✪✪✪ Into The Wild: The Evolution Of Tragedy

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Into The Wild: The Evolution Of Tragedy

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Many innovations were introduced by Sophocles, and earned him at least twenty triumphs. Compared to Aeschylus, the chorus became less important in explaining the plot and there was a greater emphasis on character development and conflict. In Oedipus at Colonus , the chorus repeats "not to be born is best. The peculiarities that distinguish the Euripidean tragedies from those of the other two playwrights are the search for technical experimentation, and increased attention for feelings , as a mechanism to elaborate the unfolding of tragic events. The experimentation carried out by Euripides in his tragedies can be observed mainly in three aspects that characterize his theater: he turned the prologue into a monologue informing the spectators of the story's background, introduced the deus ex machina and gradually diminished the choir's prominence from the dramatic point of view in favor of a monody sung by the characters.

Another novelty of Euripidean drama is represented by the realism with which the playwright portrays his characters' psychological dynamics. The hero described in his tragedies is no longer the resolute character as he appears in the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles, but often an insecure person, troubled by internal conflict. He uses female protagonists of the plays, such as Andromache , Phaedra and Medea , to portray the tormented sensitivity and irrational impulses that collide with the world of reason.

The structure of Greek tragedy is characterized by a set of conventions. The tragedy usually begins with a prologue, from pro and logos , "preliminary speech" in which one or more characters introduce the drama and explain the background of the ensuing story. In the episode, there is usually interaction between characters and the chorus. Some plays do not adhere to this conventional structure. The Greek dialects used are the Attic dialect for the parts spoken or recited by individual characters, and a literary Doric dialect for the chorus. For the metre , the spoken parts mainly use the iambic iambic trimeter , described as the most natural by Aristotle, [8] while the choral parts rely on a variety of meters.

Anapaests were typically used as the chorus or a character moved on or off the stage, and lyric metres were used for the choral odes. These included Dactylo-epitrites and various Aeolic metres, sometimes interspersed with iambics. Dochmiacs often appear in passages of extreme emotion. As already mentioned, Aristotle wrote the first critical study of the tragedy: the Poetics. Although many scholars have attempted to define this element vital to the understanding of Aristotle's Poetics , they remain divided on the subject.

Gregory, for instance, argues that there is "a close relationship between tragic katharsis and the transformation of pity and fear [ Katharsis, on this reading, will denote the overall ethical benefit that accrues from such an intense yet fulfillingly integrated experience. Exempt from the stresses that accompany pity and fear in social life, the audience of tragedy can allow these emotions an uninhibited flow that Lear [24] promotes as "the most sophisticated view of katharsis", the idea that it "provides an education for the emotions. The three Aristotelian unities of drama are the unities of time, place and action. Aristotle asserted that a play must be complete and whole, in other words, it must have unity, i. The philosopher also asserted that the action of epic poetry and tragedy differ in length, "because in tragedy every effort is made for it to take place in one revolution of the sun, while the epic is unlimited in time.

Friedrich Nietzsche at the end of the 19th century highlighted the contrast between the two main elements of tragedy: firstly, the Dionysian the passion that overwhelms the character and the Apollonian the purely pictorial imagery of the theatrical spectacle. Contrasted with that is nemesis , the divine punishment that determines the fall or death of the character. In ancient Greek culture, says Nietzsche, "there is a conflict between the plastic arts, namely the Apollonian, and non-plastic art of music, the Dionysian.

Both drives, so different from each other, go side by side, mostly in open discord and opposition, always provoking each other to new, stronger births, in order to perpetuate in themselves the struggle of opposites which is only apparently bridged over by the common word 'art'; until, finally, by a wonderful act of Hellenic 'will,' they seem to pair up and in this pairing, at last, produce Attic Tragedy, which is as much a Dionysian as an Apollonian artwork. Greek tragedy as we understand it today, was not merely a show, but rather a collective ritual of the polis. It took place in a sacred, consecrated space the altar of the god stood at the center of the theatre. A spectator of a Greek dramatic performance in the latter half of the fifth century B.

Below him, in the best location in the theatre, is the throne of the priest of Dionysus who presides in a sense over the whole performance. The theatron is large-in fact, the one in Athens, in the Theatre of Dionysus, with its seats banked up on the south slope of the Acropolis, seated approximately 17, persons. The spectator sees before him a level circular area called the orchestra , which means literally the "dancing place". In the centre of the orchestra stands an altar.

A part of the dramatic action will take place in the orchestra, as well as the manoeuvres and dance figures performed by the Chorus as they present their odes. To the right and left of the theatron are the parodoi , which are used not only by the spectators for entering and leaving the theatre, but also for the entrances and exits of actors and the Chorus. Directly beyond the circular orchestra lies the skene or scene building.

In most plays the skene represents the facade of a house, a palace, or a temple. The skene normally had three doors which served as additional entrances and exits for the actors. Immediately in front of the scene-building was a level platform, in the fifth century B. This was called the proskenion or logeion where much of the dramatic action of the plays takes place. Flanking the proskenion were two projecting wings, the so-called paraskenia.

It must be remembered that the skene, since at first it was only a wooden structure, was flexible in its form, and was probably modified frequently. The theatre voiced ideas and problems from the democratic, political and cultural life of Athens. Tragedies can discuss or use the Greek mythical past as a metaphor for the deep problems of current Athenian society. In the case of Aeschylus' tragedy The Persians , it was performed in BC in Athens, eight years after the battle of Salamis, when the war with Persia was still in progress. It tells the story of the Persian fleet's defeat at Salamis and how the ghost of former Persian King Darius accuses his son Xerxes of hubris against the Greeks for waging war on them.

Other tragedies avoid references or allusions to 5th century BC events, but "also draw the mythological past into the present. The bulk of the plays in this category are by Euripides. The performances of the tragedies took place in Athens on the occasion of the Great Dionysia, feasts in honor of Dionysus celebrated in the month of Elaphebolion , towards the end of March. In the Athenian democracy wealthy citizens were required to fund public services, a practice known as liturgy. During the Dionysia a contest took place between three plays, chosen by the archon eponymous. This procedure might have been based on a provisional script, each of which had to submit a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a satyr play.

Each tetralogy was recited in one day, so that the recitation of tragedies lasted three days. The fourth day was dedicated to the staging of five comedies. At the end of the performances, the judges placed a tablet inscribed with the name of their choice inside an urn, after which five tablets were randomly selected. The person who received the highest number of votes won. The winning author, actor and choir were thus selected not purely by lot, but chance did play a part. The passion of the Greeks for the tragedy was overwhelming: Athens, said the critics, spent more on theatre than on the fleet.

When the cost for the shows became a sensitive subject, an admission fee was instated, alongside the so-called theorikon , a special fund to pay for festival's expenses. Of the many tragedies known to have been written, just 32 full-length texts by only three authors, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, survive. Seventy-nine titles of Aeschylus ' works are known out of about ninety works , [33] both tragedies and satyr plays. Seven of these have survived, including the only complete trilogy which has come down from antiquity, the Oresteia , and some papyrus fragments: [34].

According to Aristophanes of Byzantium , Sophocles wrote plays, 17 of which are spurious; the Suda lexicon counted According to the Suda, Euripides wrote either 75 or 92 plays, of which survive eighteen tragedies and the only complete surviving satyr play , the Cyclops. His extant works are: [38]. The role of the audience in a Greek Tragedy is to become part of that theatrical illusion, to partake in the act as if they were part of it.

Through further exploration into the role of the chorus, the author looks at what impact that may have had from the perspective of the demos. The author notes that it was often the case for tragic choruses to be of one type of social position in both age, gender, nationality, and class. The author further notes how male based choruses were designated by name based on their "factions within the citizenry" p. Greek Tragedy can often become confusing when trying to assess it as a drama, a detailed event, a performance, or even as something conveying an underlying theme. The origins of Greek tragedy were mostly based on song or speech rather than written script.

He elaborates on the musical, often sing-song nature of the plays, and looks at oral tradition as the backdrop to the construction of these plays e. After dialogue based interactions were eventually brought into development, the percentage of scripts read by the chorus tended to decrease in regards to their involvement in the play. An article by Thomas Duncan discusses the impact of dramatic technique on the influence of Tragic plays and conveying important or essential outcomes, particularly through the use of Deus Ex Machina.

In the play, Hippolytus' is cursed with an untimely death by his father, Theseus , for the supposed rape and subsequent suicide of Queen Phaedra , his step-mother. Hippolytus' demise is brought forth by a god, Aphrodite, whose hatred of Hippolytus' and his unending devotion to Artemis stems from his subsequent disparagement or denial of Aphrodite.

Without this kind of divine intervention, Theseus would not have realized his mistakes and Hippolytus would not have been cursed. Character identification can be seen in many of Aeschylus' plays, such as Prometheus Bound. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Greek Tragedy disambiguation. The clan was also responsible for balancing the death of one of its members at the hands of the member of another clan, whether deliberate, impulsive, or accidental.

The one to pay the penalty did not have to be the person responsible; it could be any member of his or her clan. Indeed, if the intentional or unintentional killer escaped or found sanctuary in one of the towns so designated, such as Chota , Kituwa , or Tugaloo , the fugitive's clan was expected to deliver up another of its members. The purpose of this was not retaliation but equalization. Cherokee born outside of a clan or outsiders who were taken into the tribe in ancient times had to be adopted into a clan by a clan mother.

If the person was a woman who had born a Cherokee child and was married to a Cherokee man, she could be taken into a new clan. Her husband was required to leave his clan and live with her in her new clan. Men who were not Cherokee and married into a Cherokee household had to be adopted into a clan by a clan mother; he could not take his wife's clan. This simple division of the Cherokees formed the grand work by which marriages were regulated, and murder punished. A Cherokee could marry into any of the clans except two, that to which his father belongs, for all of that clan are his fathers and aunts and that to which his mother belongs, for all of that clan are his brothers and sisters, a child invariably inheriting the clan of his mother. In a practice known as Gadugi , Cherokee clans took care of orphans, those left destitute by various circumstances and fostered hospitality for visiting clan members from other villages.

This communal work provided an important function to the overall village and community as a whole. The Cherokee have seven clans and have had that number as long as there has been contact with Europeans. Some have multiple names, and according to ethnographer James Mooney the seven are the result of consolidation of as many as what was previously fourteen separate clans in more ancient times. The Anigatogewi's only subdivision was Blind Savannah, possibly a separate clan in origin. Historically, members of this clan were known to be 'keepers of the land,' and gatherers.

The wild potato was a main staple of the traditional Cherokee life in the Southeast Tsalagi Uweti. The Anigilahi or the Long Hair Clan, whose subdivisions were Twister, Wind, and Strangers possibly separate clans in origin combined into one , were regarded as peacemakers. Peace Chiefs would often be from this clan. Prisoners of war, orphans of other tribes, and others with no Cherokee tribe were often adopted into this clan, thus a common interpretation of the name 'Strangers.

Even though they hunted game for subsistence, they respected and cared for the animals while they were living among them. They were also known as messengers on an earthly level, delivering messages from village to village, or person to person. Historically, this clan produced many people who were able to make special medicines for the children. The medicine was made from a blue plant which is where the clan gained its name. The belief that birds are messengers between earth and heaven, or the People and Creator, gave the members of this clan the responsibility of caring for the birds. The subdivisions were Raven, Turtledove, and Eagle, probably in origin three separate clans later consolidated into one.

Earned Eagle feathers were originally presented by the members of this clan, as they were the only ones able to collect them. Wolves are known as protectors. Historically, the Wolf Clan was the largest among the Cherokee. A few members of this clan are said to be extremely powerful; they are called alphas. The Aniwodi or the Paint Clan were historically known as a prominent medicine people. Medicine is often 'painted' on a patient after harvesting, mixing and performing other aspects of the ceremony.

Although traditionalists still observe clan customs regarding marriage and certain social event, the customs and mores of the Cherokee regarding clans and the clan system have evolved considerably since ancient times, especially beginning with the 19th century. A large reason for this was the turmoil of the Cherokee—American wars and the resulting displacement of vast numbers of Cherokee removed westward, both voluntarily and involuntarily, from their more easterly ancient homes.

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