⌛ Examples Of Isolation In The Ministers Black Veil
Greene, Donald. She was picking flowers and a branch Examples Of Isolation In The Ministers Black Veil. Likewise, when animals and plants are exposed to these fields of harmful Examples Of Isolation In The Ministers Black Veil, they too suffer great consequences. The Durban College Persuasive Speech Union also came and went. Best wishes Examples Of Isolation In The Ministers Black Veil amazing writers from EssayErudite. He almost kills his uncle, but changes his mind.
Analysis of The Minister's Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Nature of Secret Sin
In sentence 1 above, the preposition is in , the object of the preposition is bags , and the modifiers or adjectives are our and school. Diligence and character are objects of the preposition with. When prepositional phrases function as adjectives and adverbs in sentences, they are called adjectival and adverbial phrases respectively. The woman wears shoes with sharp heels. An adjectival phrase modifying the noun shoes. The man with a funny-looking dog crossed the road. An adjectival phrase modifying the noun man.
Soldiers train for many months. An adverbial phrase modifying the verb train. People are lazy in the afternoons. An adverbial phrase modifying the adjective lazy. She arrived late in the night. An adverbial phrase modifying the adverb late. Note that the prepositional phrase through the door is an adverbial phrase modifying the verb led and tells where? The second prepositional phrase on the left is an adjectival phrase modifying the noun door and tells which one? Underline the prepositional phrases in the following sentences and indicate what type each of them is. A gerund is a verb form used as a noun. It is formed by adding — ing to the present tense of a verb. Gerunds can be used as subjects, direct objects, objects of prepositions, and complements.
Direct object: The sport involves riding. Object of preposition: The sport is similar to fencing. A gerund phrase includes a gerund, its modifiers, objects or complements. It always functions as a noun. The gerund phrase is the subject of the sentence. Msechu dreamt all his life about winning the top award. The gerund phrase is an object of the preposition about. The gerund phrase is a complement. The game involves jumping over hurdles. The gerund phrase is an object of the verb involves.
Underline the gerund or gerund phrases in the following sentences and label each one subject, direct, object, object of preposition, or complement accordingly. A participle is a verb form that always acts as an adjective. There are two types of participles:. Fooled , the shopkeeper bought fake products. Fooled is a past participle modifying the noun shopkeeper. The participles of irregular verbs, however, do not follow the above rule: run-run, throw-thrown. Smiling , the conman stepped out of the shop.
Smiling is a present participle modifying the noun conman. Using participles is a simple way of adding information to sentences and to vary sentences beginnings. A participial phrase consists of a present or past participle and its modifiers , objects , or complements. It always functions as an adjective. Rounding the corner is a present participial phrase modifying the noun conman. Surprised by the appearance of the conman , the policemen started blowing their whistles. Surprised by the appearance of the conman is a past participial phrase modifying the noun policemen. A participle or participial phrase is not always at the beginning of a sentence. Sometimes it may appear in the middle but it should be near the noun or pronoun it modifies.
Both the gerund and the present participle are created by a adding — ing to the present tense of a verb. BUT how can you tell whether a word is a gerund or a participle? It all depends on how the word is used in a sentence. Gaining courage , the conman attempted to escape. Gaining courage is a participial phrase modifying conman. Gaining courage made the conman look aggressive. Gaining courage is a gerund phrase, the subject of the verb made. Underline the participial phrases in the following sentences, indicating whether it is a past or present participial phrase and the noun or pronoun it modifies.
An infinitive is a verb form that usually appears with the word to before it. To is called the sign of the infinitive. To is a preposition if it is followed by a noun or noun phrase, but it is a sign of the infinitive if it is followed by a verb or verb phrase. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and its modifiers , objects or complements. It can function as a noun , adjective , or adverb. To write clearly and concisely can be difficult sometimes. Infinitive phrase functioning as a noun and the subject of the sentence. Proofreading your writing is a good way to ensure the absence of typing mistakes. Infinitive phrase functioning as an adjective modifying the noun way.
To greatly increase the amount of stress in your life , leave your writing task until the night before it is due. Infinitive phrase functioning as an adverb modifying the verb leave. Underline the infinitive phrases in each of the following sentences and state whether it is functioning as a noun, adjective or adverb. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A complete thought is clear. A sentence always begins with a capital letter. It ends with a full stop. A sentence fragment does not express a complete thought. The reader or listener cannot be sure what is missing in or the meaning of a sentence fragment.
The two fundamental parts of every English sentence are the subject and the predicate. A subject can be described as the component that performs the action described by the predicate. It tells who or what does or did the action. It may also name the topic. In a sentence, a few key words are more important than the rest. These key words make the basic framework of the sentence. The verb and its subject are the key words that form the basic framework of every sentence. The rest of the sentence is built around them. To find out the subject , ask who or what before the verb. The key word in the subject of a sentence is called the simple subject.
For example, kids , faces. The complete subject is the simple subject plus any words that modify or describe it. For example, The young kids , Their faces. The key word in the predicate is called the simple predicate. For example, jumped , shone. For example, jumped playfully , shone brightly. The simple subjects and predicates may sometimes be more than one word. For simple subjects, it may be the name of a person or a place. The simple predicate may also be more than one word. There may be a main verb and a helping verb. An object in a sentence is a word or words that complete the meaning of a sentence.
It is involved in the action but does not carry it out. The object is the person or thing affected by the action described in the verb. It is always a noun or a pronoun and it always comes after the verb. Some verbs complete the meaning of sentences without the help of other words. The action that they describe is complete. Some other verbs do not express a complete meaning by themselves. They need to combine with other words to complete the meaning of a sentence.
In the above examples, the snake , goggles and the door are the objects as they are the things being affected by the verbs in the sentences. The direct object is the word that receives the action of a verb. Christine saw a snake. Rose wears goggles. To find the direct object first find the verb. Then ask whom or what after the verb. Remember, we said earlier that a verb that has a direct object is called a transitive verb and a verb that does not have an object is called an intransitive verb.
We also said that a verb may be intransitive in one sentence and transitive in another. Other verbs are strictly intransitive, e. The indirect object refers to a person or thing who receives the direct object. They tell us for whom or to whom something is done. Others tell to what or for what something is done. He is the indirect object as he is the beneficiary of the book. Direct objects are sometimes confused with adverbs. The direct object tells what or whom as we have seen earlier. Adverbs on the other hand tell how , where , when or to what extent. They modify the verbs. Brian Swam slowly. Brian Swam a tough race. Verbs can also be followed by a phrase that tells how , when , or where.
This kind of a phrase is never a direct object but an adverbial phrase. Brian swam across the pool. Therefore, to decide whether a word or a phrase is a direct object or adverb, decide first what it tells about the verb. If it tells how , where , when or to what extent , it is an adverb. If it tells what or whom , it is a direct object. If the sentence has two objects, indicate the direct object and the indirect object. Some sentences do not take objects or adverbs or adverbial phrases after the verbs.
Instead, they take complements. A complement is the part of the sentence that. Subject complements normally follow certain verbs like be , seem , look , etc. He is British. British gives more information about he. She became a nurse. Object complements follow the direct objects of the verb and give more information about those direct objects. They painted the house red.
She called him an idiot. The complement often consists of an adjective e. I saw her standing there. Pick out the complements in the following sentences and indicate whether subject, object or participial complements. Sentences can be categorised in terms of structure or in terms of purpose. A simple sentence contains a single subject and predicate.
It describes only one thing, idea or question, and has only one verb. It contains only an independent main clause. Any independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. It has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Even the addition of adverbs, adjectives and prepositional phrases to a simple sentence does not change its structure. The white dog with the black collar always barks loudly. Even if you join several nouns with a conjunction, or several verbs with a conjunction, it remains a simple sentence. A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences joined together using a co-ordinating conjunction such as and , or or but.
Every clause is like a sentence with a subject and a verb. A coordinating conjunction goes in the middle of the sentence; it is the word that joins the two clauses together. Two simple sentences should be combined to form one compound sentence only if the ideas they express are closely related. If the ideas are not closely related, the resulting sentence may not make sense. When writing some compound sentences, a comma is used before the conjunction. The comma tells the reader where to pause.
Without a comma, some compound sentences can be quite confusing. The sentence might cause the reader to think that Jane studied both the specimen and her sister. Sometimes the parts of a compound sentence can be joined with a semicolon ; rather than a comma and a conjunction. Never join simple sentences with a comma alone. A comma is not powerful enough to hold the sentences together.
Instead use a semicolon. A complex sentence contains one independent main clause and one or more subordinate dependent clauses. They describe more than one thing or idea and have more than one verb in them. They are made up of more than one clause, an independent clause that can stand by itself and a dependent clause which cannot stand by itself. The picture looks flat is the independent main clause whereas because it is colourless is the subordinate dependent clause. A clause is a group of words that contains a verb and its subject. There are two types of clauses — main clauses and subordinate clauses. A main clause is a clause that can stand as sentence by itself.
A compound sentence contains two or more main clauses, because it is made up of two or more simple sentences. Each of these simple sentences is a main clause. Robots operate machines and they solve many labour problems are both main clauses. They are also simple sentences. Main clauses are sometimes called independent clauses. Subordinate clauses are clauses that do not express a complete thought. So they cannot stand by themselves. None of the above clauses express a complete thought. They are sentence fragments that leave the reader wondering then what? Subordinate clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as if , when , while , and after. Now we can understand a complex sentence better. We have said that it contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
The medicine man, who knew many tricks , cheated the man that he had been bewitched. Subordinate clauses may be used in sentences as adjectives , adverbs and nouns in complex sentences. Such clauses are called adjectival , adverbial and noun clauses respectively. With subordinate clause: The bushman, who knew the forest well , told us about the hidden cave.
An adjectival clause acts as an adjective in a sentence, that is, it modifies a noun or a pronoun. As can be seen from the above examples, adjectival clauses, like adjectives, modify nouns or pronouns answering questions like which? Like the adjective red , the adjectival clause which I bought yesterday modifies the noun coat. Note than an adjectival clause usually comes after what it modifies while an adjective comes before.
Besides use of subordinating conjunctions, adjectival clauses can be introduced by relative pronouns. Relative pronouns are the words who , whom , whose , that and which. These words relate the subordinate clauses to the word it modifies in the main clause. In the last sentence, the relative clause called so because it is introduced by the relative pronoun which which they ate modifies the noun meat and answers the question which meat? The relative clause who borrowed the book modifies the pronoun one and answers the question which one? Besides relating the adjectival clause to a noun or pronoun in the main clause, a relative pronoun may also act as the subject , object , predicate pronoun , or object of a preposition in the clause.
Object of a preposition: The map leads to the cave of which the bushman spoke. In informal writing or speech, you may leave out the relative pronoun when it is not the subject of the adjectival clause, but you should usually include the relative pronoun in formal academic writing. Commas are put around adjectival clauses only if they merely add additional information to a sentence. This adjective clause can be left out without affecting the grammatical structure of the sentence. It is merely adding information to the sentence by telling us which map? An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause which takes the place of an adverb in a sentence. In addition, an adverbial clause may tell why.
Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb and an adverbial phrase in the following example:. Adverbial phrase: The Prime Minister gave a speech in the afternoon. Adverbial clause: The Prime Minister gave a speech where the workers were striking. Usually, an adverbial clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction like because , when , whenever , where , wherever , since , after and so that. Note that a subordinate adverb clause can never stand alone as a complete sentence. The above adverbial clause will leave the reader asking what happened after they left the dining hall? Adverbial clauses express relationships of cause , effect , place , time and condition.
Note that an adverbial clause can appear either before or after the main clause of the sentence. A noun clause is a clause which takes the place of a noun or a noun phrase. It can be used in any way that a noun is used. That is, it can act as the subject , object , object of a preposition , or predicate noun in a sentence. Just like a noun, a noun clause answers the questions who , when , or what? The noun clause where they are going is the subject of the verb is. Noun clause: I know that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language.
In the first sentence, the noun French acts as the direct object of the verb know. In the third sentence, the entire clause that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language is the direct object of the verb know. Noun phrase: He talked about what you bought at the supermarket. In the first sentence the pronoun him is the object of the preposition about. In the third sentence, what you bought at the supermarket is the object of the preposition about and answers the question about what? The adverbial clause what shaped her life gives more information about the subject of the sentence Her first day in school. You cannot tell the kind of a clause from the word that introduces it. You can tell the kind of clause only by the way it is used in a sentence.
If the clause is used as a noun , it is a noun clause. If the clause is used as a modifier , it is an adjectival clause or an adverbial clause. Whoever built the house was not an expert. Noun clause as a subject. No one knew where he came from. Noun clause as a direct object. Identify the following sentences as simple, compound or complex. If it is a complex sentence, indicate whether it has an adjective, an adverb or a noun subordinate clause. We have seen how sentences are categorised into simple , compound and complex depending on their internal structures. Now, we shall see how they can be categorised in terms of purpose. There are five kinds of sentences classified according to their end marks and the different jobs they do:.
A declarative sentence simply states a fact or argument without requiring either an answer or action from the reader or listener. It is punctuated with a simple period. The declarative sentence is the most important type of sentences. You can write an entire essay or report using only declarative sentences, and you should always use them more often than any other type. Some declarative sentences contain indirect questions but this does not make them into interrogative sentences.
An interrogative sentence asks a direct question and always ends in a question mark. A direct question requires an answer from the reader or listener, while an indirect question does not. A special type of direct questions is the rhetorical question. A rhetorical question is one that you do not expect the reader or listener to answer. Why did the Mau Mau war take place? But if you use them too often, you sound patronising or even monotonous or mediocre! An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling , emphasis or emotion.
It is actually a more forceful version of a declarative sentence that is marked at the end with an exclamation mark. Note that an exclamation mark can appear at the end of an imperative sentence, but this does not make it into an exclamatory sentence. An imperative sentence gives a direct command to someone. This sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark , depending on how forceful the command is. In an imperative sentence, you is always the subject. It is usually not stated in the sentence.
A conditional sentence expresses what one would do if a condition were or were not met. The condition in the conditional if-clause will determine the fulfilment of the action in the main clause. In sentence 1, the condition of having a million dollars will determine whether the speaker will buy a hummer or not. In sentence, the condition of John not having more brains determines that he is not very successful.
Label each of the following sentences declarative, imperative, exclamatory, interrogative or conditional. It is also referred to as direct quotation. Direct speech is always enclosed within quotation marks. When a direct quotation is divided by speech tags, the second part of the quotation must begin with a small letter. If the second part of the quotation is a complete sentence, the first word of this sentence is capitalized.
Quotation marks and exclamation marks are placed inside a quotation mark if they belong to the quotation. If they do not, they are placed outside the quotation. Rewrite the following sentences correctly in direct speech. Ensure you punctuate them accordingly. It is also referred to as indirect quotation or reported speech. The original spoken words are not repeated. Indirect speech : The governor said that creating new jobs would be his first priority. Indirect: The new president declared that South Sudan had become a republic. Indirect: The boy said the he had been dreaming when the fire started.
Indirect: My desk mate said the he would visit me the following day. Sometimes the verb in indirect speech does not change tense. This occurs in sentences that are universal truths. Indirect: Our Geography teacher said that the earth rotates round the sun. A question tag or a tag question is a phrase that is added at the end of a statement to turn into a question. Yes they are.
Many learners face a problem of supplying the correct question tags to sentences. This is because they fail to observe the following rules of question tags:. You will note from the above examples that the auxiliary verb is usually contracted joined with the negative indicator not when using question tags. However, this does not apply when using primary auxiliary verb am and the modal auxiliary verbs will and shall.
Am does not allow contraction with not , will and shall usually change their forms to allow contraction. Those are the rules that govern question tags and if followed well, the learners will not have any problems with question tags. Capitalization is the writing of a word with its first letter as an upper case and the remaining letters in lower case. The following are the cases when capitalization is used:. James Conary M s. Jacinta Atieno. Note that all the above abbreviations end with a period. Road A pt. Company I nc. Police Department E. East Africa. Gichimu D. Muriithi Everlyne A.
T he D aily N ation newspaper H arry P otter movie. D rum M agazine magazine T he D ay of the J ackal book. Capitalize the first and last words only. Do not capitalize little words such as a, an, the, but, as, if, and, or, nor etc. K enya short story. G od A llah J esus the B ible the K oran. Do not capitalize the words god and goddess when they refer to mythological deities. Continents — A frica, A sia, E urope, A ustralia. Note that here you capitalize only the important words. Do not capitalize such words such as a , in , and of. Do not capitalize such words as school, college, church and hospital when they are not used as parts of names. J une L abour Day. Do not capitalize names of seasons: autumn , summer , winter , spring. C hinese K ikuyu C hristianity C aucasian.
B antu N igerian M uslim O riental. D ear M ark, Y ours sincerely,. D ear B ryan, Y ours faithfully,. M y dear M um, V ery truly yours,. Punctuation is the system of symbols that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a punctuation mark. For example. There are three kinds of end marks: the full stop.
End marks show where sentences end. Note: An imperative sentence is followed by an exclamation mark when it expresses a strong emotion. The naughty boy wanted to know why there was no mid-term break. Outline List. The question mark is used at the end of an interrogative sentence a sentence that asks a question. The exclamation mark is used at the end of the exclamatory sentence and after an interjection. An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling, emotion or emphasis. An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses strong feelings.
Interjections: Superb! An exclamation mark can also be used at the end of an imperative sentence that expresses strong feeling. There are a number of uses of the comma in English. A comma generally tells the reader where to pause. They are used:. The three or four items in a series can be nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, phrases, independent clauses, or other parts of sentences. Nouns: John , Jim , Jack walk to school every day. Verbs: He located , patched , and sealed the leak in the tyre. Adverbs: She walked quickly , steadily , and calmly. Prepositional phrases: He walked through the park , over the bridge , and onto the streets.
Independent clauses: The match was over , the crowd cheered , and Barcelona received the first- place trophy. Pirate editions thereby encouraged booksellers to increase their shipments to outlying centres like Dublin , which further increased awareness across the whole realm. That was compounded by the end of the Press Restriction Act in , which allowed for provincial printing presses to be established, creating a printing structure that was no longer under government control Clair — All types of literature were spread quickly in all directions. Newspapers began and even multiplied. Furthermore, the newspapers were immediately compromised, as the political factions created their own newspapers, planted stories and bribed journalists. Leading clerics had their sermon collections printed, which were top selling books.
Since dissenting, Establishment and Independent divines were in print, the constant movement of these works helped defuse any region's religious homogeneity and fostered emergent latitudinarianism. Periodicals were exceedingly popular, and the art of essay writing was at nearly its apex. Furthermore, the happenings of the Royal Society were published regularly, and they were digested and explained or celebrated in more popular presses. The latest books of scholarship had "keys", "indexes" and "digests" made of them that could popularise, summarise and explain them to a wide audience.
The cross-index , now commonplace, was a novelty in the 18th century, and several persons created indexes for older books of learning to allow anyone to find what an author had to say about a given topic at a moment's notice. Books of etiquette, of correspondence and of moral instruction and hygiene multiplied. Economics began as a serious discipline but did so in the form of numerous "projects" for solving England, Ireland and Scotland's ills.
Sermon collections, dissertations on religious controversy, and prophecies, both new and old and explained, cropped up in endless variety. In short, readers in the 18th century were overwhelmed by competing voices. Truth and falsehood sat side by side on the shelves, and anyone could be a published author, just as anyone could quickly pretend to be a scholar by using indexes and digests Clair 45, — The positive side of the explosion in information was that the 18th century was markedly more generally educated than the centuries before.
Education was less confined to the upper classes than it had been in prior centuries so contributions to science, philosophy, economics, and literature came from all parts of the kingdom. It was the first time that literacy and a library were all that stood between a person and education. It was an age of "enlightenment" in the sense that the insistence and drive for reasonable explanations of nature and mankind was a rage. It was an "age of reason" in that it was an age that accepted clear, rational methods as superior to tradition. However, there was a dark side to such literacy as well, which authors of the 18th century felt at every turn, which was that nonsense and insanity were also getting more adherents than ever before.
Charlatans and mountebanks were fooling more, just as sages were educating more, and alluring and lurid apocalypses vied with sober philosophy on the shelves. As with the Worldwide Web in the 21st century, the democratisation of publishing meant that older systems for determining value and uniformity of view were both in shambles. Thus, it was increasingly difficult to trust books in the 18th century, as books were increasingly easy to make and buy. The Restoration period ended with the exclusion crisis and the Glorious Revolution , where Parliament set up a new rule for succession to the British throne that would always prefer Protestantism over consanguinity.
James had fled to France from where his son, James Francis Edward Stuart , launched an attempt to retake the throne in Another attempt was launched by the latter's son Charles Edward Stuart in The attempted invasions are often referred to as "the 15" and "the 45". When William died, Anne Stuart came to the throne. Anne's reign saw two wars and great triumphs by John Churchill , the Duke of Marlborough. Marlborough's wife, Sarah Churchill , was Anne's best friend, and many supposed that she secretly controlled the Queen in every respect.
With the belief that true power rested in the hands of the leading ministers, the two factions of politics stepped up their opposition to each other, and Whig and Tory were at each other's throats. That weakness at the throne would lead quickly to the expansion of the powers of the party leader in Parliament and the establishment in all but name of the Prime Minister office in the form of Robert Walpole. George I spoke poor English , and his isolation from the English people was instrumental in keeping his power relatively irrelevant. His son, George II , on the other hand, spoke some English and some more French , and his rule was the first full Hanoverian rule in England.
By then, the powers of Parliament had silently expanded, and his power was perhaps only equal to that of Parliament. London's population exploded spectacularly. During the Restoration, it had grown from around , to , in Old Bailey Millwall history. By , it had reached , Not all of the residents were prosperous, as the Enclosure Acts had destroyed lower-class farming in the countryside, and rural areas experienced painful poverty. Communities of the country poor were forced to migrate or suffer see Thompson, Whigs so young people from the country often moved to London with hopes of achieving success, which swelled the ranks of the urban poor and cheap labour for city employers.
It also meant an increase in numbers of criminals, prostitutes and beggars. The fears of property crime, rape and starvation found in Augustan literature should be kept in the context of London's growth and the depopulation of the countryside. Partially because of the population pressures, property crime became a business both for the criminals and those who fed off of the criminals. Major crime lords like Jonathan Wild invented new schemes for stealing, and newspapers were eager to report crime.
Biographies of the daring criminals became popular, which spawned fictional biographies of fictional criminals. Cautionary tales of country women abused by sophisticated rakes such as Anne Bond and libertines in the city were popular fare, and they prompted fictional accounts of exemplary women abused or narrowly escaping abuse. Increased population also meant that urban discontent was never particularly difficult to find for political opportunists, and London suffered a number of riots, most of them against supposed Roman Catholic provocateurs. When highly potent, inexpensive distilled spirits were introduced, matters worsened and authors and artists protested the innovation of gin see, e. William Hogarth 's Gin Lane. From , the government encouraged distilling as a source of revenue and trade goods, and there were no licenses required for the manufacturing or selling of gin.
There were documented instances of women drowning their infants to sell the child's clothes for gin, and the facilities created both the fodder for riots and the conditions against which riots would occur Loughrey and Treadwell, Dissenters Protestants not conforming to the Church of England recruited and preached to the poor of the city, and various offshoots of the Puritan and "Independent" Baptist movements increased their numbers substantially.
One theme of the ministers was the danger of the Roman Catholic Church, which they frequently saw as the Whore of Babylon. While Anne tended to favor the High Church faction, particularly towards the close of her reign, the court of George I was more closely allied with Low Church and latitudinarian elements and was warmer to nonconformists. The convocation was effectively disbanded by George I, who was struggling with the House of Lords , and George II was pleased to keep it in abeyance. Additionally, both Georges were concerned with James Francis Edward Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart , who had considerable support in Scotland and Ireland, and many were suspected of being closet Jacobites. Walpole inflated fears of Stuart sympathisers from any group that did not support him.
The literature of the 18th century, particularly the early 18th century, which is what "Augustan" most commonly indicates, is explicitly political in ways that few others are. Because the professional author was still not distinguishable from the hack-writer, those who wrote poetry, novels, and plays were frequently either politically active or politically funded. At the same time, an aesthetic of artistic detachment from the everyday world had yet to develop, and the aristocratic ideal of an author so noble as to be above political concerns was largely archaic and irrelevant.
The period may be an "Age of Scandal", as authors dealt specifically with the crimes and the vices of their world. Satire, in prose, drama and poetry, was the genre that attracted the most energetic and voluminous writing. The satires that were produced during the Augustan period were occasionally gentle and nonspecific, commentaries on the comically flawed human condition, but they were at least as frequently specific critiques of specific policies, actions and persons. Even the works studiously nontopical were, in fact, transparently political statements in the 18th century. Consequently, readers of 18th-century literature now need to understand the history of the period more than most readers of other literature do.
The authors were writing for an informed audience and only secondarily for posterity. Even the authors, who criticised writing that lived for only a day like Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope , in The Dedication to Prince Posterity of A Tale of a Tub and The Dunciad , among other pieces were criticising specific authors, who are unknown to those without historical knowledge of the period. Poetry of all forms was in constant dialogue, and each author was responding and commenting upon the others. Novels were written against other novels like the battles between Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding , who, along with Eliza Haywood , wrote a novel satirising Richardson's Pamela , and between Laurence Sterne and Tobias Smollett.
Plays were written to make fun of plays or to counter the success of plays like the reaction against and for Cato and, later, Fielding's The Author's Farce. Therefore, history and literature are linked in a way rarely seen at other times. On one hand, the metropolitan and political writing can seem like coterie or salon work, but on the other hand, it was the literature of people deeply committed to sorting out a new type of government, new technologies and newly-vexatious challenges to philosophical and religious certainty. The essay , satire, and dialogue in philosophy and religion thrived in the age, and the English novel was truly begun as a serious art form.
Literacy in the early 18th century passed into the working classes, as well as the middle and upper classes Thompson, Class. Furthermore, literacy was not confined to men, though rates of female literacy are very difficult to establish. For those who were literate, circulating libraries in England began in the Augustan period. Libraries were open to all, but they were mainly associated with female patronage and novel reading.
English essayists were aware of Continental models, but they developed their form independently from that tradition, and periodical literature grew between and Periodicals were inexpensive to produce, quick to read, and a viable way of influencing public opinion, and consequently there were many broadsheet periodicals headed by a single author and staffed by hirelings so-called "Grub Street" authors. One periodical outsold and dominated all others, however, and that was The Spectator , written by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele with occasional contributions from their friends. The Spectator developed a number of pseudonymous characters, including "Mr. Spectator," Roger de Coverley , and " Isaac Bickerstaff ", and both Addison and Steele created fictions to surround their narrators.
The dispassionate view of the world the pose of a spectator, rather than participant was essential for the development of the English essay, as it set out a ground wherein Addison and Steele could comment and meditate upon manners and events. Samuel Johnson 's command of words and his practical wisdom gained a following as he published more than essays offering insights into the follies of human nature and moral perseverance. Rather than being philosophers like Montesquieu , the English essayist could be an honest observer and his reader's peer. After the success of The Spectator, more political periodicals of comment appeared. However, the political factions and coalitions of politicians very quickly realized the power of this type of press, and they began funding newspapers to spread rumours.
The Tory ministry of Robert Harley — reportedly spent over 50, pounds sterling on creating and bribing the press Butt ; this figure is known because their successors publicised it, but they the Walpole government were suspected of spending even more. Politicians wrote papers, wrote into papers, and supported papers, and it was well known that some of the periodicals, like Mist's Journal, were party mouthpieces. The 18th century was a time of enlightenment progression occurring in all intellectual fields. However, the English language was deteriorating into a tangled mess. A group of London booksellers commissioned well-known essayist Samuel Johnson to compile a set of rules governing the English language.
After nine years and the help of six assistants the first edition of A Dictionary of the English Language was published in Johnson's great knowledge of letters, words and literature brought uniqueness to his dictionary. Each word defined in detail, with descriptions of their various uses and numerous literary quotes as illustrations. This was the first dictionary of its kind, containing 40, words and nearly , quotes packed together with Johnson's personal touch. A warm reception greeted Johnson's Dictionary as it was the first dictionary that could be read with pleasure.
The definitions full of wit and depth of thought supported by passages from beloved poets and philosophers, which a reader could be content spending an evening poring over its pages. Johnson's choice of structure and format has certainly shaped future English dictionaries and lexicons and the role they play in language development. The Augustan period showed less literature of controversy than the Restoration. There were Puritan authors, however, and one of the names usually associated with the novel is perhaps the most prominent in Puritan writing: Daniel Defoe.
After the coronation of Anne, dissenter hopes of reversing the Restoration were at an ebb, and dissenter literature moved from the offensive to the defensive, from revolutionary to conservative. Defoe's infamous volley in the struggle between high and low church came in the form of The Shortest Way with the Dissenters; Or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church. The work is satirical, attacking all of the worries of Establishment figures over the challenges of dissenters. It is, in other words, defensive. The Meditations of Robert Boyle remained popular as well. Both Law and Boyle called for revivalism, and they set the stage for the later development of Methodism and George Whitefield 's sermon style.
However, their works aimed at the individual, rather than the community. The age of revolutionary divines and militant evangelists in literature was over for a considerable time. Also in contrast to the Restoration, when philosophy in England was fully dominated by John Locke , the 18th century had a vigorous competition among followers of Locke. Bishop Berkeley extended Locke's emphasis on perception to argue that perception entirely solves the Cartesian problem of subjective and objective knowledge by saying "to be is to be perceived.
For Berkeley, the persistence of matter rests in the fact that God perceives those things that humans are not, that a living and continually aware, attentive, and involved God is the only rational explanation for the existence of objective matter. In essence, then, Berkeley's scepticism leads to faith. David Hume , on the other hand, took empiricist scepticism to its extremes, and he was the most radically empiricist philosopher of the period. He attacked surmise and unexamined premises wherever he found them, and his scepticism pointed out metaphysics in areas that other empiricists had assumed were material. Hume doggedly refused to enter into questions of his personal faith in the divine, but he assaulted the logic and assumptions of theodicy and cosmogeny , and he concentrated on the provable and empirical in a way that would lead to utilitarianism and naturalism later.
In social and political philosophy, economics underlies much of the debate. Bernard de Mandeville's The Fable of the Bees became a centre-point of controversy regarding trade, morality, and social ethics. Mandeville argued that wastefulness, lust, pride, and all the other "private" vices were good for the society at large, for each led the individual to employ others, to spend freely, and to free capital to flow through the economy. Mandeville's work is full of paradox and is meant, at least partially, to problematize what he saw as the naive philosophy of human progress and inherent virtue. However, Mandeville's arguments, initially an attack on graft of the War of the Spanish Succession , would be quoted often by economists who wished to strip morality away from questions of trade.
Adam Smith is remembered by lay persons as the father of capitalism , but his Theory of Moral Sentiments of also attempted to strike out a new ground for moral action. His emphasis on "sentiment" was in keeping with the era, as he emphasised the need for "sympathy" between individuals as the basis of fit action. These ideas, and the psychology of David Hartley , were influential on the sentimental novel and even the nascent Methodist movement. If sympathetic sentiment communicated morality, would it not be possible to induce morality by providing sympathetic circumstances? What it held in common with de Mandeville, Hume, and Locke was that it began by analytically examining the history of material exchange, without reflection on morality. Instead of deducing from the ideal or moral to the real, it examined the real and tried to formulate inductive rules.
The ground for the novel had been laid by journalism, drama and satire. Long prose satires like Swift's Gulliver's Travels had a central character who goes through adventures and may or may not learn lessons. However, the most important single satirical source for the writing of novels came from Cervantes 's Don Quixote , In general, one can see these three axes, drama, journalism and satire, as blending in and giving rise to three different types of novel. Daniel Defoe 's Robinson Crusoe was the first major novel of the new century and was published in more editions than any other works besides Gulliver's Travels Mullan Defoe worked as a journalist during and after its composition, and therefore he encountered the memoirs of Alexander Selkirk , who had been stranded in South America on an island for some years.
Defoe took aspects of the actual life and, from that, generated a fictional life, satisfying an essentially journalistic market with his fiction Hunter — In the s, Defoe interviewed famed criminals and produced accounts of their lives. In particular, he investigated Jack Sheppard and Jonathan Wild and wrote True Accounts of the former's escapes and fate and the latter's life. From his reportage on the prostitutes and criminals, Defoe may have become familiar with the real-life Mary Mollineaux, who may have been the model for Moll in Moll Flanders In the same year, Defoe produced A Journal of the Plague Year , which summoned up the horrors and tribulations of for a journalistic market for memoirs, and an attempted tale of a working-class male rise in Colonel Jack His last novel returned to the theme of fallen women in Roxana Thematically, Defoe's works are consistently Puritan.
They all involve a fall, a degradation of the spirit, a conversion, and an ecstatic elevation. This religious structure necessarily involved a bildungsroman , for each character had to learn a lesson about him or herself and emerge the wiser. Although there were novels in the interim, Samuel Richardson 's Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded is the next landmark development in the English novel. Richardson's generic models were quite distinct from those of Defoe. Instead of working from the journalistic biography , Richardson had in mind the books of improvement that were popular at the time.
Pamela Andrews enters the employ of a "Mr. As a dutiful girl, she writes to her mother constantly, and as a Christian girl, she is always on guard for her "virtue" i. B lusts after her. The novel ends with her marriage to her employer and her rising to the position of lady. Pamela , like its author, presents a dissenter's and a Whig's view of the rise of the classes.
The work drew a nearly instantaneous set of satires, of which Henry Fielding 's Shamela, or an Apology for the Life of Miss Shamela Andrews is the most memorable. Fielding continued to bait Richardson with Joseph Andrews , the tale of Shamela's brother, Joseph, who goes through his life trying to protect his own virginity, thus reversing the sexual predation of Richardson and satirizing the idea of sleeping one's way to rank.
However, Joseph Andrews is not a parody of Richardson, for Fielding proposed his belief in "good nature", which is a quality of inherent virtue that is independent of class and which can always prevail. His own basic good nature blinds him to the wickedness of the world, and the incidents on the road for most of the novel is a travel story allow Fielding to satirize conditions for the clergy, rural poverty and squires , and the viciousness of businessmen. We've helped thousands of students and keep providing high quality academic assistance to everyone who needs it.
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