⌚ Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty
Rather than helping China, Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty brought about the fall of the Qing Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty the introduction of communism in East Asia. He cared too much Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty animals that weren't very beneficial, and essentially wasted Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty time and money. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Therefore, in Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty period, the Cohong had a The Characteristic Eye In Edgar Allan Poes The Tell-Tale Heart over foreign trade. Essay Sample Check Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty Quality. Make a model or diagram of one of the Treasure Ships, carefully making to scale the important features of fifteenth century Chinese naval technology. Works Cited 1.
Zheng He returns with his fleet - Ming Dynasty 大明风华【Fresh Drama】
Zheng He was commissioned to start his voyage by the first ruler of the Ming dynasty, Emperor Yongle. By his last expedition in , which he made while in his sixties, He established many diplomatic relations with more than twenty realms of the Indian Ocean world. Emperor Zhu Gaozhi relieved Zheng He from the treasure fleet and put him in military control in Nanjing. Most of the known information about Zheng He is from stone tablets that were either inscribed by him or those who sailed with him. For example, He knew his of his accomplishments and stated them in the Changle tablet.
It was said that he died of disease in during his last voyage. He was tossed overboard for fear of spread of disease but his empty tomb is outside of Nanjing. After his death, China turned towards isolationism, banned overseas travel and burned all the ships and records of Zheng He. Because the Yongle emperor wanted to impress Ming power upon the world and show off China's resources and importance, he gave orders to build even larger ships than were necessary for the voyages. Thus the word went out to construct special "Treasure Ships," ships over feet long, feet wide, with nine masts, twelve sails, and four decks, large enough to carry 2, tons of cargo each and armed with dozens of small cannons.
Accompanying those ships were to be hundreds of smaller ships, some filled only with water, others carrying troops or horses or cannon, still others with gifts of silks and brocades, porcelains, lacquerware, tea, and ironworks that would impress leaders of far-flung civilizations. The Seven Voyages. The first expedition of this mighty armada was composed of ships, including perhaps as many as sixty huge Treasure Ships, and nearly 28, men. In addition to thousands of sailors, builders and repairmen for the trip, there were soldiers, diplomatic specialists, medical personnel, astronomers, and scholars of foreign ways, especially Islam.
The fleet stopped in Champa central Vietnam and Siam today's Thailand and then on to island Java, to points along the Straits of Malacca, and then proceeded to its main destination of Cochin and the kingdom of Calicut on the southwestern coast of India. On his return, Zheng He put down a pirate uprising in Sumatra, bringing the pirate chief, an overseas Chinese, back to Nanjing for punishment. The second expedition took 68 ships to the court of Calicut to attend the inauguration of a new king.
Zheng He organized this expedition but did not actually lead it in person. Zheng He did command the third voyage with 48 large ships and 30, troops, visiting many of the same places as on the first voyage but also traveling to Malacca on the Malay peninsula and Ceylon Sri Lanka. When fighting broke out there between his forces and those of a small kingdom, Zheng put down the fighting, captured the king and brought him back to China where he was released by the emperor and returned home duly impressed.
The fourth voyage extended the scope of the expeditions even further. This time in addition to visiting many of the same sites, Zheng He commandeered his 63 ships and over 28, men to Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. The main chronicler of the voyages, the twenty-five year old Muslim translator Ma Huan, joined Zheng He on this trip. On the way, Zheng He stopped in Sumatra to fight on the side of a deposed sultan, bringing the usurper back to Nanjing for execution. The fifth voyage was primarily a return trip for seventeen heads of state from South Asia. They had made their way to China after Zheng He's visits to their homelands in order to present their tribute at the Ming Court.
On this trip Zheng He ventured even further, first to Aden at the mouth of the Red Sea, and then on to the east coast of Africa, stopping at the city states of Mogadishu and Brawa in today's Somalia , and Malindi in present day Kenya. He was frequently met with hostility but this was easily subdued. Many ambassadors from the countries visited came back to China with him.
The sixth expedition of 41 ships sailed to many of the previously visited Southeast Asian and Indian courts and stops in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the coast of Africa, principally in order to return nineteen ambassadors to their homelands. Zheng He returned to China after less than a year, having sent his fleet onward to pursue several separate itineraries, with some ships going perhaps as far south as Sofala in present day Mozambique. The seventh and final voyage was sent out by the Yongle emperor's successor, his grandson the Xuande emperor. This expedition had more than one hundred large ships and over 27, men, and it visited all the important ports in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean as well as Aden and Hormuz.
One auxiliary voyage traveled up the Red Sea to Jidda, only a few hundred miles from the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. It was on the return trip in that Zheng He died and was buried at sea, although his official grave still stands in Nanjing, China. Nearly forgotten in China until recently, he was immortalized among Chinese communities abroad, particularly in Southeast Asia where to this day he is celebrated and revered as a god. The Fateful Decision. Factions at court had long been critical of the Yongle emperor's extravagant ways. Not only had he sent seven missions of the enormous Treasure Ships over the western seas, he had ordered overseas missions northeast and east, had sent envoys multiple times across desert and grassland to the mountains of Tibet and Nepal and on to Bengal and Siam, and had many times raised armies against fragmented but still troublesome Mongolian tribes to the north.
He had embroiled China in a losing battle with Annam northern Vietnam for decades most latterly due to exorbitant demands for timber to build his palace. In addition to these foreign exploits, he had further depleted the treasury by moving the capital from Nanjing to Beijing and, with a grandeur on land to match that on sea, by ordering the construction of the magnificent Forbidden City. This project involved over a million laborers. To further fortifying the north of his empire, he pledged his administration to the enormous task of reviving and extending the Grand Canal.
This made it possible to transport grain and other foodstuffs from the rich southern provinces to the northern capital by barge, rather than by ships along the coast. Causing further hardship were natural disasters, severe famines in Shantong and Hunan, epidemics in Fujian, plus lightning strikes that destroyed part of the newly constructed Forbidden City. In , flooding of the Yellow River left millions homeless and thousands of acres unproductive. As a result of these disasters coupled with corruption and nonpayment of taxes by wealthy elite, China's tax base shrank by almost half over the course of the century.
Furthermore the fortuitous fragmentation of the Mongol threat along China's northern borders did not last. By several tribes unified and their raids and counterattacks were to haunt the Ming Dynasty for the next two centuries until its fall, forcing military attention to be focused on the north. But the situation in the south was not much better. Without continual diplomatic attention, pirates and smugglers again were active in the South China Sea. The Ming court was divided into many factions, most sharply into the pro-expansionist voices led by the powerful eunuch factions that had been responsible for the policies supporting Zheng Ho's voyages, and more traditional conservative Confucian court advisers who argued for frugality.
When another seafaring voyage was suggested to the court in , the vice president of the Ministry of War confiscated all of Zheng He's records in the archives, damning them as "deceitful exaggerations of bizarre things far removed from the testimony of people's eyes and ears. Although he returned with wonderful precious things, what benefit was it to the state? Linked to eunuch politics and wasteful policies, the voyages were over. By the century's end, ships could not be built with more than two masts, and in the government ordered the destruction of all oceangoing ships. The greatest navy in history, which once had 3, ships the U. Navy today has only , was gone. Discussion Questions. Classroom Activities.
Acknowledgment: Dr. Sue Gronewald, a specialist in Chinese history, was the author of this unit. Introduction From until , the Chinese imperial eunuch Zheng He led seven ocean expeditions for the Ming emperor that are unmatched in world history. The Emperor and His Ambitions The Ming dynasty was a Chinese dynasty with a Chinese imperial family, as distinct from the dynasty that came before it the Mongol, or Yuan, dynasty of Chinggis and Khubilai Khan or the one that followed it the Manchu, or Qing, dynasty. Preparing the Fleet China had been extending its power out to sea for years. The Seven Voyages The first expedition of this mighty armada was composed of ships, including perhaps as many as sixty huge Treasure Ships, and nearly 28, men.
The Fateful Decision Factions at court had long been critical of the Yongle emperor's extravagant ways. Discussion Questions Describe the many projects of the Yongle emperor to proclaim Ming power. Why do you think that the voyages to the west were the most grand? Why has the Yongle emperor been called one of the most active of the Ming emperors, both militarily and politically? Why did the Ming court rely so heavily on imperial eunuchs like Zheng He to carry out its policies rather than on traditional Confucian officials?
Compare China's maritime power in the fifteenth century with Europe's at that time. What was the basis for China's naval power? Why do you think that the overseas voyages were halted?Perverse Taiwan. Great Powers and Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty Change. New York: Zheng Hes Voyages In Ming Dynasty University Press. Journal of the Historical Society.