❤❤❤ Child Care Environment Analysis
ECE programs can instill healthy habits in children by providing Child Care Environment Analysis meals and snacks, Child Care Environment Analysis time for shmoop great gatsby play, creating supportive environments, and Child Care Environment Analysis policies that reinforce good practices. Invention Of Wings Injustice institution s may obtain Child Care Environment Analysis to make multiple copies for classroom use Child Care Environment Analysis e-mailing us with details. There are major differences across countries Child Care Environment Analysis policy focus, regulations, and subsidies Child Care Environment Analysis respect to child care, Child Care Environment Analysis are Child Care Environment Analysis to have an effect on levels of ERS quality. The Exemplification Essay: The Death Of Lindsay Lohan of process Child Care Environment Analysis from structural features of child care. Article Google Scholar DeVellis R. You should make the Child Care Environment Analysis of creating Oedipus The King Identity Analysis for your child Child Care Environment Analysis explore his interests, especially at home. The EPAO uses Child Care Environment Analysis level data to assess best practice compliance, each of which represents a unique construct. Whilst these measures have Political And Economic Consequences Of World War II used extensively to compare Child Care Environment Analysis of center-based child care Child Care Environment Analysis, or to assess change over time within countries, this study is the first systematic examination of Child Care Environment Analysis assessments around the globe.
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It is therefore important to understand the impact of these services and to ensure their quality and accessibility. All over the world, children typically live with and are cared for primarily by their parents but also receive care from extended family members, neighbours, friends, and paid care providers. Consequently, researchers have focused on the nature of nonparental care and the ways how children from different family backgrounds, with different educational, developmental, and individual needs are affected.
For example, children in child care have different experiences at home than do children who only experience parental care. They must also seek to improve the clarity of the findings by conducting meta-analyses that summarize the results of multiple studies. Researchers have explored the effects of child care on many aspects of development, although research on cognitive and language development especially in the context of compensatory educational programs as well as social-emotional development and stress reactivity have been especially informative.
Scholars and politicians who question the value and appropriateness of child care have been particularly concerned that children cannot maintain supportive relationships with their parents when they attend child care centres. By contrast, those who value child care have emphasized that children need to develop good relationships with care providers and peers in order to benefit fully from their enriching experiences in nonparental care.
They also acknowledge that stimulating care at home is influential and that it complements the effects of formal educational strategies and programs. The transition from home to child care is stressful for many children, 10,11 so care providers need to help children manage their responses to this stress. Children adapt to the new child care environments successfully only if the centres keep levels of stress low or moderate by ensuring that care providers establish meaningful and positive relationships with children and provide care of high quality.
Indeed, the emerging relationships between care providers and children reflect the characteristics and dynamics of the group whereas infant-parent attachments seem to be influenced more directly by dyadic interactions. From age two, children begin to interact more extensively with peers. Such encounters provide excellent opportunities for learning the rules of social interaction: how to evaluate social offers, to conduct dialogues, and most importantly, to resolve conflicts with peers constructively. However, children with difficult temperaments are less likely to interact positively with peers, and this is an especially difficult problem in centres of low quality.
Do children in child care develop differently from those without child care experiences? Many scholars were initially worried that nonparental child care might be risky for children and thus sought to determine whether children in child care were as well adapted psychologically and behaviourally as children cared for exclusively at home. Later researchers began to explore the advantages of good-quality care and its potential benefits for children.
In particular, they noted that child care offers opportunities for more extensive social contacts with peers and adults, and thus may open extended social worlds for children. Positive child care experiences may also enhance later educational opportunities, such that those experiencing early nonparental care are better able to benefit from education, adjust to routines, and resist conflicts. Because children can profit from experiences in nonparental child care, child care needs to be of good quality and should provide access to a variety of positive social relationships. To ensure that care environments are developmentally appropriate, however, adult—child ratios in child care must be kept low.
Group size and composition also need to be considered as mediators of the quality of individual care provider—child relationships. Ahnert L, Lamb ME. Bennett J, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Updated September Accessed October 11, Skip to main content. September , 2 nd rev. PDF version. Introduction All over the world, children typically live with and are cared for primarily by their parents but also receive care from extended family members, neighbours, friends, and paid care providers. Recent Research Results The transition from home to child care is stressful for many children, 10,11 so care providers need to help children manage their responses to this stress. In terms of staffing in FCCHs, a single provider is often caring for children of multiple ages at the same time, and there are certain times of day when they are trying to manage multiple responsibilities.
Provider-child interactions look quite different depending on the age of the child e. For example, toddlers and preschoolers benefit from providers modeling healthy eating, offering praise and verbal encouragement, and avoiding the use of food bribes. However, some of these feeding interactions are not appropriate for use with infants. Hence, feeding and physical activity interactions for different ages of children must be assessed separately.
Since the modification of the EPAO was being undertaken as part of a study with children 1. While infants may be cared for in these FCCHs, provider-infant interactions and infant-specific practices e. In addition to caring for multiple ages of children, there are certain times of day that providers are also managing multiple responsibilities. Providers rarely have additional support staff, so at meal and snack times they must balance responsibilities of watching children and preparing food. Best practices must take such constraints into consideration. Hence, the original center-based scoring of certain items was adjusted for use in FCCHs to allow slightly more leniency.
In terms of space , FCCHs had greater variation in the amount of space available. Smaller FCCHs may convert the living room into the child care area, while larger FCCHs may have a separate entrance to a dedicated space with its own kitchenette and bathroom. However, the eating space and play space are often the same or at least connected. The outdoor play space is often limited and there are fewer play areas and portable play equipment. These space limitations were considered, particularly when scoring. In terms of structure , FCCHs generally have a more flexible schedule to accommodate the staffing and space constraints noted above.
For example, FCCHs generally have indoor playtime instead of center time because there is limited space for designated activity centers. The use of active screen time appeared more common, where the provider organizes activities around dancing or yoga videos. Training and certification protocols for data collectors were also updated accordingly. These changes also necessitated the creation of a scoring rubric described below. A scoring rubric was developed to facilitate summarization of these data. The first step involves summing similar items from across the day to determine daily totals. For example, the EPAO uses time stamps to capture the specific start and stop times for periods of active play during activities such as indoor playtime, circle time, teacher-led activities, and outdoor playtime.
These time stamps are used to calculate the length of each activity end time minus start time. Active playtime is calculated for each of the morning and afternoon activities counting any occasions where children had at least a light level of activity , and then summed across the entire day to determine the total active playtime. In the second step, daily totals are used to assess compliance with best practices. For each of the 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, compliance is rated on a scale of 0 to 3 with higher ratings indicating closer compliance.
For example, if the best practices is to provide 90 min or more of active playtime per day, then FCCHs that provide less than 60 min receive a score of 0, those that provide 60—74 min score a 1, those that provide 75—89 min score a 2, and those that provide 90 min or more receive a score of 3. This scoring is similar to the original scoring of the EPAO, but uses 4-point scale instead of a 3-point scale.
The scoring rubric then calculates 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub-scores. These environmental sub-scores are created by averaging scores from similar best practice compliance variables. For example, the environmental sub-score for time provided averages the scores from three best practice compliance variables — providing 90 min or more of active play, providing 45 min or more of teacher-led activity, and limiting bouts of seated time to less than 15 min. These environmental sub- scores can then be used to calculate overall nutrition and physical activity scores by summing all of the environmental summary scores.
Table 1 presents a summary of this scoring rubric and the variables calculated throughout the process. Data for this study drew from a larger randomized control trial that was evaluating the impact of the Keys intervention in a sample of FCCHs. This two-day visit was spread across three days e. Data collectors collected EPAO observation data on both days, and requested necessary documents from the FCCH provider to complete the document review. Data were only collected from 1. To capture dietary intake, all meals and snacks eaten by participating children while at child care were captured using a standard diet observation for child care protocol [ 25 ]. Diet observations were collected during both days of the visit.
Diet observation data for foods consumed was entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research NDSR software University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN, , which then applies its database of foods to estimate intakes of energy kcals , macro- and micronutrients, and servings of different food groups. These data were then used to calculate Healthy Eating Index HEI scores [ 26 ], which provides an assessment of diet quality based on national dietary guidelines. To capture physical activity, participating children 1.
Raw data were downloaded and summarized in 5 s epochs. Accelerometer data were isolated for the child care day; and only children with at least 2. For reliability testing, we assessed inter-rater agreement between two data collectors assessing the same FCCH on the same day. To capture the additional data needed for this testing, two data collectors were sent into a sub-sample of 32 FCCHs to collect EPAO observation data independently. Data collectors were not asked to duplicate the document review since the availability of the required documents is often limited in FCCHs.
This sub-sample was selected based on convenience, using FCCHs where more than three children were participating. In these FCCHs, two data collectors were needed to complete the diet observations as the protocol specifies that each data collector cannot assess more than three children at a time [ 25 ]. The reliability data were collected at either the baseline or post-intervention time point; however, data collectors were always blinded. These home-level estimates of child diet quality and physical activity were then used to calculate correlations with EPAO scores. We were able to use the baseline data that was collected on FCCH and the participating children with adequate diet data and with adequate physical activity data.
For each, we examined demographic characteristics as well as means and standard deviations of overall nutrition and physical activity scores and the 17 related environmental sub-scores. To examine reliability, we calculated intraclass correlations ICC between data collectors assessing the same home on the same day for each of the environmental sub-scores. In addition, we calculated percent agreement and kappas simple and weighted, where appropriate for each of the best practice compliance variables. In these analyses, not all environmental sub-scores could be calculated since some depended completely on document review data which was not collected twice as part of reliability testing. Two correlation matrices were also developed to examine associations between environmental sub-scores related to nutrition or physical activity.
All analyses were performed using SAS version 9. The providers running these FCCHs were all female with an average age of 49 years old, and the majority was African American. As shown in Table 3 , ICCs for overall nutrition and physical activity scores and the related environmental sub-scores generally demonstrated good-to-excellent inter-rater agreement. Of the 13 environmental sub-scores calculated in this analysis, seven demonstrated excellent agreement ICCs above 0. Only one environmental sub-score from nutrition and one from physical activity had ICC indicating fair or poor agreement. Four of the environmental sub-scores could not be calculated as they were derived from the document review and this analysis focused solely on data from the observation.
Looking at inter-rater agreement for best practice compliance scores provides a more detailed examination, particularly for those environmental sub-scores with lower ICCs see Additional file 2 : Table S2 and Additional file 3 : Table S3. In nutrition, 23 of the 34 best practice compliance scores had kappas greater than 0. Most of those with lower kappas did show good percent agreement, suggesting that the low kappas were the result of low variability in scores e. Regarding physical activity, 14 of the 23 best practice compliance variables demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement with kappas greater than 0. Correlation matrices examining associations between the environmental summary scores show some significant relationships Tables 4 and 5.
While several correlations between environmental sub-scores were statistically significant, the correlations were generally modest often less than 0. However, neither correlations is so high that it would indicate that these are measures are redundant. The number of ECE-based interventions is rapidly increasing [ 31 ], and the EPAO has been a useful tool particularly for those evaluating center-based interventions [ 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. There is a growing number of studies conducted in FCCHs and their unique characteristics present certain data collection challenges.
Therefore, measurement tools that are reliable and valid within this setting are needed. Rigorous measures development should include a clear conceptualization of purpose and constructs to be measured, a systematic process for item pool generation and refinement, and thorough psychometric assessment including reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change testing [ 36 , 37 , 38 ]. The modification of the EPAO addressed many of these recommended elements except for sensitivity testing.
While the original EPAO was used as a starting point for the item pool, new items were added to ensure that it captured all known best practices. Also, items were modified, pilot tested, and refined to make sure that they were appropriate for use in FCCHs. Results from the psychometric testing showed strong inter-rater reliability and good construct validity. There were a couple of specific environmental sub-scores with unexpected reliability results.
In nutrition, feeding practices had an overall ICC of 0. In physical activity, education and professional development had an ICCs of 0. However, there were only two best practice compliance variables within this section. Offering planned gross motor activities had both a low kappa 0. However, the other item on informal physical activity education had a low kappa 0. During construct validity testing, we also had unexpected findings. Less than half of the environmental sub-scores were associated with child nutrition or physical activity.
The lack of significant associations may have been due in part to the lack of variability in sub-scores as many of these practices were used very infrequently. Additional development may also be needed for certain sections, such as feeding practices. While modifications made slight expansions to this section, it still assessed only a limited number of feeding practices.
However, efforts are underway to expand on the breadth of feeding practices that the EPAO can be used to assess. In addition, we saw negative associations between children MVPA and screen time and screen time practices. These negative associations may speak to differences in how FCCHs use screens and may have contributed to the lack of association with the overall physical activity score. These findings suggest that use of screens in FCCHs warrants greater investigation in future research studies. Another advancement offered by the EPAO for FCCHs is the development of a scoring rubric that allows the nutrition and physical activity environments to be summarized by two overarching scores one for nutrition and one for physical activity.
While the overarching scores are useful, the scoring rubric also calculates 17 environmental sub-scores elements within the environment such foods provided, physical activity practices, nutrition and physical activity policy as well as compliance with 67 best practice recommendations. In comparison, the original EPAO included observation items and 90 document review items, which were collapsed into 16 environmental subscales [ 21 ]. The original EPAO scoring did not try to calculate overall nutrition and physical activity scores.
The new scoring rubric should help address a key challenge of past assessment tools, providing a summary of the broader environment in addition to its sub-scores [ 37 ]. Another problem is that each person has a vision only of his or her brief segment of the race; there is no unified vision to guide the design. Instead of a team working together to create a high quality, developmentally appropriate facility, the individuals do the best they can with what's been handed to them. They lose the benefits of a broad view and collaborative creativity. Designing a children's facility this way makes as much sense as, in the words of physicist David Bohm, gluing together the fragments of a broken mirror to see a true reflection.
By the time the picture begins to come together, it may be too late to change decisions made at the first leg of the race without costing too much time or money. Once the details have been entered on construction documents, any subsequent necessary changes will entail change orders costs, confusing details and possible construction delays. The problem of this traditional approach is especially true with the design of children's facilities. By the time the owner is passed the baton, many design decisions, such as the floor plan, type of construction and finishes, have already been made. Often, the facility's very design is creating an unfriendly child and adult environment, but the flexibility to correct the underlying design problems has been lost.
Our company believes that high quality, developmentally appropriate facilities are created through what is called concurrent design. Concurrent design means pulling together all the experts who design the facility and those who operate it at the same time. Everyone jumps into the sandbox at once, with specialists from many different areas participating as members of a multi-disciplinary, cross-functional design team from the beginning. Program goals, curriculum, children's needs, staff needs and parents' needs drive the concurrent design process.
Other issues that need to be examined at the front end of the process are furniture and equipment and developmental and operating costs prior to designing the physical space. Everything impacts everything. Function is examined in the process prior to looking at form. For example, many programs such as Head Start encourage parents to work in the classroom. Parent participation may necessitate more classroom square footage than state licensing standards require. State licensing requirements are only minimums and not necessarily quality standards. Outdoor areas designed for the inner city may have different durability and vandalism issues than an outdoor area in a rural area. Another example is that some cultural considerations will influence the design process.
In a children's facility we designed for Muslims, the parents had mixed feelings about the use of outdoor sand boxes and conceded that they would not wish their children to use it unless it was sanitized regularly. Several cultures that we have worked with were concerned about privacy issues in the toddler changing table area. Families whom we worked with in South America seemed uncomfortable with large group areas. In order to be culturally sensitive, we adapt our design ideas accordingly. Cultural sensitivity and cultural competency is integral to good design. The design team needs to be structured and sensitive to staff, parental and community input.Skip to main content. The results of our meta-analyses suggest that Child Care Environment Analysis on ERS process Child Care Environment Analysis were not significantly associated with ERS characteristics. Additional Child Care Environment Analysis in training Child Care Environment Analysis likely allow for more Child Care Environment Analysis assessment. Article Google Scholar Cryer, Child Care Environment Analysis. Outdoor areas designed for Child Care Environment Analysis inner city Child Care Environment Analysis Baby Boom Galaxy Research Paper Child Care Environment Analysis durability and vandalism issues than an outdoor area in a rural area. Q1 True or False? Early Child Care Environment Analysis Research Quarterly, 19—