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These are people mainly adolescent males who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt. And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.
But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you — for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters — not just intellectually but emotionally as well.
To follow the path: look to the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the master, become the master. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation. Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker.
Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity — a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece — and so on, until you're done. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious — so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones.
Note, however, that "No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better. What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers like closed-source code that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you in food and rent and computers.
It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it. Hackers and creative people in general should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do — solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else especially other hackers.
There is one apparent exception to this. Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice — nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them. Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by — and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers. This isn't the same as fighting all authority.
Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer. Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy.
So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on that belief. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence — especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best.
If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself — the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker. The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following:. This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python.
It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners. Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects. I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site ; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning.
It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one. A better alternative to Java is to learn Go. This relatively new language is pretty easy to move to from Python, and learning it give you a serious leg up on the possible next step, which is learning C. Additionally, one of the unknowns about the next few years is to what extent Go might actually displace C as a systems-programming language. There is a possible future in which that happens over much of C's traditional range. If you get into serious programming, you will eventually have to learn C, the core language of Unix.
Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources like memory by hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff — it's smarter to use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.
Thus, Python. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code. LISP is worth learning for a different reason — the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.
That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways. Go is not quite to the point where it can be included among the most important hacking languages, but it seems headed for that status. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages — you need to learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language.
To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in the manual to what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to program here — it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it — many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features — bits of knowledge — from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship. What will do it is a reading code and b writing code.
Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His "recipe for programming success" is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with.
This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems all built by hackers are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them. The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary — you can't read the code, and you can't modify it. Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast.
Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source — you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.
So, bring up a Unix — I like Linux myself but there are other ways and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine. Learn it. Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools including C, LISP, Python, and Perl than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.
For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. The blog Let's Go Larval! The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in , an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable "Unity" desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD , a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk.
This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I have written a primer on the basics of Unix and the Internet. I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live.
The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone and a lot of other good ones as well you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser anyone can do that , but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker. The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge — very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same for more on this see The HTML Hell Page.
And that brings us to the next topic As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community.
Back around I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job. For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory when they get done at all. Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise. His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux.
It's an example worth following. Upcoming River Releases. Housatonic River, Bulls Bridge, Ct. Cl IV V. Lackawaxen River at Rowland, PA. Nolichucky River, Embreeville, Tn. Potomac Rr. Shohola, Hornbecks, Raymonds Kill Creek. Their 47 net yards of offense was the second fewest in franchise history as they lost with Justin Fields starting and being sacked nine times. Defensive end Michael Brockers shoulder , outside linebacker Romeo Okwara shoulder and running back D'Andre Swift groin are questionable. The Bears are without linebacker Joel Iyiegbuniwe hamstring.
Quarterback Andy Dalton and safety Tashaun Gipson hamstring are doubtful. Fields will make his second straight start in Dalton's place. Nose tackle Eddie Goldman will see his first playing time since after a knee injury caused him to miss the first three games. Edge rusher Khalil Mack foot , cornerback Xavier Crawford back and wide receiver Darnell Mooney groin are questionable. What to Watch: Fields makes his first start at Soldier Field in the regular season after being named starter Saturday evening.
He struggled last week to six completions in 20 attempts for 68 yards and was sacked nine times, tying the most for any Bears quarterback in franchise history. The only win between the two teams was a victory by the Bears in Week 2 over Cincinnati in their only home game so far, one aided by Roquan Smith's yard pick Lions have played three straight close games with Jared Goff as their new starting quarterback and each was against a strong opponents: San Francisco, Green Bay and Baltimore. Detroit led Green Bay at halftime before losing Matching Up: The Lions are 17th on offense, 14th passing and 15th rushing.
They are 22nd on defense, 23rd against the pass and 16th against the run. The Bears are 32nd last on offense, 32nd passing and 19th rushing. They are 12th on defense, 12th against the pass and 20th against the run. Notable: The Lions have a seven-game losing streak. They closed their season in with four straight losses. Their last win was over the Bears, at Soldier Field on Dec. The Lions have 12 explosive rushing plays 10 yards or more , tying them for fourth in the league. Detroit running backs Jamaal Williams and D'Andre Swift have a combined 32 receptions, the highest total by a group of running backs in the league. Jared Goff and the passing attack have 13 passes of 20 yards or more, tied for sixth in the NFL.
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