⒈ What Was Segregation From The 1800s To The 1960s
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There's the hapless victim who can't flee from the monster without falling, the stubborn homeowner who won't move out of a haunted house, and my favorite: the person who walks toward, not away, from a sinister noise at night while asking, "Hello, is anyone there? As I watch some Democrats handle the voting rights issue, I'm seeing a replay of a 19th-century political horror story. It ended with Black voters losing faith in the leaders who were supposed to protect them.
President Biden has called voting rights "the single most important" issue and described a wave of voter restriction bills recently passed by Republican legislatures across the US as "Jim Crow on steroids. Yet he has refused to throw the full weight of the Oval Office behind passing two pending voting rights bills in Congress. He has stopped short of embracing calls to jettison the filibuster -- the parliamentary tactic Republicans can use to halt a voting rights bill -- because he says it would "throw the entire Congress into chaos.
Read more from John Blake:. Read More. He's focused instead on passing a bipartisan infrastructure bill that could rejuvenate the economy and appeal to a broad swath of voters. But for anyone who knows this country's shameful voting rights history, Biden is following a script that once doomed Black voters and made the rise of Jim Crow possible. Biden and Democratic leaders who prioritize infrastructure in part to broaden their appeal to reluctant White supporters are making the same mistake White political allies of Black voters made in the late 19th century.
That's when the more progressive American political party of that era -- the Republican Party -- abandoned Black voters to focus on an economic agenda that emphasized infrastructure and uniting a country that was bitterly divided by race. That blunder gave us a century of Jim Crow segregation, reduced the Republican Party to a "dying institution" 'in the South and forced countless Black Americans to confront an uncomfortable truth that many are now facing again:.
Our White political allies are rarely willing to match the intensity and cunning of our political opponents. When chickens ask foxes for help. Evoking Jim Crow may cause some people to cringe because the comparison seems overblown. No White vigilantes are gunning down or lynching would-be Black voters. No White mobs are brazenly murdering Black elected officials or launching what's been described as the nation's only successful coup -- against a Southern city filled with Black leaders.
All of this happened during that era. But there are two lessons today's Democratic leaders can learn from the mistakes their White counterparts made in the late 19th century:. Economic appeals to White voters driven by racial resentment have limited value. And when you refuse to go all out to protect your most loyal voters, the results can be disastrous. Democratic caucus members of the Texas House join a rally on the steps of the Texas Capitol to support voting rights on July 8, , in Austin.
These aren't abstract lessons for me. I am a Black voter in Georgia, the epicenter of the new voting rights struggle. I watched Black voters save Biden's presidency during his primary run last year. I glowed with pride when he picked Kamala Harris, my classmate at Howard University, to be his vice president. I watched Black voters flood voting precincts in a pandemic and honk their horns in jubilation after they delivered the Oval Office and control of Congress to the Democrats. What I am seeing now, though, is a rising sense of betrayal among Black voters.
Many don't think Democratic leaders are pushing hard enough on voting rights. More are frustrated by Democratic leaders like Sen. Joe Manchin of West Virginia, who says he won't support gutting the filibuster and insists on Republican buy-in to support a new voting rights bill. He did propose a compromise on voting rights legislation that won the support of voting rights activist Stacey Abrams. Leonard Pitts Jr. Why some White voters won't care if you build them a bridge. A Black voter who voted Republican in the late 19th-century South could have related to some of Pitts' sarcasm.
Black voters in the South were then the most loyal supporters of the Republican Party. The Republicans were the party of Abraham Lincoln, the "Great Emancipator," and the driving force behind Reconstruction, which lasted roughly from to It was the nation's first genuine attempt to build a multiracial democracy. Author and abolitionist Frederick Douglass became a strong supporter of the Republican Party in the late 19th century. Those Republicans were strong supporters of Black voting rights.
Black Americans were so loyal to the party that Frederick Douglass, the abolitionist and civil rights icon, once said, "The Republican Party is the ship and all else is the sea around us. But as White resistance to Reconstruction grew, the Republican Party gradually began to treat Black voters as castaways. GOP leaders said that the party shouldn't become too dependent on Black voters and should craft an economic message that would appeal to more White voters, says Richard White, author of "The Republic for Which it Stands," an acclaimed book that explores US history from Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century.
A central part of Republicans' economic message to reluctant White voters was infrastructure: They vowed to rebuild the roads, railways and ports throughout the South. You are going to be able to increase your standard of living. In some areas, education is primarily funded through revenue from property taxes; therefore, there is a direct correlation in some areas between the price of homes and the amount of money allocated to educating the area's youth. This is referred to as "funding segregation". Predominantly Caucasian areas with more money funneled into primary and secondary educational institutions, allow their students the resources to succeed academically and obtain post-secondary degrees. This practice continues to ethnically, socially and economically divide America.
Alternative certificate programs were introduced in many inner-city schools and rural areas. This program came into effect in the s throughout most states in response to the dwindling number of people seeking to earn a secondary degree in education. It is, "booming despite little more than anecdotal evidence of their success. Therefore, impoverished minorities not only have to cope with having the smallest amount of resources for their educational facilities but also with having the least trained teachers in the nation.
Valorie Delp, a mother residing in an inner-city area whose child attends a school taught by teachers awarded by an alternative certificate program notes:. One teacher we know who is in this program said he had visions of coming in to "save" the kids and the school and he really believes that this idea was kind of stoked in his program. No one ever says that you may have kids who threaten to stab you, or call you unspeakable names to your face, or can't read despite being in 7th grade. Delp showcases that, while many graduates of these certificate programs have honorable intentions and are educated, intelligent people, there is a reason why teachers have traditionally had to take a significant amount of training before officially being certified as a teacher.
The experience they gain through their practicum and extensive classroom experience equips them with the tools necessary to educate today's youth. Some measures have been taken to try give less affluent families the ability to educate their children. Leo Stagman, a single, African-American parent, located in Berkeley, California, whose daughter had received a great deal of aid from the Act wrote on October 20, that, "During her education, she [Leo's daughter] was eligible for the free lunch program and received assistance under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Educational Act.
I know my daughter's performance is hers, but I wonder where she would have been without the assistance she received under the McKinney-Vento Act. Many students at BHS owe their graduation and success to the assistance under this law. Leo then goes on to note that, "the majority of the students receiving assistance under the act are Black and Brown. This Act was meant to increase the accountability of public schools and their teachers by creating standardized testing which would give an overview of the success of the school's ability to educate their students. This Act therefore, has done little to close the educational gap between Caucasian and minority children. There has also been an issue with minority populations becoming educated because to a fear of being accused of "Acting White".
Roland G. Fryer, Jr. Mississippi is one of the US states where some public schools still remain highly segregated just like the s when discrimination against black people was very rampant. The University of Mississippi, the state's flagship academic institution enrolls unreasonably few African-American and Latino young people. These schools are supposed to stand for excellence in terms of education and graduation but the opposite is happening. Continuing school segregation exists in Mississippi, South Carolina, and other communities where whites are separated from blacks.
Segregation is not limited to areas in the Deep South but places like New York as well. The state was more segregated for black students compared to any other Southern state. There is a case of double segregation because students have become isolated both by race and household income. In New York City, 19 out of 32 school districts have fewer white students. Another impact of hypersegregation can be found in the health of the residents of certain areas. Poorer inner-cities often lack the health care that is available in outside areas.
That many inner-cities are so isolated from other parts of society also is a large contributor to the poor health often found in inner-city residents. The overcrowded living conditions in the inner-city caused by hypersegregation means that the spread of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis , occurs much more frequently. Poor inner-city residents also must contend with other factors that negatively affect health. Research has proven that in every major American city, hypersegregated blacks are far more likely to be exposed to dangerous levels of air toxins. One area where hypersegregation seems to have the greatest effect is in violence experienced by residents. The number of violent crimes in the U. The number of murders in the U. As of , young African-American men are eleven times more likely to be shot to death and nine times more likely to be murdered than their white peers.
Research has proven that the more segregated the surrounding white suburban ring is, the rate of violent crime in the inner-city will rise, but, likewise, crime in the outer area will drop. One study finds that an area's residential racial segregation increases metropolitan rates of black poverty and overall black-white income disparities , while decreasing rates of white poverty and inequality within the white population. One study finds that African-Americans who live in segregated metro areas have a higher likelihood of single-parenthood than Blacks who live in more integrated places.
Research shows that segregation along racial lines contributes to public goods inequalities. Whites and blacks are vastly more likely to support different candidates for mayor than whites and blacks in more integrated places, which makes them less able to build consensus. The lack of consensus leads to lower levels of public spending. In April , the Metropolitan Planning Council in Chicago and the Urban Institute, a think-tank located in Washington, DC, released a study estimating that racial and economic segregation is costing the United States billions of dollars every year. Statistics — from at least urban hubs were analyzed. This report reported that segregation affecting Blacks economically was associated with higher rates of homicide.
Scholars including W. Lloyd Warner ,  Gerald Berreman  and Isabel Wilkerson have described the pervasive practice of racial segregation in America as an aspect of a caste system proper to the United States. In her book Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents , Wilkerson described the system of racial segregation and discrimination in the United States as one example of a caste system by comparing it to the caste systems of India and Nazi Germany. In her view, the three systems all exhibit the defining features of caste: divine or natural justification for the system, heritability of caste, endogamy , belief in purity, occupational hierarchy, dehumanization and stigmatization of lower castes, terror and cruelty as methods of enforcement and control, and the belief in the superiority of the dominant caste.
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He called this " synarchy ", an extension of John K. Fairbank 's use of the word to describe the mechanisms of government under the late Qing dynasty in China. When modern China began after the fall of the last dynasty, one of the first political statements made in Hong Kong was the immediate change from long queue hairstyles to short haircuts. Though Winston Churchill assured that Hong Kong was an "impregnable fortress",  it was taken as a reality check response since the British Army actually stretched too thin to battle on two fronts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. See also: Bao'an County.
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Old Hong Kong — Volume One. Historical Photographs of China. University of Bristol. Retrieved 2 October Journal of the Society of Arts. Chaos Group, University of Maryland. Retrieved 25 January Department of State. Retrieved 23 May International Business ISBN Retrieved on 16 February Roses in December. Lulu press. Old Hong Kong — Volume Two. Harvard university press. Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. The Morning Post. British Newspaper Archive.Retrieved September 24, Another impact of hypersegregation can Creon Tragic Hero Quotes found in the health of What Was Segregation From The 1800s To The 1960s residents What Was Segregation From The 1800s To The 1960s certain areas. Mississippi Today. For example, despite the enactment of the Civil Rights Act ofwhich prohibited racial discrimination in the What Was Segregation From The 1800s To The 1960s, rental, and financing of housing, White inner-city residents who chose What Was Segregation From The 1800s To The 1960s to What Was Segregation From The 1800s To The 1960s among persons of color moved to higher-priced suburbs. President Woodrow Wilsona Southern Democrat, initiated the segregation of federal workplaces in Quality In Healthcare information: Hong Kong Monetary Authority.