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The Devils Arithmetic Movie Vs Book Analysis



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Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved March 17, Mead, Lawrence; Malcomson, Ian Retrieved October 3, Mentzer, Frank Mohan, Kim See also: How LibriVox Works. LibriVox volunteers are helpful and friendly, and if you post a question anywhere on the forum you are likely to get an answer from someone, somewhere within an hour or so. So don't be shy! Many of our volunteers have never recorded anything before LibriVox. The roles involved in making a LibriVox recording.

Not all volunteers read for LibriVox. If you would prefer not to lend your voice to LibriVox , you could lend us your ears. Proof listeners catch mistakes we may have missed during the initial recording and editing process. Note the horizontal description of " Church " - Church Established in the first 13 years from Acts 1 through Acts 7, then the Church Scattered between Acts 8 through Acts 12, which occurred over a period of about 14 years and remember all dates and times are at best approximations because Luke gives only a few events that allow us to give specific dates, such as the death of Herod in A D 44 in Acts and lastly, beginning in Acts 13 and until the end of this age , the Church Extended , this extension being the primarily the fruit of Paul's Three Missionary Journeys which"upset the world!

And as they say in the restaurant when your delicious meal is served "Enjoy! Click links for the maps of each journey. Hannah's Bible Outlines - Recommended Resource. Acts Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra. And a disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek,. KJV Acts Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and, behold , a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek:.

A disciple named Timothy was there, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but whose father was a Greek. His mother was a Jewish believer, but his father was a Greek. A disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek. Acts is like a travelogue and since it is easy to "get lost" let's first set the context. Remember that a travelogue is a talk or lecture on travel usually accompanied by a film or slides.

So think of Luke's narrative as his Spirit inspired lecture on Paul's travels as he describes the manifold adventures with "word pictures" of the various places and events. As you study Acts be sure you keep a map nearby click this helpful map and bookmark it to which you can frequently refer to help travel along the road with Paul and Silas on their great missionary adventure listen to Steven Curtis Chapman's "Great Adventure ". The Jerusalem Council has just met and unanimously agreed that salvation is by faith in Jesus plus nothing not circumcision, not works of the Law and written a letter with four directives for the Gentile believers.

James speaking for the entire church declared. To help get oriented take a moment and review the table above summarizing Paul's Itinerary in Acts It will help you to know where Luke is going next in his narrative. Remember too that the first missionary journey map took place about five years before this second missionary journey. Paul was eager to follow up the work of the Lord among these churches founded five years before, including churches in Syria and Cilicia, churches that were likely planted by Paul when he was in "exile" in Tarsus capital city of the Roman province of Cilicia. I agree. I think these churches were continually in his prayers during those 5 years he was away. May God's Spirit enable us for left to ourselves we will quickly get busy and forget to daily pray for our missionaries on the field with "Pauline" zeal and faithfulness.

In the first missionary journey, they first headed south and west by sea to Cyprus and then north by sea to Perga at Pamphylia from which they trekked over robber infested rugged mountainous terrain to Antioch of Pisidia, then on to some success and then persecution in Iconium, followed by some success and stoning in Lystra and finally success and relative rest in Derbe. Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra - It is interesting that Luke just uses the name of Paul not Silas, but clearly Silas was with him. Derbe had been the furthest extension east on the first missionary journey. On Paul's first trip to Derbe he approached the small city from the east, coming from Lystra. Now he approaches from the west having traveled north from his home church in Antioch.

Going north from Antioch Syria, Paul and Silas would first pass through the Syrian Gates today known as the "Belen Pass" a pass constructed through the Nur Mountains in the southeast region of modern day Turkey. The highest elevation of the Cilician Gates was about meters feet. The highest peaks in the Taurus Mountain range were about 12, feet. This picture is likely similar to what Paul and Silas saw as they left Tarsus and headed toward the Cilician Gates on the way to Derbe and Lystra. Note that Derbe was not connected to Lystra by the paved Via Sebaste , so the team would have had to traverse the last 60 miles on rugged, unpaved trails in order to reach Lystra , where Luke picks up the story in earnest.

But Paul chose Silas and left, being committed by the brethren to the grace of the Lord. The next day he went away with Barnabas to Derbe. In Lystra , a crowd had tried to honor Paul and Barnabas as pagan gods on the first missionary journey Acts and then they stoned him Acts ! Only the KJV gives a literal translation of " Behold " idou which is in the Greek text but for some reason is ignored by the modern translations. Behold is a word that calls attention to what follows and certainly as subsequent events would prove, the discovery of Timothy was very significant to Paul.

A disciple was there - Timothy was probably a convert from Paul's previous missionary trip to Derbe and Lystra 1 Ti "to Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. And the next day he went away with Barnabas to Derbe. Discipleship includes the idea of one who intentionally learns by inquiry and observation cf inductive Bible study and thus mathetes is more than a mere pupil. A mathetes describes an adherent of a teacher.

As discussed below mathetes itself has no spiritual connotation, and it is used of superficial followers of Jesus as well as of genuine believers. Disciple - A disciple is an adherent who accepts instruction given to him and makes it his rule of conduct. In his last letter Paul recalls how Timothy had become a believer writing "that from childhood you have known the sacred writings which are able to give you the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith pistis which is in Christ Jesus.

Paul explains in the opening passages of Second Timothy he was "mindful of the sincere faith within you, which first dwelt in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice, and I am sure that it is in you as well. Pistos means dependable worthy of reliance or trust , trustworthy, steadfast, unswerving. Webster says that " Faithful " means firm in adherence to whatever one owes allegiance and implies unswerving adherence to a person or thing or to the oath or promise by which a tie was contracted. Pistos describes the one who is trustworthy, which is the genre of man Paul instructed Timothy to seek to disciple "And the things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, these entrust to faithful men, who will be able to teach others also.

Vincent gives a nice summary expanded in the discussion that follows of the meaning of pistos , faithful, writing that it is used " 1 , of one who shows Himself faithful in the discharge of a duty or the administration of a trust Mt Hence, trustworthy see note 2 Ti Of things that can be relied upon see note 2 Ti Pistos is used in the present passage with its active meaning of trusting or believing. This sense speaks of a sinner exercising faith in the Lord Jesus. In the first NT use in this sense, Jesus "said to Thomas,Reach here your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand, and put it into My side; and be not unbelieving, but believing.

Jn Paul later writes to Timothy to "let those who have believers pistos as their masters not be disrespectful to them because they are brethren, but let them serve them all the more, because those who partake of the benefit are believers pistos and beloved. Teach and preach these principles. When pistos is used in this active sense to refer to the faith which a lost sinner must place in the Lord Jesus in order to be saved, it includes the following ideas -- the act of considering the Lord Jesus worthy of trust as to His character and motives, the act of placing confidence in His ability to do just what He says He will do, the act of entrusting the salvation of his soul into the hands of the Lord Jesus, the act of committing the work of saving his soul to the care of the Lord.

Thus Paul says. So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer pistos. Gal Note also that with regard to believers , they are spoken of sometimes in the Active sense as believers and sometimes in the Passive as faithful. The New Testament concept of faith includes three main elements, mutually connected and requisite, though according to circumstances sometimes one and sometimes another may be more prominent. Modified from Cremer. The son of a Jewish woman who was a believer - Paul affirms the faith of Timothy's mother in 2 Ti Remember that there was no notation by Luke of a Jewish Synagogue in Lystra. The question arises is when did Timothy's become a believer? Was it during Paul's first missionary journey approximately five years earlier?

We cannot state with certainty, but it seems very likely that she first heard the Gospel from the preaching of Paul and Barnabas. In Acts Luke says " there the cities of Lycaonia, Lystra and Derbe - Acts they continued to preach the gospel. But - This term of contrast directly following the Greek word pistos for believer. While we cannot state with absolute assurance, this would certainly suggest that Timothy's father was not a believer in Jesus. His father was a Greek - The significance of this fact is that it would explain why Timothy had never been circumcised. Paul deemed it expedient though not clearly not required for salvation, but had this done Acts in order to avoid offending the Jews to whom the missionaries would be sharing the Gospel.

Several commentators note that the verb tense suggest Timothy's father was deceased. Actually there is no verb with "father" Young's Literal reads "And he came to Derbe and Lystra, and lo, a certain disciple was there, by name Timotheus son of a certain woman, a believing Jewess, but of a father, a Greek. Qiddushin 3. Yevamot 7. Charles Swindoll helps set the context to Acts 16 - God never causes evil. He does, however, open and close opportunities to accomplish His purpose in individual lives and in the grand scheme of history. Life appears barren, wasted, hopeless. Emotionally, we feel set aside, forsaken, overlooked, even abused.

The Council at Jerusalem had affirmed his ministry and given him written confirmation of the gospel of grace. His home church in Syrian Antioch enthusiastically commissioned him for another journey. The first leg of his voyage took him through the familiar territory of Syria and Cilicia, where people knew him and welcomed his teaching. After passing through the Taurus Mountains, he enjoyed reconnecting with the churches that he and Barnabas had previously planted in Derbe, Lystra, and Iconium.

He even found a promising young student, Timothy, who was eager to learn about ministry. Then doors slammed shut. Of all the challenges Paul had overcome—robbers, enemies, illness, rejection, stoning, idolatry—the hardship of closed doors would be his greatest to date. Let me not think an action mine own way, But as Thy love shall sway, Resigning up the rudder to Thy skill. AFTER a brief respite, Paul proposed to Barnabas that they should return to visit the brethren in every city wherein they had proclaimed the word of the Lord, and see how they fared. This was the beginning of his second missionary journey, which was to have far-reaching results.

Barnabas suggested that they should take Mark with them as before, a proposition which his companion positively refused to entertain. Mark had deserted them on the threshold of their previous expedition, and there was grave fear that he might do so again. Barnabas was as strong on the other side. The crew mutinies as Columbus nears the long-looked-for coast! Nothing tests us more than this. It is difficult to be resolute and gentle, strong and sweet. Beware of temptation from this side, fellow-workers.

If you are compelled to differ from your companions, let it be in love; let them feel that you have no interests to serve but those of truth. If Lot quarrels with you, it is best to give him his own terms and send him away; God will give you ever so much more than he can take. Only do nothing to drive the Holy Dove of God from your bosom. Perfect love is the only atmosphere in which the Divine Spirit can manifest his gracious help. So through the Cilician Gates to Tarsus, his native city. But there was no welcome for him there. Probably the old home was either broken up or forever shut against him; and the two companions in travel threaded the defile in the mountains behind Tarsus, which led them up to the central plain with its volcanic deposits and biting winds.

What a welcome Paul would receive! How many inquiries would be made after Barnabas! How much to tell and hear! He asked for Timothy, and was glad to learn that he had not been faithless to the teachings and training of the godly women who had watched over his opening character, and instructed him in the Holy Scriptures. It had therefore remained in abeyance, according to the broad and liberal views which Paul inculcated. All the reports about Timothy were favorable. He was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium. The more Paul knew of him the more he was attracted to him, and finally proposed that he should accompany him on his travels as his own son in the faith.

He administered the rite of circumcision, not because he deemed it obligatory, but as a matter of convenience, that there might be no obstacle to the admission of his young assistant to Jewish synagogues. A simple ordination service was then held, in which Timothy was solemnly set apart for his great work. The elders gathered round and laid their hands on his bowed head, and prayed. In answer to their believing intercession, he received the gift of sacred speech; and Paul, in after years, reminds him to stir up the gift that was in him through the laying on of his own hands and of those of the presbytery. Thus the Spirit of Jesus led his servant to call new laborers into the harvest field and endow them with special qualifications for their work. It appears, indeed, that Paul had remarkable power in these directions; for, in his Epistle to the Galatians, he expressly refers to his having ministered to them the Holy Spirit by faith; and when he laid his hands on the twelve disciples at Ephesus, the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spake with tongues and prophesied.

In the old time it seems to have been possible for men of God to receive for others, and transmit to them, by faith, spiritual gifts, adapting them better for their life work. But this was altogether distinct from any mechanical communication of sacramental grace, and was the peculiar prerogative of those who were themselves richly endued with the Spirit of Jesus. Leaving Lystra, Paul and his companions visited the churches in the highland region of Phrygia and Galatia, everywhere distributing the letter of James. What could they do better than bear the light of the Gospel to those teeming multitudes who sat in darkness and the shadow of death?

The time was not yet ripe for the attack on these apparently impregnable bastions of the kingdom of Satan. Apollos must come there for pioneer work. Paul and Barnabas are needed yet more urgently elsewhere, and must receive further training before undertaking this responsible and arduous task. The travellers therefore took a northern route, with the intention of entering the important province of Bithynia , lying along the shores of the Black Sea; but when they came to a point in the great Roman road, opposite Mysia, and were attempting to go out of Asia Minor into Bithynia, the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not.

Checked when they attempted to go to the West, they were now stopped as they sought to go to the Northeast; and there was nothing for it but to keep straight on, until they came out at the terminus of the road, on the seacoast, at the famous harbor of Troas, the ancient Troy. There they met with Luke, whose presence is thenceforth denoted by the significant personal pronoun we; and thence the man of Macedonia beckoned the little missionary band across the straits to set up the banner of Christ on the hitherto untouched continent of Europe. What an extremely attractive title that is for the Holy Spirit!

When Jesus was glorified, He was given in Pentecostal fulness, and the chief aim of his mission and ministry is to glorify the Lord Jesus and gather together the members of his Body, fitting them for union with their Head. It is interesting to study the method of his guidance as it was extended towards these early heralds of the Cross. It consisted largely in prohibitions, when they attempted to take another course than the right. When they would turn to the left, to Asia, He stayed them; and when they sought to turn to the right, to Bithynia, again He stayed them. He shut all the doors along their route, and bolted them; so that they had no alternative but to go straight forward.

In the absence of any prohibition, they were left to gather that they were treading the prepared path for which they had been created in Christ Jesus. Whenever you are doubtful as to your course, submit your judgment absolutely to the Spirit of God, and ask Him to shut against you every door but the right one. Let me hear thy voice behind me whenever I turn to the right hand or the left. Put thine arrest on me.

Do not suffer me. It lies in front of you; pursue it. Abide in the calling in which you were called. Keep on as you are, unless you are clearly told to do something else. Only be careful to obey his least prohibitions; and where, after believing prayer, there are no apparent hindrances, believe that you are on the way everlasting, and go forward with enlarged heart. But when doors are shut right and left, an open road is sure to lead to Troas.

There Luke awaits, and visions will point the way, where vast opportunities stand open, and faithful friends are waiting. Acts and he was well spoken of by the brethren who were in Lystra and Iconium. Reputation is what others think is true about you, while character is what God's knows is true about you! In Timothy's case his character and reputation were essentially the same. Our English word for that is integrity which means an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting. Integrity speaks of of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes. Think of the related word integer from Latin integer and means "intact, whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," What you saw on Timothy on the outside was a perfect reflection of what was on the inside.

Synonyms of integrity - honesty, uprightness, probity, rectitude, honor, honorableness, upstandingness, good character, principle s , ethics, morals, righteousness, morality, nobility, high-mindedness, right-mindedness, noble-mindedness, virtue, decency, fairness, scrupulousness, sincerity, truthfulness, trustworthiness. Well spoken of matureo refers to a human declaration of ascertainable facts based on firsthand knowledge or experience and in the present context refers to a good report or having a good reputation. Paul received a "good report" on Timothy. Matureo is in the imperfect tense which depicts others as giving a good testimony of Timothy, over and over, one after another related to Paul regarding his reputation.

And all were speaking well of Him, and wondering at the gracious words which were falling from His lips; and they were saying, "Is this not Joseph's son? Martureo is also used of the criteria that were to be true of men who would serve the church…. But select from among you, brethren, seven men of good reputation , full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we may put in charge of this task. Robertson comments that "Already Timothy had so borne himself that his gifts and graces for the ministry were recognized. It is a wise precaution that the approval of the local church is necessary for the licensing and the ordaining of a preacher. If God has called a man for the work signs of it will be manifest to others.

By the brethren who were in Lystra and Iconium - Brethren refers to the Christian brethren, those who share a common birth, the new birth. Notice that Timothy's reputation was known not only in his hometown of Lystra, but in nearby Iconium. Lystra was about 20 miles south of Iconium about a normal day's travel in the Roman Empire at this time. How was he known in Iconium? Luke does not tell us but clearly it is in a spiritual context. Jews used adelphos to describe fellow countrymen Acts In Paul's last letter to Timothy he reminds his young disciple who might have been a bit "timid" - see 2 Ti of what happened to him at Lystra and Iconium writing.

Kitto - Daily Bible Illustrations - Timothy—Acts —3 In contemplating the journey before him, Paul probably felt that the absence of Barnabas would be likely to place him at some disadvantage; for not only had Barnabas been with him as an equal laborer in the previous visit to the same places, but the name of Barnabas was joined in commission with his own in the apostolic decree, at least so far as regarded the authoritative promulgation of the decree to the churches. The wise providence of God had, however, provided for this exigency by the fact that one of the two distinguished persons who had been sent by the church at Jerusalem to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas, as vouchers for the decree, in which they are, indeed, expressly named, still remained at Antioch.

This was Silas; and it is at once apparent, even to us, that this was the most suitable person to be his companion for the intended journey, whom it could be well possible to find as a substitute for Barnabas. He was a leading man in the church; he was endowed with special gifts; the church at Jerusalem had avouched his character and qualifications; and Paul had been enough in his company to know that he should find in him a valuable coadjutor. That journey, though it included all the places where churches had been founded in the former missionary tour with Barnabas, became much more extensive than had been originally contemplated. It commenced, however, by the intended visitation of the churches formerly established.

They were, however, visited in a reverted order, those being first reached which had been established last in the previous journey. These were, no doubt, churches which had been of earlier establishment. Their names are not given, but we may be allowed to suppose that on this occasion Paul once more saw his native city of Tarsus. They then passed into Lycaonia, lying to the north of Cilicia, and we find them once more at Derbe; but of the circumstances of this, any more than of the former visit to this town, no particulars are given. They now proceeded on their way, and passing the gate before which was the temple or image of Jupiter, stood within the streets of Lystra, where Paul had been first worshipped as a god, and then stoned as an offender.

All that is recorded at this place relates to the acquisition of an addition to the missionary party, in the person of a young convert named Timothy. This youth seems to have been a native of Lystra—the son of a Jewish mother, but of a Greek father. What Timothy had heard from Paul, what he had witnessed of his conduct, the example he had so unostentatiously offered of valor for the truth, could hardly fail to make the most profound and salutary impression upon a mind so youthfully impressible as his. It was nutritive; and blessed by the Divine Spirit, it so ministered to his spiritual growth, that by the time Paul had now come back, he had become a marked person in the esteem of the brethren in this and the neighboring towns, particularly at Iconium.

Paul heard of this before he again saw him, and the tidings filled his heart with joy. Before, however, Paul took Timothy with him, he thought proper to subject him to the initiatory Jewish rite. This has occasioned some perplexity, seeing that not long ago Paul had very firmly, and with the sanction of the apostles of the circumcision, resisted the attempts made to impose this rite upon Titus. Some of the early Christian writers made much of this difficulty, and could not surmount it but by supposing that a similar concession had subsequently been made in the case of Titus—a most unwarrantable and wholly needless supposition.

The cases were altogether different, and sufficient to explain and justify a difference of procedure. Titus was wholly a Greek; and the object in his case was to withstand false teachers, and protect the flock from their requisitions. In the case of Timothy, the object was to procure admission for him into the synagogues in which the Gospel had not yet been preached, and with which Paul had to connect his labors but to which he could not otherwise have had access. Paul testifies of himself that to the Jews he became a Jew, to win those who would not else be won. Of Timothy he asked no more than this: and he was entitled to ask it; for, according to the Jewish rules, the child should follow the mother, so that the son of a mixed marriage, whose mother was a Jewess, should be circumcised, otherwise and the Roman Catholic Church now makes similar conditions the marriage would not have been recognized by the Jewish law.

This had been neglected in the case of Timothy, probably from the opposition of the father. The Jews of the neighborhood must have been aware of this; and he would not have been admitted among them had not Paul made good the omission. Acts Paul wanted this man to go with him; and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those parts, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. KJV Acts Him would Paul have to go forth with him; and took and circumcised him because of the Jews which were in those quarters: for they knew all that his father was a Greek.

NET Acts Paul wanted Timothy to accompany him, and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, for they all knew that his father was Greek. NLT Acts so Paul wanted him to join them on their journey. In deference to the Jews of the area, he arranged for Timothy to be circumcised before they left, for everyone knew that his father was a Greek. ESV Acts Paul wanted Timothy to accompany him, and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, for they all knew that his father was a Greek.

CSB Acts Paul wanted Timothy to go with him, so he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, since they all knew that his father was a Greek. NIV Acts Paul wanted to take him along on the journey, so he circumcised him because of the Jews who lived in that area, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. Paul wanted this man to go with him - This man touton is literally "this one" and is first in the sentence for emphasis.

As noted above Timothy had a good reputation not only in Lystra but also in Iconium. He had a believing mother and grandmother who were Jewish and a Greek father. One has to believe that Paul did not just rely on the excellent external markers, but that he also prayed for guidance and was led to seek out this man for his missionary service. And Timothy would have had no delusions of grandeur about some great, exciting missionary adventure, for he had either witnessed first hand or had certainly heard the stories about Paul being stoned for preaching the Gospel. In short Timothy would have counted the cost of partnering with Paul and yet it did not deter him from joining the team.

Barclay writes that Paul "was always well aware of the necessity of training a new generation for the work and for the days that lay ahead. Wanted t helo see derivative thelema ; synonyms boule and boulomai is a very common NT verb x which primarily refers to exercising of one's will with the underlying sense of to be willing, to desire, to want or to wish in Jn in context of prayer. Thelo "expresses not simply a desire, but a determined and constant exercise of the will. Blailock adds that "The preoccupation with character in those who assume Christian leadership is a marked feature of the story of the early Church [Acts , , , Vincent on go with him - The word - exerchomai is used of going forth as a missionary in Luke ; 3 John 7.

Took him and circumcised him see study of circumcision - Paul circumcised Timothy for anyone could perform this rite. The Jerusalem council had declared that circumcision was not necessary for salvation or for acceptance into the Christian church. However because of Timothy's Jewish background it seemed expedient in his case in order to enlarge his local usefulness even as Paul declared in his letter to Corinth…. To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, that I may by all means save some. And I do all things for the sake of the gospel, that I may become a fellow partaker of it. In Col Paul is using the well known procedure of circumcision not to describe the physical act but to describe spiritual circumcision " without hands " that is wrought by the Spirit and results in spiritual rebirth.

Paul used the concept of circumcision similarly in Romans , addressing the Jews who had the Law and physical circumcision and yet transgressed the Law, because they were not spiritually circumcised. To reiterate, nowhere does Luke state that Paul circumcised Timothy in order to be saved, but simply because of the Jews who were in those parts. It is a wise spiritual leader who knows how and when to apply the principles of the Word of God, when to stand firm and when to yield. NET Note - Paul's cultural sensitivity showed in his action here.

He did not want Timothy's lack of circumcision to become an issue 1 Cor — In the case of Gentile Titus, Paul insisted that he not be circumcised because the Judaizers insisted on circumcision as necessary for salvation, a false doctrine to which Paul would not acquiesce. Paul writes…. But not even Titus who was with me, though he was a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised.

But it was because of the false brethren who had sneaked in to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, in order to bring us into bondage. But we did not yield in subjection to them for even an hour, so that the truth of the gospel might remain with you. Galatians note. John MacArthur explains that "Circumcision was the sine qua non of Judaism. Had Timothy not been circumcised, the Jews would have assumed he was renouncing his Jewish heritage and choosing to live as a Gentile. Paul's circumcision of Timothy had nothing to do with salvation; he did it for expediency's sake, to avoid placing an unnecessary stumbling block in the way of Jewish evangelism. Timothy's circumcision granted him full access to the synagogues he would visit with Paul and Silas… From Paul's actions concerning his two companions an important principle becomes evident.

Missionaries must be sensitive to the unique characteristics of the cultures in which they work. As Paul did in circumcising Timothy, they should avoid giving any unnecessary offense. But like Paul in refusing to circumcise Titus, they must not compromise any of the timeless truths of Scripture. He was sensitive and humble, knowing that unsaved people were without spiritual understanding. So he extended as much grace as possible to them—an example being, asking Timothy to be circumcised for the sake of the Gospel. The Gentiles would accept a missionary who was wholly Jewish much more readily than the Jews would accept a missionary who was half Gentile.

Paul put the matter to Timothy, who displayed his mettle by agreeing to the unpleasant operation. If Timothy had been wholly Gentile as Titus was , Paul would certainly not have taken this step. But Paul was the most conciliatory of men, always willing to make concessions where it did not violate some important and vital truth. Bruce - By Jewish law Timothy was a Jew, because he was the son of Jewish mother, but because he was uncircumcised he was technically an apostate Jew. If Paul wished to maintain his links with the synagogue, he could not be seen to countenance apostasy. Robertson writes "Paul voluntarily removed this stumbling-block to the ministry of Timothy. Otherwise Timothy could not have been allowed to preach ln the synagogues.

Idem non est semper idem. But Timothy's case was not the case of Titus. Here it was a question of efficient service, not an essential of salvation. Hovey notes that Timothy was circumcised because of Jewish unbelievers, not because of Jewish believers. A Jew in respect to race or religion as opposed to Gentiles. In the plural, it means the Jews, the people of ancient Palestine.

In John's Gospel Ioudaios was used of those hostile to Jesus, especially the Jewish leaders Jn , ff, , , ff, Jews hated the Samaritans Jn and the missionary activity of Paul Acts , , , , , , Paul qualified the meaning of Ioudaios in light of the New Covenant in his discourse on Romans 2, explaining that there are "Jews" and then there are "real Jews. Read Ro note.

For gar - Term of explanation. Luke is explaining why Timothy was circumcised. It is not certain whether such a law was in effect in the 1st century, but even if it was, Timothy would not have been accepted as fully Jewish because he was not circumcised. They all knew that his father was a Greek - They refers to the Jews who were in those parts. He was a disciple of Jesus and apparently well thought of in that region. We also learn that his mother was a Jewish believer in Jesus, but his father was a Greek. Here, then, Paul immediately met with a situation that the council had tried to address. Timothy had been brought up in a home with a Gentile father and a Jewish believing mother. He had not be circumcised. They saw no need for it. And indeed, the results of the Jerusalem council would have confirmed that conclusion, namely, that to become a believer in Jesus, a member of the New Covenant, he did not have to go back and fulfill the regulations of the law.

Paul was going from city to city delivering the decisions reached by the council for the people to obey, and he wanted to take Timothy along. The council had not ruled on circumcision, specifically, but in theory it did. And this seems to be what Paul was doing here. Paul knew that it was not necessary for Timothy to be circumcised for theological reasons. This is the main issue he discusses in Romans True circumcision is of the heart, that is, by the Spirit.

So to Paul the real issue was faith in Christ. The true believer was circumcised in heart by the Spirit and would therefore begin to live righteously--what the law had been designed to produce. But Paul thought it was necessary for Timothy to be circumcised under the circumstances. He could tell these assemblies what the council had decided, but he could also explain that in the spirit of love and understanding Timothy got circumcised anyway so that the Jews would not be offended. This demonstration of the law of love worked very well as the churches responded well to it. And, we know that Timothy grew in the faith to be a leader in the church. There is a settlement in Israel called Yad Hashmoneh, a substantial number of Jewish believers who live not far from Jerusalem.

They are very interesting to see because they are trying to live as biblical Christians without all the trappings of Judaism that are not mentioned in the Bible prayer shawls, little caps, etc. But they say that the Israelis who live all around them, who are their friends, always ask them if they eat pork, if they circumcise, and if they keep sabbath. They know that if they ate pork, or did not circumcise, or broke sabbath, they would lose all contact with their neighbors who would have nothing to do with them. The contact allowed them to show that their faith in Christ Jesus was not a repudiation of their Jewishness, but a continuation of it to fulfillment in the Jewish Messiah.

Here is a modern illustration of what surely was in the mind of Paul when he made the decision to have Timothy circumcised. The principle applies to all of us as well. In Christ Jesus we have certain freedoms. But often we come across new or young believers who are not sure that Christians should be doing certain things, such as eating pork, or doing certain things on what are known as holy days, or a number of other issues.

The mature Christian is called on to exercise the law of love, to abstain from some freedoms while those they know are growing in the faith. Likewise, in ministries in other cultures there are things that the mature Christian must give up if there is to be any witness at all. Here is where wisdom and love govern the use of freedoms in Christ. Norman Geisler - Acts —3—Why did Paul have Timothy circumcised when he himself spoke so strongly against it? Paul, like any other human being, was capable of error. Since the Bible is the Word of God see Introduction , it is not capable of erring in anything it teaches. Paul was violently opposed to any who made circumcision necessary for salvation.

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