reagan said no, claiming that it was defensive only, and that he would share the secrets with the Soviets.
No deal was achieved. Speaking at the Berlin Wall on June 12, , five years after his first visit to West Berlin as president, Reagan challenged Gorbachev to go further, saying "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate! Gorbachev, open this gate!
Gorbachev, tear down this wall! When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in , he was viewed as a celebrity by the Soviets. A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire. Early in his presidency, Reagan started wearing a custom-made, technologically advanced hearing aid , first in his right ear  and later in his left ear as well. On July 13, , Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon. He relinquished presidential power to the vice president for eight hours in a similar procedure as outlined in the 25th Amendment , which he specifically avoided invoking.
In January , Reagan underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate that caused further worries about his health. No cancerous growths were found, and he was not sedated during the operation. On January 7, , Reagan underwent surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to repair a Dupuytren's contracture of the ring finger of his left hand. The surgery lasted for more than three hours and was performed under regional anesthesia. During the presidential campaign, Reagan pledged that he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice if given the opportunity.
In his second term, Reagan had three opportunities to fill a Supreme Court vacancy. When Chief Justice Warren E. Burger retired in September , Reagan nominated incumbent Associate Justice William Rehnquist to succeed Burger as Chief Justice the appointment of an incumbent associate justice as chief justice is subject to a separate confirmation process. Then, following Rehnquist's confirmation, the president named Antonin Scalia to fill the consequent associate justice vacancy. Powell Jr. Reagan initially chose Conservative jurist Robert Bork to succeed Powell. Bork's nomination was strongly opposed by civil and women's rights groups, and by Senate Democrats. However, before his name was submitted to the Senate, Ginsburg withdrew himself from consideration.
Along with his four Supreme Court appointments, Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States courts of appeals , and judges to the United States district courts. Early in his presidency, Reagan appointed Clarence M. Pendleton Jr. Pendleton tried to steer the commission into a conservative direction in line with Reagan's views on social and civil rights policy during his tenure from until his sudden death in Pendleton soon aroused the ire of many civil rights advocates and feminists when he ridiculed the comparable worth proposal as being " Looney Tunes ". On April 13, , Reagan was assaulted by an anti-nuclear protester during a luncheon speech while accepting an award from the National Association of Broadcasters in Las Vegas.
Flying shards of glass hit Reagan, but he was not injured. Using media credentials, Springer intended to announce government plans for an underground nuclear weapons test in the Nevada desert the following day. Following his arrest on assault charges, a Secret Service spokesman could not explain how Springer got past the federal agents who guarded Reagan's life at all times. He pled guilty to a misdemeanor federal charge of interfering with the Secret Service, but other felony charges of assault and resisting officers were dropped.
They regularly attended Bel Air Church  and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party; Reagan delivered a well-received speech at the Republican National Convention. Five presidents and six first ladies attended the dedication ceremonies, marking the first time that five presidents were gathered in the same location. In August , at the age of 83, Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease ,  an incurable neurodegenerative disease which destroys brain cells and ultimately causes death. I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease At the moment I feel just fine. I intend to live the remainder of the years God gives me on this earth doing the things I have always done I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life.
I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead. Thank you, my friends. May God always bless you. After his diagnosis, letters of support from well-wishers poured into his California home. How are things in your city? Stahl wrote that she came close to reporting that Reagan was senile, but by the end of the meeting, he had regained his alertness. Lay observations that Reagan suffered from Alzheimer's while still in office have been widely refuted by medical experts, however, including the many physicians who treated Reagan both during and after his presidency.
Hutton, who served from to , said the president "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's". An example of which may include when Reagan repeated a toast to Margaret Thatcher, with identical words and gestures, at his 82nd-birthday party on February 6, Reagan did experience occasional memory lapses, though, especially with names. Reagan suffered an episode of head trauma in July , five years before his diagnosis.
After being thrown from a horse in Mexico, a subdural hematoma was found and surgically treated later in the year. As the years went on, Alzheimer's disease slowly destroyed Reagan's mental capacity. Reagan suffered a fall at his Bel Air home on January 13, , resulting in a broken hip. She told CNN's Larry King in that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was. Reagan died of pneumonia , complicated by Alzheimer's disease,  at his home in the Bel Air district of Los Angeles, California on the afternoon of June 5, We appreciate everyone's prayers. Bush called Reagan's death "a sad hour in the life of America".
Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California , where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass. Reagan's body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over , people viewed the coffin. Capitol ;  in thirty-four hours, , people filed past the coffin. Bush and President George W. After the funeral, the Reagan entourage was flown back to the Ronald W. He was also the first U. Reagan's burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library: "I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life.
Since Reagan left office in , substantial debate has occurred among scholars, historians, and the general public surrounding his legacy. Opinions of Reagan's legacy among the country's leading policymakers and journalists differ as well. Edwin Feulner , president of The Heritage Foundation , said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world" and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise' Despite the continuing debate surrounding his legacy, many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin D.
Roosevelt , leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics through his effective communication and pragmatic compromising. Heale, since Reagan left office, historians have reached a broad consensus that he rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a considerably pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and American exceptionalism , and contributed to victory in the Cold War. He ranked number nine in international relations.
Reagan's major achievement was the end of the Cold War as he left office. Furthermore, the USSR and Soviet-sponsored Communist movements worldwide were falling apart—and collapsed completely three years after he left office. The U. His admirers say he won the Cold War. In , the Kremlin lost control of all its East European satellites. The resulting states were no threat to the United States. Reagan's exact role is debated, with many believing that Reagan's defense policies, economic policies, military policies and hard-line rhetoric against the Soviet Union and Communism—together with his summits with General Secretary Gorbachev—played a significant part in ending the Cold War. The Soviet economy couldn't endure such competition. Knopf observes that being labeled "evil" probably made no difference to the Soviets but gave encouragement to the East-European citizens opposed to communism.
General Secretary Gorbachev said of his former rival's Cold War role: "[He was] a man who was instrumental in bringing about the end of the Cold War",  and deemed him "a great president". Truman 's policy of containment is also regarded as a force behind the fall of the USSR, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan undermined the Soviet system itself. Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement , and altered the political dynamic of the United States. After leaving office, Reagan became an iconic influence within the Republican Party.
The period of American history most dominated by Reagan and his policies that concerned taxes, welfare, defense, the federal judiciary and the Cold War is known today as the Reagan Era. This time period emphasized that the conservative "Reagan Revolution", led by Reagan, had a permanent impact on the United States in domestic and foreign policy. Bush administration. According to columnist Chuck Raasch, "Reagan transformed the American presidency in ways that only a few have been able to.
Reagan's popularity has increased since When Reagan left office in , a CBS poll indicated that he held an approval rating of 68 percent. This figure equaled the approval rating of Franklin D. Roosevelt and was later matched by Bill Clinton , as the highest rating for a departing president in the modern era. The survey of leading historians rated Reagan number 11 in In , the Institute for the Study of the Americas released the first-ever British academic survey to rate U. This poll of British specialists in U. Reagan's ability to talk about substantive issues with understandable terms and to focus on mainstream American concerns earned him the laudatory moniker "The Great Communicator". But I never thought it was my style that made a difference—it was the content.
I wasn't a great communicator, but I communicated great things. Reagan also earned the nickname "the Teflon President", in that public perceptions of him were not tarnished by the controversies that arose during his administration. Public reaction to Reagan was always mixed. He was the oldest president up to that time and was supported by young voters, who began an alliance that shifted many of them to the Republican Party. However, his support of Israel throughout his presidency earned him support from many Jews. Reagan was known to joke frequently during his lifetime, displayed humor throughout his presidency,  and was famous for his storytelling.
As a microphone test in preparation for his weekly radio address in August , Reagan made the following joke: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes. Air Base June 12, While giving a speech celebrating the th anniversary of Berlin, a balloon popped in the front row.
Without missing a beat, Reagan quipped "missed me", a reference to his previous assassination attempt in Reagan also had the ability to offer comfort and hope to the nation as a whole at times of tragedy. Following the disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and "slipped the surly bonds of Earth" to "touch the face of God".
Reagan received several awards in his pre- and post-presidential years. In , Reagan was inducted as a Laureate of The Lincoln Academy of Illinois and awarded the Order of Lincoln the state's highest honor by the governor of Illinois in the area of government. This entitled him to the use of the post-nominal letters "GCB" but, as a foreign national, not to be known as "Sir Ronald Reagan". Only two U. Bush;  Dwight D. Eisenhower received his before becoming president in his capacity as a general after World War II. Reagan was also named an honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford. Mikhail Gorbachev then president of Russia , ending the cold war. Bush, his vice president and successor. It is one of few Navy ships christened in honor of a living person and the first aircraft carrier to be named in honor of a living former president.
In the U. Navy and military in both his film career and while he served as president. Congress authorized the creation of the Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home in Dixon, Illinois in , pending federal purchase of the property. After Reagan's death, both major American political parties agreed to erect a statue of Reagan in the place of that of Thomas Starr King. On Independence Day a statue to Reagan was unveiled outside the U. The unveiling was supposed to be attended by Reagan's wife Nancy, but she did not attend; former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice took her place and read a statement on her behalf. President Reagan's friend and British prime minister during his presidency, Margaret Thatcher, was also unable to attend due to frail health.
As a teenager, in Dixon, Illinois. Hosting General Electric Theater. At his home at Rancho del Cielo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Reagan disambiguation and Ronald Reagan disambiguation. The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. The reason given is: Lead section fails to summarize the main points of the body. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia's norms and is inclusive of all essential details.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Harmer . Jane Wyman. Nancy Davis. Maureen Christine Michael Patti Ron. Jack Reagan Nelle Wilson. Politician trade unionist actor author broadcaster. Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction Congressional Gold Medal This article is part of a series about. Presidential campaigns. Religious conservatism. National variants. Related topics. Further information: Ronald Reagan filmography. Main article: Governorship of Ronald Reagan. Main article: Republican Party presidential primaries.
Main article: Briggs Initiative. Main articles: Ronald Reagan presidential campaign and United States presidential election. Main article: Presidency of Ronald Reagan. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Ronald Reagan presidency. Main article: Attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan. Main article: Reaganomics.
Further information: Cold War — Further information: Beirut barracks bombings. Main article: United States invasion of Grenada. Main article: War on drugs. Main article: United States bombing of Libya. Main article: Iran—Contra affair. Main article: Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan. Further information: Political positions of Ronald Reagan and Reagan coalition. Further information: List of things named after Ronald Reagan. Finch, Lt. He also served in Nixon's Cabinet and as President's special counselor and campaign manager". Los Angeles Times.
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The first years of his life were determined by custom, ritual, and taboo. Where he was placed under the curatorship of Regent Jongintaba Daindyebo and his wife Noengland. For many years he stopped seeing his mother, but with Jongintaba and his wife. He felt very well as they treated him as their own son. Mandela attended religious services every Sunday, Christianity became an important part of his life. In addition, he went on a Methodist mission near the palace where he studied English and Xhosa. As well as history and geography, and from those years onwards his love of African history began. In his studies were interrupted for supporting a student protest at the university that confronted him with possible expulsion.
That same year he decides to flee to Johannesburg. When Mandela arrived in the city, he found a job as a night watchman at the Crown Mining Complex where he was fired when they discovered he was a fugitive. He also came into contact with the African National Congress ANC ; at the end of , he received a visit from Jongintaba who forgave him for having fled. And in he returned to Fort Hare University and graduated with a law degree. In he founded the Youth League and organized numerous protests against apartheid.
Through strikes and other non-violent protests, his name began to be heard more and more. In , Nelson Mandela resumed his higher education studies, enrolling in a correspondence course at the University of South Africa , to which he devoted time in the evenings. When he passed the exams to obtain his B. When he began his law studies at the University of the Witwatersrand , Mandela was the only black student and although he was racially discriminated against I can make many friendships between liberal and communist Europeans, as well as Jews and Hindus, including Joe Slovo, Harry Schwaz and Ruth First.
They had two children, the first named Madiba Thembi Thembekile born in February and later in their daughter Mazawiki was born and died nine months later of meningitis. Mandela enjoyed a homely life, joined by his mother and sister. In , Nelson Mandela led the Campaign for the Challenge, urging blacks to violate racial segregation laws. He is convicted under the anti-Communist law, forbidden to attend meetings or leave the Johannesburg area. He passed the bar exam and, together with Tambo, founded the first black law firm in the country. On June 26, , the Charter of Freedom was adopted, a document written in secrecy that demands the achievement of a democratic, free and multiracial society. On December 5, , he was arrested with people and tried for high treason.
By Mandela and the rest of the defendants are acquitted of the charge of high treason. When he returns, he is tried for illegal abandonment and sentenced to five years. On June 12, , Judge Quartus de Wet found Mandela and other activists guilty and sentenced them to life imprisonment, they were sent to Robben Island, where they remained for 18 years. Mandela was confined to a damp cell, and with a palm, mat to sleep on. The following year he was captured and sentenced to life imprisonment. He would spend 27 years of his life there in precarious conditions; he was only allowed one visit and one letter every six months.
In the South African secret service prepared the assassination of Mandela in the same prison; they would simulate an escape attempt where he would be killed in the guise of a recapture. Thanks to an agent of the British Intelligence Service, this operation was prevented. Even though he was in prison, his struggle did not cease. He became known as the most important black leader in South Africa. For this reason, in they were both awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Despite being in prison, Mandela was visited by well-known South African personalities. Since prison conditions have improved, black prisoners have been allowed to wear long pants. Have been allowed recreational activities, and have improved the quality of food.
In his eldest son died in a car accident. In the UN declared Apartheid a crime against humanity. By , Nelson Mandela was considered a class A prisoner, which allowed him to have many visitors, receive correspondence and study. He began to write his autobiography which he secretly sent to London and although it remained several years unpublished the prison authorities found several pages written on him which allowed his study privilege to be suspended for four years. Which prompted an international campaign led by the United Nations Security Council for his release. The conditions in this prison were better, although Mandela missed the companionship and natural space next to the island. On December 12, , he was taken to Tygerberg hospital for having fallen ill with tuberculosis caused by the humidity of the cell and recovered.
He was transferred to Victor Verster prison under better conditions. On 11 February , he was released from prison after 27 years in prison.Retrieved October 16, Answer: a The how many years did nelson mandela spend in prison generals what is a socialite defence and police saluted Mandela and how many years did nelson mandela spend in prison their loyalty to him. Imprisoned at Robben Island Prison - s. Mandela launched a reconstruction and development how many years did nelson mandela spend in prison to improve the living standards of black South Africans in areas such how many years did nelson mandela spend in prison education, housing, health, and employment. Diction In The Rattler regularly attended Bel Air Church  and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Existential Philosophy: Understanding Christian Faith How many years did nelson mandela spend in prison Reagan delivered a well-received speech how many years did nelson mandela spend in prison the Republican National Convention. The United States has made serious mistakes in the conduct of its foreign affairs, which have had unfortunate repercussions long after the decisions were taken.