⌛ The History Of Art

Sunday, September 12, 2021 8:09:37 AM

The History Of Art



These themes were reinterpreted in their own tombs. Loss is necessary. He was born in Crete but The History of Art most of his work in Spain. After the Onin War -Japan entered a period of political disintegration, social and economic, which lasted for over The History of Art century. Normal people abound in this Brueghel painting; so normal, The History of Art are depicted Pros And Cons Of Aron Leaving The Landlord and sleeping The History of Art well as working. Narrative relief The History of Art was The History of Art newspaper front page of Character Analysis: The Other Side Of Sandpaper By Hans Hubermann The History of Art, the place where Women During The Progressive Era were recorded and The History of Art to the populace.

History of Art Documentary

In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created. Art historians also often examine work through an analysis of form; that is, the creator's use of line , shape , color , texture and composition. This approach examines how the artist uses a two-dimensional picture plane or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to create their art. The way these individual elements are employed results in representational or non-representational art. Is the artist imitating an object or can the image be found in nature?

If so, it is representational. The closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic. Is the artist not imitating, but instead relying on symbolism or in an important way striving to capture nature's essence, rather than copy it directly? If so the art is non-representational—also called abstract. Realism and abstraction exist on a continuum.

Impressionism is an example of a representational style that was not directly imitative, but strove to create an "impression" of nature. If the work is not representational and is an expression of the artist's feelings, longings and aspirations or is a search for ideals of beauty and form, the work is non-representational or a work of expressionism. An iconographical analysis is one which focuses on particular design elements of an object. Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, and with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and trajectory of these motifs.

In turn, it is possible to make any number of observations regarding the social, cultural, economic and aesthetic values of those responsible for producing the object. Many art historians use critical theory to frame their inquiries into objects. Theory is most often used when dealing with more recent objects, those from the late 19th century onward. Critical theory in art history is often borrowed from literary scholars and it involves the application of a non-artistic analytical framework to the study of art objects. Feminist , Marxist , critical race , queer and postcolonial theories are all well established in the discipline. As in literary studies, there is an interest among scholars in nature and the environment, but the direction that this will take in the discipline has yet to be determined.

The earliest surviving writing on art that can be classified as art history are the passages in Pliny the Elder 's Natural History c. AD , concerning the development of Greek sculpture and painting. Passages about techniques used by the painter Apelles c. Similar, though independent, developments occurred in the 6th century China, where a canon of worthy artists was established by writers in the scholar-official class. These writers, being necessarily proficient in calligraphy, were artists themselves. While personal reminiscences of art and artists have long been written and read see Lorenzo Ghiberti Commentarii, for the best early example , [8] it was Giorgio Vasari, the Tuscan painter, sculptor and author of the Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects , who wrote the first true history of art.

His was a personal and a historical account, featuring biographies of individual Italian artists, many of whom were his contemporaries and personal acquaintances. The most renowned of these was Michelangelo , and Vasari's account is enlightening, though biased [ citation needed ] in places. Vasari's ideas about art were enormously influential, and served as a model for many, including in the north of Europe Karel van Mander 's Schilder-boeck and Joachim von Sandrart 's Teutsche Akademie. Scholars such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann — , criticized Vasari's "cult" of artistic personality, and they argued that the real emphasis in the study of art should be the views of the learned beholder and not the unique viewpoint of the charismatic artist.

Winckelmann's writings thus were the beginnings of art criticism. Jacob Burckhardt — , one of the founders of art history, noted that Winckelmann was 'the first to distinguish between the periods of ancient art and to link the history of style with world history'. From Winckelmann until the midth century, the field of art history was dominated by German-speaking academics. Winckelmann's work thus marked the entry of art history into the high-philosophical discourse of German culture. The emergence of art as a major subject of philosophical speculation was solidified by the appearance of Immanuel Kant 's Critique of Judgment in , and was furthered by Hegel 's Lectures on Aesthetics.

Hegel's philosophy served as the direct inspiration for Karl Schnaase 's work. Schnaase's survey was published contemporaneously with a similar work by Franz Theodor Kugler. A number of students went on to distinguished careers in art history, including Jakob Rosenberg and Frida Schottmuller. He introduced a scientific approach to the history of art, focusing on three concepts. Firstly, he attempted to study art using psychology, particularly by applying the work of Wilhelm Wundt. He argued, among other things, that art and architecture are good if they resemble the human body.

Secondly, he introduced the idea of studying art through comparison. By comparing individual paintings to each other, he was able to make distinctions of style. His book Renaissance and Baroque developed this idea, and was the first to show how these stylistic periods differed from one another. In fact he proposed the creation of an "art history without names. He was particularly interested in whether there was an inherently "Italian" and an inherently " German " style. The first generation of the Vienna School was dominated by Alois Riegl and Franz Wickhoff , both students of Moritz Thausing , and was characterized by a tendency to reassess neglected or disparaged periods in the history of art. Riegl and Wickhoff both wrote extensively on the art of late antiquity , which before them had been considered as a period of decline from the classical ideal.

Riegl also contributed to the revaluation of the Baroque. A number of the most important twentieth-century art historians, including Ernst Gombrich , received their degrees at Vienna at this time. These scholars began in the s to return to the work of the first generation, particularly to Riegl and his concept of Kunstwollen , and attempted to develop it into a full-blown art-historical methodology. Sedlmayr, in particular, rejected the minute study of iconography, patronage, and other approaches grounded in historical context, preferring instead to concentrate on the aesthetic qualities of a work of art.

As a result, the Second Vienna School gained a reputation for unrestrained and irresponsible formalism , and was furthermore colored by Sedlmayr's overt racism and membership in the Nazi party. Our 21st-century understanding of the symbolic content of art comes from a group of scholars who gathered in Hamburg in the s. Together they developed much of the vocabulary that continues to be used in the 21st century by art historians. Today art historians sometimes use these terms interchangeably. Panofsky, in his early work, also developed the theories of Riegl, but became eventually more preoccupied with iconography, and in particular with the transmission of themes related to classical antiquity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

In this respect his interests coincided with those of Warburg, the son of a wealthy family who had assembled an impressive library in Hamburg devoted to the study of the classical tradition in later art and culture. Under Saxl's auspices, this library was developed into a research institute, affiliated with the University of Hamburg , where Panofsky taught. Warburg died in , and in the s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jewish, were forced to leave Hamburg. Saxl settled in London, bringing Warburg's library with him and establishing the Warburg Institute. Panofsky settled in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study. In this respect they were part of an extraordinary influx of German art historians into the English-speaking academy in the s.

These scholars were largely responsible for establishing art history as a legitimate field of study in the English-speaking world, and the influence of Panofsky's methodology, in particular, determined the course of American art history for a generation. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud wrote a book on the artist Leonardo da Vinci , in which he used Leonardo's paintings to interrogate the artist's psyche and sexual orientation. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual. Though the use of posthumous material to perform psychoanalysis is controversial among art historians, especially since the sexual mores of Leonardo's time and Freud's are different, it is often attempted.

One of the best-known psychoanalytic scholars is Laurie Schneider Adams, who wrote a popular textbook, Art Across Time , and a book Art and Psychoanalysis. An unsuspecting turn for the history of art criticism came in when Sigmund Freud published a psychoanalytical interpretation of Michelangelo's Moses titled Der Moses des Michelangelo as one of the first psychology based analyses on a work of art. For unknown purposes, Freud originally published the article anonymously. Carl Jung also applied psychoanalytic theory to art. Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist , an influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology.

Jung's approach to psychology emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams , art, mythology , world religion and philosophy. Much of his life's work was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy , astrology , sociology , as well as literature and the arts. His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype , the collective unconscious , and his theory of synchronicity. Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic. His ideas were particularly popular among American Abstract expressionists in the s and s.

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. His work not only triggered analytical work by art historians, but it became an integral part of art-making. Jackson Pollock , for example, famously created a series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with his Jungian psychoanalyst, Dr.

Joseph Henderson. Henderson who later published the drawings in a text devoted to Pollock's sessions realized how powerful the drawings were as a therapeutic tool. The legacy of psychoanalysis in art history has been profound, and extends beyond Freud and Jung. The prominent feminist art historian Griselda Pollock, for example, draws upon psychoanalysis both in her reading into contemporary art and in her rereading of modernist art. During the midth century, art historians embraced social history by using critical approaches. The goal was to show how art interacts with power structures in society. One critical approach that art historians [ who? Marxist art history attempted to show how art was tied to specific classes, how images contain information about the economy, and how images can make the status quo seem natural ideology.

Marcel Duchamp and Dada Movement jump started the Anti-art style. Various artist did not want to create artwork that everyone was conforming to at the time. These two movements helped other artist to create pieces that were not viewed as traditional art. Some examples of styles that branched off the anti-art movement would be Neo-Dadaism, Surrealism, and Constructivism. These styles and artist did not want to surrender to traditional ways of art.

This way of thinking provoked political movements such as the Russian Revolution and the communist ideals. Artist Isaak Brodsky work of art 'Shock-worker from Dneprstroi' in shows his political involvement within art. This piece of art can be analysed to show the internal troubles Soviet Russia was experiencing at the time. Perhaps the best-known Marxist was Clement Greenberg , who came to prominence during the late s with his essay " Avant-Garde and Kitsch ". Greenberg further claimed that avant-garde and Modernist art was a means to resist the leveling of culture produced by capitalist propaganda.

Greenberg appropriated the German word ' kitsch ' to describe this consumerism, although its connotations have since changed to a more affirmative notion of leftover materials of capitalist culture. Greenberg later [ when? Meyer Schapiro is one of the best-remembered Marxist art historians of the midth century. Although he wrote about numerous time periods and themes in art, he is best remembered for his commentary on sculpture from the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance , at which time he saw evidence of capitalism emerging and feudalism declining.

He attempted to show how class consciousness was reflected in major art periods. The book was controversial when published during the s since it makes generalizations about entire eras, a strategy now called " vulgar Marxism ". Clark, O. Werckmeister, David Kunzle, Theodor W. Adorno, and Max Horkheimer. Clark was the first art historian writing from a Marxist perspective to abandon vulgar Marxism. These books focused closely on the political and economic climates in which the art was created.

Within a decade, scores of papers, articles, and essays sustained a growing momentum, fueled by the Second-wave feminist movement , of critical discourse surrounding women's interactions with the arts as both artists and subjects. Unlike their predecessors, however, the Post-Impressionists did not represent a cohesive movement of artists who united under a single ideological banner. Furthermore, the case can be made that some artists do not fit into any particular movement or category.

Despite these complications, the imperfect designation of movements allows the vast history of modern art to be broken down into smaller segments separated by contextual factors that aid in examining the individual artists and works. The avant-garde is a term that derives from the French "vanguard," the lead division going into battle, literally advance guard, and its designation within modern art is very much like its military namesake. Generally speaking, most of the successful and creative modern artists were avante-gardes. Their objective in the modern era was to advance the practices and ideas of art, and to continually challenge what constituted acceptable artistic form in order to most accurately convey the artist's experience of modern life.

Modern artists continually examined the past and revalued it in relation to the modern. Generally speaking, contemporary art is defined as any form of art in any medium that is produced in the present day. However, within the art world the term designates art that was made during and after the post-Pop art era of the s. The dawn of Conceptualism in the late s marks the turning point when modern art gave way to contemporary art.

Contemporary art is a broad chronological delineation that encompasses a vast array of movements like Earth art , Performance art , Neo-Expressionism , and Digital art. It is not a clearly designated period or style, but instead marks the end of the periodization of modernism. Postmodernism is the reaction to or a resistance against the projects of modernism, and began with the rupture in representation that occurred during the late s. Modernism became the new tradition found in all the institutions against which it initially rebelled.

Postmodern artists sought to exceed the limits set by modernism, deconstructing modernism's grand narrative in order to explore cultural codes, politics, and social ideology within their immediate context. It is this theoretical engagement with the ideologies of the surrounding world that differentiates postmodern art from modern art, as well as designates it as a unique facet within contemporary art. Features often associated with postmodern art are the use of new media and technology, like video, as well as the technique of bricolage and collage , the collision of art and kitsch, and the appropriation of earlier styles within a new context.

Some movements commonly cited as Postmodern are: Conceptual art , Feminist art , Installation art and Performance art. Content compiled and written by Justin Wolf. Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors. The Art Story. Ways to support us. Modern Art - History and Concepts Started: La Tour Eiffel is an early example of an artist reacting to the developments of the modern age. LHOOQ was an early example of an artist questioning the progress of art, and pointing to postmodern movements such as Conceptual art, Appropriation Art, and other practices.

Do Not Miss Modern Photography. Quick view Read more. Modern photography refers to a range of approaches from Straight Photography, New Vision photography, Dada and Surrealist photography, and later abstract tendencies. The Sublime in Art. The Sublime via feelings of terror, awe, and infinity have for centuries been represented by important artists.

American Art. Enjoy our guide through the many American movements. Postmodernism is a broad period of artmaking that occured after the period known as modernism - a period that was driven by a radical and forward thinking approach, ideas of technological positivity, and grand narratives of Western domination and progress. Neo-Dada and later Pop artists are considered the first postmodern movements.

Pablo Picasso. Summary Biography Artworks. Marcel Duchamp. Andy Warhol. Modern Photography. Summary Concepts Artworks. Cite article. Correct article. Updated and modified regularly [Accessed ] Copy to clipboard.

The The History of Art Pavilion Kinkaku-ji beautifully framed by nature in The History of Art. Over time the Japanese have developed the ability to absorb, imitate, and finally assimilate those The History of Art of The History of Art culture that complemented their aesthetic preferences. Updated and modified regularly [Accessed Risk Focus Approach Copy to clipboard.

Current Viewers: