✯✯✯ Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden
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Hudson River School
Such too, to a greater or less extent, is the condition of the operatives of every denomination in England, which is the great workhouse of the world. Or I could refer you to Ireland, which is marked as one of the white or enlightened spots on the map. Contrast the physical condition of the Irish with that of the North American Indian, or the South Sea Islander, or any other savage race before it was degraded by contact with the civilized man.
Yet I have no doubt that that people's rulers are as wise as the average of civilized rulers. Their condition only proves what squalidness may consist with civilization. I hardly need refer now to the laborers in our Southern States who produce the staple exports of this country, and are themselves a staple production of the South. Most men appear never to have considered what a house is, and are actually though needlessly poor all their lives because they think that they must have such a one as their neighbors have.
As if one were to wear any sort of coat which the tailor might cut out for him, or, gradually leaving off palm-leaf hat or cap of woodchuck skin, complain of hard times because he could not afford to buy him a crown! It is possible to invent a house still more convenient and luxurious than we have, which yet all would admit that man could not afford to pay for. Shall we always study to obtain more of these things, and not sometimes to be content with less? Shall the respectable citizen thus gravely teach, by precept and example, the necessity of the young man's providing a certain number of superfluous glow-shoes, and umbrellas, and empty guest chambers for empty guests, before he dies? Why should not our furniture be as simple as the Arab's or the Indian's?
When I think of the benefactors of the race, whom we have apotheosized as messengers from heaven, bearers of divine gifts to man, I do not see in my mind any retinue at their heels, any carload of fashionable furniture. Or what if I were to allow--would it not be a singular allowance? At present our houses are cluttered and defiled with it, and a good housewife would sweep out the greater part into the dust hole, and not leave her morning's work undone. Morning work! I had three pieces of limestone on my desk, but I was terrified to find that they required to be dusted daily, when the furniture of my mind was all undusted still, and threw them out the window in disgust.
How, then, could I have a furnished house? I would rather sit in the open air, for no dust gathers on the grass, unless where man has broken ground. It is the luxurious and dissipated who set the fashions which the herd so diligently follow. The traveller who stops at the best houses, so called, soon discovers this, for the publicans presume him to be a Sardanapalus, and if he resigned himself to their tender mercies he would soon be completely emasculated. I think that in the railroad car we are inclined to spend more on luxury than on safety and convenience, and it threatens without attaining these to become no better than a modern drawing-room, with its divans, and ottomans, and sun-shades, and a hundred other oriental things, which we are taking west with us, invented for the ladies of the harem and the effeminate natives of the Celestial Empire, which Jonathan should be ashamed to know the names of.
I would rather sit on a pumpkin and have it all to myself than be crowded on a velvet cushion. The very simplicity and nakedness of man's life in the primitive ages imply this advantage, at least, that they left him still but a sojourner in nature. When he was refreshed with food and sleep, he contemplated his journey again. He dwelt, as it were, in a tent in this world, and was either threading the valleys, or crossing the plains, or climbing the mountain-tops. But lo! The man who independently plucked the fruits when he was hungry is become a farmer; and he who stood under a tree for shelter, a housekeeper.
We now no longer camp as for a night, but have settled down on earth and forgotten heaven. We have built for this world a family mansion, and for the next a family tomb. The best works of art are the expression of man's struggle to free himself from this condition, but the effect of our art is merely to make this low state comfortable and that higher state to be forgotten. There is not a nail to hang a picture on, nor a shelf to receive the bust of a hero or a saint. When I consider how our houses are built and paid for, or not paid for, and their internal economy managed and sustained, I wonder that the floor does not give way under the visitor while he is admiring the gewgaws upon the mantelpiece, and let him through into the cellar, to some solid and honest though earthy foundation.
I cannot but perceive that this so-called rich and refined life is a thing jumped at, and I do not get on in the enjoyment of the fine arts which adorn it, my attention being wholly occupied with the jump; for I remember that the greatest genuine leap, due to human muscles alone, on record, is that of certain wandering Arabs, who are said to have cleared twenty-five feet on level ground. Without factitious support, man is sure to come to earth again beyond that distance.
The first question which I am tempted to put to the proprietor of such great impropriety is, Who bolsters you? Are you one of the ninety-seven who fail, or the three who succeed? Answer me these questions, and then perhaps I may look at your bawbles and find them ornamental. The cart before the horse is neither beautiful nor useful. Before we can adorn our houses with beautiful objects the walls must be stripped, and our lives must be stripped, and beautiful housekeeping and beautiful living be laid for a foundation: now, a taste for the beautiful is most cultivated out of doors, where there is no house and no housekeeper.
Old Johnson, in his "Wonder-Working Providence," speaking of the first settlers of this town, with whom he was contemporary, tells us that "they burrow themselves in the earth for their first shelter under some hillside, and, casting the soil aloft upon timber, they make a smoky fire against the earth, at the highest side. The wealthy and principal men in New England, in the beginning of the colonies, commenced their first dwelling-houses in this fashion for two reasons: firstly, in order not to waste time in building, and not to want food the next season; secondly, in order not to discourage poor laboring people whom they brought over in numbers from Fatherland.
In the course of three or four years, when the country became adapted to agriculture, they built themselves handsome houses, spending on them several thousands. But are the more pressing wants satisfied now? Not that all architectural ornament is to be neglected even in the rudest periods; but let our houses first be lined with beauty, where they come in contact with our lives, like the tenement of the shellfish, and not overlaid with it. But, alas!
I have been inside one or two of them, and know what they are lined with. Though we are not so degenerate but that we might possibly live in a cave or a wigwam or wear skins today, it certainly is better to accept the advantages, though so dearly bought, which the invention and industry of mankind offer. In such a neighborhood as this, boards and shingles, lime and bricks, are cheaper and more easily obtained than suitable caves, or whole logs, or bark in sufficient quantities, or even well-tempered clay or flat stones.
I speak understandingly on this subject, for I have made myself acquainted with it both theoretically and practically. With a little more wit we might use these materials so as to become richer than the richest now are, and make our civilization a blessing. The civilized man is a more experienced and wiser savage. But to make haste to my own experiment. Near the end of March, , I borrowed an axe and went down to the woods by Walden Pond, nearest to where I intended to build my house, and began to cut down some tall, arrowy white pines, still in their youth, for timber.
It is difficult to begin without borrowing, but perhaps it is the most generous course thus to permit your fellow-men to have an interest in your enterprise. The owner of the axe, as he released his hold on it, said that it was the apple of his eye; but I returned it sharper than I received it. It was a pleasant hillside where I worked, covered with pine woods, through which I looked out on the pond, and a small open field in the woods where pines and hickories were springing up. The ice in the pond was not yet dissolved, though there were some open spaces, and it was all dark-colored and saturated with water.
There were some slight flurries of snow during the days that I worked there; but for the most part when I came out on to the railroad, on my way home, its yellow sand heap stretched away gleaming in the hazy atmosphere, and the rails shone in the spring sun, and I heard the lark and pewee and other birds already come to commence another year with us. They were pleasant spring days, in which the winter of man's discontent was thawing as well as the earth, and the life that had lain torpid began to stretch itself. One day, when my axe had come off and I had cut a green hickory for a wedge, driving it with a stone, and had placed the whole to soak in a pond-hole in order to swell the wood, I saw a striped snake run into the water, and he lay on the bottom, apparently without inconvenience, as long as I stayed there, or more than a quarter of an hour; perhaps because he had not yet fairly come out of the torpid state.
It appeared to me that for a like reason men remain in their present low and primitive condition; but if they should feel the influence of the spring of springs arousing them, they would of necessity rise to a higher and more ethereal life. I had previously seen the snakes in frosty mornings in my path with portions of their bodies still numb and inflexible, waiting for the sun to thaw them. On the 1st of April it rained and melted the ice, and in the early part of the day, which was very foggy, I heard a stray goose groping about over the pond and cackling as if lost, or like the spirit of the fog.
So I went on for some days cutting and hewing timber, and also studs and rafters, all with my narrow axe, not having many communicable or scholar-like thoughts, singing to myself,-- Men say they know many things; But lo! I hewed the main timbers six inches square, most of the studs on two sides only, and the rafters and floor timbers on one side, leaving the rest of the bark on, so that they were just as straight and much stronger than sawed ones.
Each stick was carefully mortised or tenoned by its stump, for I had borrowed other tools by this time. My days in the woods were not very long ones; yet I usually carried my dinner of bread and butter, and read the newspaper in which it was wrapped, at noon, sitting amid the green pine boughs which I had cut off, and to my bread was imparted some of their fragrance, for my hands were covered with a thick coat of pitch. Before I had done I was more the friend than the foe of the pine tree, though I had cut down some of them, having become better acquainted with it.
Sometimes a rambler in the wood was attracted by the sound of my axe, and we chatted pleasantly over the chips which I had made. By the middle of April, for I made no haste in my work, but rather made the most of it, my house was framed and ready for the raising. I had already bought the shanty of James Collins, an Irishman who worked on the Fitchburg Railroad, for boards. James Collins' shanty was considered an uncommonly fine one. When I called to see it he was not at home. I walked about the outside, at first unobserved from within, the window was so deep and high. It was of small dimensions, with a peaked cottage roof, and not much else to be seen, the dirt being raised five feet all around as if it were a compost heap.
The roof was the soundest part, though a good deal warped and made brittle by the sun. Doorsill there was none, but a perennial passage for the hens under the door board. The hens were driven in by my approach. It was dark, and had a dirt floor for the most part, dank, clammy, and aguish, only here a board and there a board which would not bear removal. She lighted a lamp to show me the inside of the roof and the walls, and also that the board floor extended under the bed, warning me not to step into the cellar, a sort of dust hole two feet deep.
In her own words, they were "good boards overhead, good boards all around, and a good window"--of two whole squares originally, only the cat had passed out that way lately. There was a stove, a bed, and a place to sit, an infant in the house where it was born, a silk parasol, gilt-framed looking-glass, and a patent new coffee-mill nailed to an oak sapling, all told. The bargain was soon concluded, for James had in the meanwhile returned. I to pay four dollars and twenty-five cents tonight, he to vacate at five tomorrow morning, selling to nobody else meanwhile: I to take possession at six.
It were well, he said, to be there early, and anticipate certain indistinct but wholly unjust claims on the score of ground rent and fuel. This he assured me was the only encumbrance. At six I passed him and his family on the road. One large bundle held their all--bed, coffee-mill, looking-glass, hens--all but the cat; she took to the woods and became a wild cat, and, as I learned afterward, trod in a trap set for woodchucks, and so became a dead cat at last. I took down this dwelling the same morning, drawing the nails, and removed it to the pond-side by small cartloads, spreading the boards on the grass there to bleach and warp back again in the sun. One early thrush gave me a note or two as I drove along the woodland path.
I was informed treacherously by a young Patrick that neighbor Seeley, an Irishman, in the intervals of the carting, transferred the still tolerable, straight, and drivable nails, staples, and spikes to his pocket, and then stood when I came back to pass the time of day, and look freshly up, unconcerned, with spring thoughts, at the devastation; there being a dearth of work, as he said. He was there to represent spectatordom, and help make this seemingly insignificant event one with the removal of the gods of Troy. I dug my cellar in the side of a hill sloping to the south, where a woodchuck had formerly dug his burrow, down through sumach and blackberry roots, and the lowest stain of vegetation, six feet square by seven deep, to a fine sand where potatoes would not freeze in any winter.
The sides were left shelving, and not stoned; but the sun having never shone on them, the sand still keeps its place. It was but two hours' work. I took particular pleasure in this breaking of ground, for in almost all latitudes men dig into the earth for an equable temperature. Under the most splendid house in the city is still to be found the cellar where they store their roots as of old, and long after the superstructure has disappeared posterity remark its dent in the earth.
The house is still but a sort of porch at the entrance of a burrow. At length, in the beginning of May, with the help of some of my acquaintances, rather to improve so good an occasion for neighborliness than from any necessity, I set up the frame of my house. No man was ever more honored in the character of his raisers than I. They are destined, I trust, to assist at the raising of loftier structures one day. I began to occupy my house on the 4th of July, as soon as it was boarded and roofed, for the boards were carefully feather-edged and lapped, so that it was perfectly impervious to rain, but before boarding I laid the foundation of a chimney at one end, bringing two cartloads of stones up the hill from the pond in my arms.
I built the chimney after my hoeing in the fall, before a fire became necessary for warmth, doing my cooking in the meanwhile out of doors on the ground, early in the morning: which mode I still think is in some respects more convenient and agreeable than the usual one. When it stormed before my bread was baked, I fixed a few boards over the fire, and sat under them to watch my loaf, and passed some pleasant hours in that way.
In those days, when my hands were much employed, I read but little, but the least scraps of paper which lay on the ground, my holder, or tablecloth, afforded me as much entertainment, in fact answered the same purpose as the Iliad. There is some of the same fitness in a man's building his own house that there is in a bird's building its own nest. Who knows but if men constructed their dwellings with their own hands, and provided food for themselves and families simply and honestly enough, the poetic faculty would be universally developed, as birds universally sing when they are so engaged?
But alas! Shall we forever resign the pleasure of construction to the carpenter? What does architecture amount to in the experience of the mass of men? I never in all my walks came across a man engaged in so simple and natural an occupation as building his house. We belong to the community. It is not the tailor alone who is the ninth part of a man; it is as much the preacher, and the merchant, and the farmer. Where is this division of labor to end? True, there are architects so called in this country, and I have heard of one at least possessed with the idea of making architectural ornaments have a core of truth, a necessity, and hence a beauty, as if it were a revelation to him. All very well perhaps from his point of view, but only a little better than the common dilettantism.
A sentimental reformer in architecture, he began at the cornice, not at the foundation. It was only how to put a core of truth within the ornaments, that every sugarplum, in fact, might have an almond or caraway seed in it--though I hold that almonds are most wholesome without the sugar--and not how the inhabitant, the indweller, might build truly within and without, and let the ornaments take care of themselves. What reasonable man ever supposed that ornaments were something outward and in the skin merely--that the tortoise got his spotted shell, or the shell-fish its mother-o'-pearl tints, by such a contract as the inhabitants of Broadway their Trinity Church? But a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell: nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard.
The enemy will find it out. He may turn pale when the trial comes. This man seemed to me to lean over the cornice, and timidly whisper his half truth to the rude occupants who really knew it better than he. What of architectural beauty I now see, I know has gradually grown from within outward, out of the necessities and character of the indweller, who is the only builder--out of some unconscious truthfulness, and nobleness, without ever a thought for the appearance and whatever additional beauty of this kind is destined to be produced will be preceded by a like unconscious beauty of life.
The most interesting dwellings in this country, as the painter knows, are the most unpretending, humble log huts and cottages of the poor commonly; it is the life of the inhabitants whose shells they are, and not any peculiarity in their surfaces merely, which makes them picturesque; and equally interesting will be the citizen's suburban box, when his life shall be as simple and as agreeable to the imagination, and there is as little straining after effect in the style of his dwelling.
A great proportion of architectural ornaments are literally hollow, and a September gale would strip them off, like borrowed plumes, without injury to the substantials. They can do without architecture who have no olives nor wines in the cellar. What if an equal ado were made about the ornaments of style in literature, and the architects of our bibles spent as much time about their cornices as the architects of our churches do?
Much it concerns a man, forsooth, how a few sticks are slanted over him or under him, and what colors are daubed upon his box. It would signify somewhat, if, in any earnest sense, he slanted them and daubed it; but the spirit having departed out of the tenant, it is of a piece with constructing his own coffin--the architecture of the grave--and "carpenter" is but another name for "coffin-maker. Is he thinking of his last and narrow house? Toss up a copper for it as well. What an abundance of leisure he must have! Why do you take up a handful of dirt? Better paint your house your own complexion; let it turn pale or blush for you. An enterprise to improve the style of cottage architecture! When you have got my ornaments ready, I will wear them.
Before winter I built a chimney, and shingled the sides of my house, which were already impervious to rain, with imperfect and sappy shingles made of the first slice of the log, whose edges I was obliged to straighten with a plane. I have thus a tight shingled and plastered house, ten feet wide by fifteen long, and eight-feet posts, with a garret and a closet, a large window on each side, two trap doors, one door at the end, and a brick fireplace opposite.
The exact cost of my house, paying the usual price for such materials as I used, but not counting the work, all of which was done by myself, was as follows; and I give the details because very few are able to tell exactly what their houses cost, and fewer still, if any, the separate cost of the various materials which compose them Boards Refuse shingles for roof sides Mantle-tree iron In all I have also a small woodshed adjoining, made chiefly of the stuff which was left after building the house.
I intend to build me a house which will surpass any on the main street in Concord in grandeur and luxury, as soon as it pleases me as much and will cost me no more than my present one. I thus found that the student who wishes for a shelter can obtain one for a lifetime at an expense not greater than the rent which he now pays annually. If I seem to boast more than is becoming, my excuse is that I brag for humanity rather than for myself; and my shortcomings and inconsistencies do not affect the truth of my statement.
Notwithstanding much cant and hypocrisy--chaff which I find it difficult to separate from my wheat, but for which I am as sorry as any man--I will breathe freely and stretch myself in this respect, it is such a relief to both the moral and physical system; and I am resolved that I will not through humility become the devil's attorney. I will endeavor to speak a good word for the truth. At Cambridge College the mere rent of a student's room, which is only a little larger than my own, is thirty dollars each year, though the corporation had the advantage of building thirty-two side by side and under one roof, and the occupant suffers the inconvenience of many and noisy neighbors, and perhaps a residence in the fourth story.
I cannot but think that if we had more true wisdom in these respects, not only less education would be needed, because, forsooth, more would already have been acquired, but the pecuniary expense of getting an education would in a great measure vanish. Those conveniences which the student requires at Cambridge or elsewhere cost him or somebody else ten times as great a sacrifice of life as they would with proper management on both sides. Those things for which the most money is demanded are never the things which the student most wants. Tuition, for instance, is an important item in the term bill, while for the far more valuable education which he gets by associating with the most cultivated of his contemporaries no charge is made.
The mode of founding a college is, commonly, to get up a subscription of dollars and cents, and then, following blindly the principles of a division of labor to its extreme--a principle which should never be followed but with circumspection--to call in a contractor who makes this a subject of speculation, and he employs Irishmen or other operatives actually to lay the foundations, while the students that are to be are said to be fitting themselves for it; and for these oversights successive generations have to pay. The student who secures his coveted leisure and retirement by systematically shirking any labor necessary to man obtains but an ignoble and unprofitable leisure, defrauding himself of the experience which alone can make leisure fruitful.
How could youths better learn to live than by at once trying the experiment of living? Methinks this would exercise their minds as much as mathematics. If I wished a boy to know something about the arts and sciences, for instance, I would not pursue the common course, which is merely to send him into the neighborhood of some professor, where anything is professed and practised but the art of life;--to survey the world through a telescope or a microscope, and never with his natural eye; to study chemistry, and not learn how his bread is made, or mechanics, and not learn how it is earned; to discover new satellites to Neptune, and not detect the motes in his eyes, or to what vagabond he is a satellite himself; or to be devoured by the monsters that swarm all around him, while contemplating the monsters in a drop of vinegar.
Which would have advanced the most at the end of a month--the boy who had made his own jackknife from the ore which he had dug and smelted, reading as much as would be necessary for this--or the boy who had attended the lectures on metallurgy at the Institute in the meanwhile, and had received a Rodgers' penknife from his father? Which would be most likely to cut his fingers? To my astonishment I was informed on leaving college that I had studied navigation! The consequence is, that while he is reading Adam Smith, Ricardo, and Say, he runs his father in debt irretrievably. As with our colleges, so with a hundred "modern improvements"; there is an illusion about them; there is not always a positive advance.
The devil goes on exacting compound interest to the last for his early share and numerous succeeding investments in them. Our inventions are wont to be pretty toys, which distract our attention from serious things. They are but improved means to an unimproved end, an end which it was already but too easy to arrive at; as railroads lead to Boston or New York.
We are in great haste to construct a magnetic telegraph from Maine to Texas; but Maine and Texas, it may be, have nothing important to communicate. Either is in such a predicament as the man who was earnest to be introduced to a distinguished deaf woman, but when he was presented, and one end of her ear trumpet was put into his hand, had nothing to say. As if the main object were to talk fast and not to talk sensibly. We are eager to tunnel under the Atlantic and bring the Old World some weeks nearer to the New; but perchance the first news that will leak through into the broad, flapping American ear will be that the Princess Adelaide has the whooping cough. After all, the man whose horse trots a mile in a minute does not carry the most important messages; he is not an evangelist, nor does he come round eating locusts and wild honey.
I doubt if Flying Childers ever carried a peck of corn to mill. One says to me, "I wonder that you do not lay up money; you love to travel; you might take the cars and go to Fitchburg today and see the country. I have learned that the swiftest traveller is he that goes afoot. I say to my friend, Suppose we try who will get there first. The distance is thirty miles; the fare ninety cents. That is almost a day's wages. I remember when wages were sixty cents a day for laborers on this very road. Well, I start now on foot, and get there before night; I have travelled at that rate by the week together. You will in the meanwhile have earned your fare, and arrive there some time tomorrow, or possibly this evening, if you are lucky enough to get a job in season.
Instead of going to Fitchburg, you will be working here the greater part of the day. And so, if the railroad reached round the world, I think that I should keep ahead of you; and as for seeing the country and getting experience of that kind, I should have to cut your acquaintance altogether. Such is the universal law, which no man can ever outwit, and with regard to the railroad even we may say it is as broad as it is long. To make a railroad round the world available to all mankind is equivalent to grading the whole surface of the planet. Men have an indistinct notion that if they keep up this activity of joint stocks and spades long enough all will at length ride somewhere, in next to no time, and for nothing; but though a crowd rushes to the depot, and the conductor shouts "All aboard!
This spending of the best part of one's life earning money in order to enjoy a questionable liberty during the least valuable part of it reminds me of the Englishman who went to India to make a fortune first, in order that he might return to England and live the life of a poet. He should have gone up garret at once. The whole lot contains eleven acres, mostly growing up to pines and hickories, and was sold the preceding season for eight dollars and eight cents an acre. One farmer said that it was "good for nothing but to raise cheeping squirrels on. I got out several cords of stumps in plowing, which supplied me with fuel for a long time, and left small circles of virgin mould, easily distinguishable through the summer by the greater luxuriance of the beans there.
The dead and for the most part unmerchantable wood behind my house, and the driftwood from the pond, have supplied the remainder of my fuel. I was obliged to hire a team and a man for the plowing, though I held the plow myself. My farm outgoes for the first season were, for implements, seed, work, etc. The seed corn was given me. This never costs anything to speak of, unless you plant more than enough.
I got twelve bushels of beans, and eighteen bushels of potatoes, beside some peas and sweet corn. The yellow corn and turnips were too late to come to anything. All things considered, that is, considering the importance of a man's soul and of today, notwithstanding the short time occupied by my experiment, nay, partly even because of its transient character, I believe that that was doing better than any farmer in Concord did that year.
The next year I did better still, for I spaded up all the land which I required, about a third of an acre, and I learned from the experience of both years, not being in the least awed by many celebrated works on husbandry, Arthur Young among the rest, that if one would live simply and eat only the crop which he raised, and raise no more than he ate, and not exchange it for an insufficient quantity of more luxurious and expensive things, he would need to cultivate only a few rods of ground, and that it would be cheaper to spade up that than to use oxen to plow it, and to select a fresh spot from time to time than to manure the old, and he could do all his necessary farm work as it were with his left hand at odd hours in the summer; and thus he would not be tied to an ox, or horse, or cow, or pig, as at present.
I desire to speak impartially on this point, and as one not interested in the success or failure of the present economical and social arrangements. I was more independent than any farmer in Concord, for I was not anchored to a house or farm, but could follow the bent of my genius, which is a very crooked one, every moment. Beside being better off than they already, if my house had been burned or my crops had failed, I should have been nearly as well off as before. I am wont to think that men are not so much the keepers of herds as herds are the keepers of men, the former are so much the freer. Men and oxen exchange work; but if we consider necessary work only, the oxen will be seen to have greatly the advantage, their farm is so much the larger.
Man does some of his part of the exchange work in his six weeks of haying, and it is no boy's play. Certainly no nation that lived simply in all respects, that is, no nation of philosophers, would commit so great a blunder as to use the labor of animals. True, there never was and is not likely soon to be a nation of philosophers, nor am I certain it is desirable that there should be.
Granted that some public works would not have been constructed without this aid, and let man share the glory of such with the ox and horse; does it follow that he could not have accomplished works yet more worthy of himself in that case? When men begin to do, not merely unnecessary or artistic, but luxurious and idle work, with their assistance, it is inevitable that a few do all the exchange work with the oxen, or, in other words, become the slaves of the strongest. Man thus not only works for the animal within him, but, for a symbol of this, he works for the animal without him.
Though we have many substantial houses of brick or stone, the prosperity of the farmer is still measured by the degree to which the barn overshadows the house. This town is said to have the largest houses for oxen, cows, and horses hereabouts, and it is not behindhand in its public buildings; but there are very few halls for free worship or free speech in this county. It should not be by their architecture, but why not even by their power of abstract thought, that nations should seek to commemorate themselves? How much more admirable the Bhagvat-Geeta than all the ruins of the East!
Towers and temples are the luxury of princes. A simple and independent mind does not toil at the bidding of any prince. Genius is not a retainer to any emperor, nor is its material silver, or gold, or marble, except to a trifling extent. To what end, pray, is so much stone hammered? In Arcadia, when I was there, I did not see any hammering stone. Nations are possessed with an insane ambition to perpetuate the memory of themselves by the amount of hammered stone they leave. What if equal pains were taken to smooth and polish their manners? One piece of good sense would be more memorable than a monument as high as the moon. I love better to see stones in place. The grandeur of Thebes was a vulgar grandeur.
More sensible is a rod of stone wall that bounds an honest man's field than a hundred-gated Thebes that has wandered farther from the true end of life. The religion and civilization which are barbaric and heathenish build splendid temples; but what you might call Christianity does not. Most of the stone a nation hammers goes toward its tomb only. It buries itself alive. As for the Pyramids, there is nothing to wonder at in them so much as the fact that so many men could be found degraded enough to spend their lives constructing a tomb for some ambitious booby, whom it would have been wiser and manlier to have drowned in the Nile, and then given his body to the dogs. I might possibly invent some excuse for them and him, but I have no time for it.
As for the religion and love of art of the builders, it is much the same all the world over, whether the building be an Egyptian temple or the United States Bank. It costs more than it comes to. The mainspring is vanity, assisted by the love of garlic and bread and butter. When the thirty centuries begin to look down on it, mankind begin to look up at it. As for your high towers and monuments, there was a crazy fellow once in this town who undertook to dig through to China, and he got so far that, as he said, he heard the Chinese pots and kettles rattle; but I think that I shall not go out of my way to admire the hole which he made.
Many are concerned about the monuments of the West and the East--to know who built them. For my part, I should like to know who in those days did not build them--who were above such trifling. But to proceed with my statistics. The expense of food for eight months, namely, from July 4th to March 1st, the time when these estimates were made, though I lived there more than two years--not counting potatoes, a little green corn, and some peas, which I had raised, nor considering the value of what was on hand at the last date--was Rice Rye meal The next year I sometimes caught a mess of fish for my dinner, and once I went so far as to slaughter a woodchuck which ravaged my bean-field--effect his transmigration, as a Tartar would say--and devour him, partly for experiment's sake; but though it afforded me a momentary enjoyment, notwithstanding a musky flavor, I saw that the longest use would not make that a good practice, however it might seem to have your woodchucks ready dressed by the village butcher.
These statistics, however accidental and therefore uninstructive they may appear, as they have a certain completeness, have a certain value also. Nothing was given me of which I have not rendered some account. It appears from the above estimate, that my food alone cost me in money about twenty-seven cents a week. It was, for nearly two years after this, rye and Indian meal without yeast, potatoes, rice, a very little salt pork, molasses, and salt; and my drink, water. It was fit that I should live on rice, mainly, who love so well the philosophy of India. To meet the objections of some inveterate cavillers, I may as well state, that if I dined out occasionally, as I always had done, and I trust shall have opportunities to do again, it was frequently to the detriment of my domestic arrangements.
But the dining out, being, as I have stated, a constant element, does not in the least affect a comparative statement like this. I learned from my two years' experience that it would cost incredibly little trouble to obtain one's necessary food, even in this latitude; that a man may use as simple a diet as the animals, and yet retain health and strength. I give the Latin on account of the savoriness of the trivial name.
And pray what more can a reasonable man desire, in peaceful times, in ordinary noons, than a sufficient number of ears of green sweet corn boiled, with the addition of salt? Even the little variety which I used was a yielding to the demands of appetite, and not of health. Yet men have come to such a pass that they frequently starve, not for want of necessaries, but for want of luxuries; and I know a good woman who thinks that her son lost his life because he took to drinking water only. The reader will perceive that I am treating the subject rather from an economic than a dietetic point of view, and he will not venture to put my abstemiousness to the test unless he has a well-stocked larder.
Bread I at first made of pure Indian meal and salt, genuine hoe-cakes, which I baked before my fire out of doors on a shingle or the end of a stick of timber sawed off in building my house; but it was wont to get smoked and to have a piny flavor. I tried flour also; but have at last found a mixture of rye and Indian meal most convenient and agreeable. In cold weather it was no little amusement to bake several small loaves of this in succession, tending and turning them as carefully as an Egyptian his hatching eggs.
They were a real cereal fruit which I ripened, and they had to my senses a fragrance like that of other noble fruits, which I kept in as long as possible by wrapping them in cloths. I made a study of the ancient and indispensable art of bread-making, consulting such authorities as offered, going back to the primitive days and first invention of the unleavened kind, when from the wildness of nuts and meats men first reached the mildness and refinement of this diet, and travelling gradually down in my studies through that accidental souring of the dough which, it is supposed, taught the leavening process, and through the various fermentations thereafter, till I came to "good, sweet, wholesome bread," the staff of life.
Yet I find it not to be an essential ingredient, and after going without it for a year am still in the land of the living; and I am glad to escape the trivialness of carrying a bottleful in my pocket, which would sometimes pop and discharge its contents to my discomfiture. It is simpler and more respectable to omit it. Man is an animal who more than any other can adapt himself to all climates and circumstances. Neither did I put any sal-soda, or other acid or alkali, into my bread. It would seem that I made it according to the recipe which Marcus Porcius Cato gave about two centuries before Christ.
Manus mortariumque bene lavato. Farinam in mortarium indito, aquae paulatim addito, subigitoque pulchre. Ubi bene subegeris, defingito, coquitoque sub testu. Wash your hands and trough well. Put the meal into the trough, add water gradually, and knead it thoroughly. When you have kneaded it well, mould it, and bake it under a cover," that is, in a baking kettle. Not a word about leaven. But I did not always use this staff of life. At one time, owing to the emptiness of my purse, I saw none of it for more than a month. Every New Englander might easily raise all his own breadstuffs in this land of rye and Indian corn, and not depend on distant and fluctuating markets for them.
Yet so far are we from simplicity and independence that, in Concord, fresh and sweet meal is rarely sold in the shops, and hominy and corn in a still coarser form are hardly used by any. For the most part the farmer gives to his cattle and hogs the grain of his own producing, and buys flour, which is at least no more wholesome, at a greater cost, at the store. I saw that I could easily raise my bushel or two of rye and Indian corn, for the former will grow on the poorest land, and the latter does not require the best, and grind them in a hand-mill, and so do without rice and pork; and if I must have some concentrated sweet, I found by experiment that I could make a very good molasses either of pumpkins or beets, and I knew that I needed only to set out a few maples to obtain it more easily still, and while these were growing I could use various substitutes beside those which I have named.
I do not learn that the Indians ever troubled themselves to go after it. Thus I could avoid all trade and barter, so far as my food was concerned, and having a shelter already, it would only remain to get clothing and fuel. The pantaloons which I now wear were woven in a farmer's family--thank Heaven there is so much virtue still in man; for I think the fall from the farmer to the operative as great and memorable as that from the man to the farmer;--and in a new country, fuel is an encumbrance.
As for a habitat, if I were not permitted still to squat, I might purchase one acre at the same price for which the land I cultivated was sold--namely, eight dollars and eight cents. But as it was, I considered that I enhanced the value of the land by squatting on it. There is a certain class of unbelievers who sometimes ask me such questions as, if I think that I can live on vegetable food alone; and to strike at the root of the matter at once--for the root is faith--I am accustomed to answer such, that I can live on board nails.
If they cannot understand that, they cannot understand much that I have to say. For my part, I am glad to hear of experiments of this kind being tried; as that a young man tried for a fortnight to live on hard, raw corn on the ear, using his teeth for all mortar. The squirrel tribe tried the same and succeeded. The human race is interested in these experiments, though a few old women who are incapacitated for them, or who own their thirds in mills, may be alarmed. None is so poor that he need sit on a pumpkin. That is shiftlessness.
There is a plenty of such chairs as I like best in the village garrets to be had for taking them away. Thank God, I can sit and I can stand without the aid of a furniture warehouse. What man but a philosopher would not be ashamed to see his furniture packed in a cart and going up country exposed to the light of heaven and the eyes of men, a beggarly account of empty boxes? That is Spaulding's furniture.
I could never tell from inspecting such a load whether it belonged to a so-called rich man or a poor one; the owner always seemed poverty-stricken. Indeed, the more you have of such things the poorer you are. Each load looks as if it contained the contents of a dozen shanties; and if one shanty is poor, this is a dozen times as poor. It is the same as if all these traps were buckled to a man's belt, and he could not move over the rough country where our lines are cast without dragging them--dragging his trap. He was a lucky fox that left his tail in the trap. The muskrat will gnaw his third leg off to be free. No wonder man has lost his elasticity.
How often he is at a dead set! I think that the man is at a dead set who has got through a knot-hole or gateway where his sledge load of furniture cannot follow him. I cannot but feel compassion when I hear some trig, compact-looking man, seemingly free, all girded and ready, speak of his "furniture," as whether it is insured or not. Even those who seem for a long while not to have any, if you inquire more narrowly you will find have some stored in somebody's barn. I look upon England today as an old gentleman who is travelling with a great deal of baggage, trumpery which has accumulated from long housekeeping, which he has not the courage to burn; great trunk, little trunk, bandbox, and bundle. Throw away the first three at least. It would surpass the powers of a well man nowadays to take up his bed and walk, and I should certainly advise a sick one to lay down his bed and run.
If I have got to drag my trap, I will take care that it be a light one and do not nip me in a vital part. But perchance it would be wisest never to put one's paw into it. I would observe, by the way, that it costs me nothing for curtains, for I have no gazers to shut out but the sun and moon, and I am willing that they should look in. The moon will not sour milk nor taint meat of mine, nor will the sun injure my furniture or fade my carpet; and if he is sometimes too warm a friend, I find it still better economy to retreat behind some curtain which nature has provided, than to add a single item to the details of housekeeping.
A lady once offered me a mat, but as I had no room to spare within the house, nor time to spare within or without to shake it, I declined it, preferring to wipe my feet on the sod before my door. It is best to avoid the beginnings of evil. Not long since I was present at the auction of a deacon's effects, for his life had not been ineffectual "The evil that men do lives after them.
Among the rest was a dried tapeworm. The neighbors eagerly collected to view them, bought them all, and carefully transported them to their garrets and dust holes, to lie there till their estates are settled, when they will start again. When a man dies he kicks the dust. The customs of some savage nations might, perchance, be profitably imitated by us, for they at least go through the semblance of casting their slough annually; they have the idea of the thing, whether they have the reality or not.
Would it not be well if we were to celebrate such a "busk," or "feast of first fruits," as Bartram describes to have been the custom of the Mucclasse Indians? After having taken medicine, and fasted for three days, all the fire in the town is extinguished. During this fast they abstain from the gratification of every appetite and passion whatever. A general amnesty is proclaimed; all malefactors may return to their town. I have scarcely heard of a truer sacrament, that is, as the dictionary defines it, "outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace," than this, and I have no doubt that they were originally inspired directly from Heaven to do thus, though they have no Biblical record of the revelation.
The whole of my winters, as well as most of my summers, I had free and clear for study. I have thoroughly tried school-keeping, and found that my expenses were in proportion, or rather out of proportion, to my income, for I was obliged to dress and train, not to say think and believe, accordingly, and I lost my time into the bargain. As I did not teach for the good of my fellow-men, but simply for a livelihood, this was a failure. I have tried trade but I found that it would take ten years to get under way in that, and that then I should probably be on my way to the devil.
I was actually afraid that I might by that time be doing what is called a good business. When formerly I was looking about to see what I could do for a living, some sad experience in conforming to the wishes of friends being fresh in my mind to tax my ingenuity, I thought often and seriously of picking huckleberries; that surely I could do, and its small profits might suffice--for my greatest skill has been to want but little--so little capital it required, so little distraction from my wonted moods, I foolishly thought. While my acquaintances went unhesitatingly into trade or the professions, I contemplated this occupation as most like theirs; ranging the hills all summer to pick the berries which came in my way, and thereafter carelessly dispose of them; so, to keep the flocks of Admetus.
I also dreamed that I might gather the wild herbs, or carry evergreens to such villagers as loved to be reminded of the woods, even to the city, by hay-cart loads. But I have since learned that trade curses everything it handles; and though you trade in messages from heaven, the whole curse of trade attaches to the business. As I preferred some things to others, and especially valued my freedom, as I could fare hard and yet succeed well, I did not wish to spend my time in earning rich carpets or other fine furniture, or delicate cookery, or a house in the Grecian or the Gothic style just yet. If there are any to whom it is no interruption to acquire these things, and who know how to use them when acquired, I relinquish to them the pursuit.
Some are "industrious," and appear to love labor for its own sake, or perhaps because it keeps them out of worse mischief; to such I have at present nothing to say. Those who would not know what to do with more leisure than they now enjoy, I might advise to work twice as hard as they do--work till they pay for themselves, and get their free papers. For myself I found that the occupation of a day-laborer was the most independent of any, especially as it required only thirty or forty days in a year to support one.
The laborer's day ends with the going down of the sun, and he is then free to devote himself to his chosen pursuit, independent of his labor; but his employer, who speculates from month to month, has no respite from one end of the year to the other. In short, I am convinced, both by faith and experience, that to maintain one's self on this earth is not a hardship but a pastime, if we will live simply and wisely; as the pursuits of the simpler nations are still the sports of the more artificial. It is not necessary that a man should earn his living by the sweat of his brow, unless he sweats easier than I do. The youth may build or plant or sail, only let him not be hindered from doing that which he tells me he would like to do.
It is by a mathematical point only that we are wise, as the sailor or the fugitive slave keeps the polestar in his eye; but that is sufficient guidance for all our life. We may not arrive at our port within a calculable period, but we would preserve the true course. Undoubtedly, in this case, what is true for one is truer still for a thousand, as a large house is not proportionally more expensive than a small one, since one roof may cover, one cellar underlie, and one wall separate several apartments.
Venturi's two major books have been constructed along precisely these lines. They are both critical and historical. This one, the first, despite its significant introduction of sev- eral important modes of literary criticism into architectural writing, explores mainly the physical reaction to form and is thus basically empathetic in method. The second, Learning from Las Vegas written with authors Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour , is primarily concerned with the func- tion of sign in human art and is therefore fundamentally linguistic in its approach.
Between them the two volumes, always impeccably visual in their argument, shape an im- pressive working aesthetic for contemporary architects. At this distance, I feel doubly honored to have been in- vited to write the original introduction, which now seems to me not so well written as the book itself edited by Marian Scully , but embarrassingly correct in its conclu- sions. I am especially pleased to have had the wit to assert in it that Complexity and Contradiction was "the most impor- tant writing on the making of architecture since Le Corbus- ier's Vers une Architecture, of It doesn't matter much.
What counts is that this brilliant, liberating book was published when it was. It provided architects and critics alike with more realistic and effective weapons, so that the breadth and relevance which the archi- tectural dialogue has since achieved were largely initiated by it. Tradition is a matter of much and an apologia-an explanation, indirectly, of my work. It cannot be inherited, and if you want it Because I am a practicing architect, my ideas on architec- you must obtain it by great labour. It involves, in the first ture are inevitably a by-product of the criticism which place, the historical sense, which we may call nearly indis- accompanies working, and which is, as T. Eliot has said, pensable to anyone who would continue to be a poet of "capital importance.
I maintain not merely with his own generation in his bones, but with a even that the criticism employed by a trained and skilled feeling that the whole of the literature of Europe. This historical sense, which is a sense of the timeless as ploys criticism rather than a critic who chooses architecture well as of the temporal and of the timeless and temporal and this book represents a particular set of emphases, a way together, is what makes a writer traditional, and it is at the of seeing architecture, which I find valid.
No son as tools of literary criticism. These critical methods are poet, no artist of any kind, has his complete meaning valid for architecture too: architecture is open to analysis alone. Analysis includes the breaking up of archi- harping continually on what is different in our time to such tecture into elements, a technique I frequently use even an extent that they have lost touch with what is not differ- though it is the opposite of the integration which is the ent, with what is essentially the same. However paradoxical it appears, and de- The examples chosen reflect my partiality for certain spite the suspicions of many Modern architects, such disin- eras: Mannerist, Baroque, and Rococo especially.
AS tegration is a process present in all creation, and it is Henry-Russell Hitchcock says, "there always exists a real essential to understanding. Self-consciousness is necessarily need to re-examine the work of the past. There is, presuma- a part of creation and criticism. Architects today are too bly, almost always a generic interest in architectural history educated to be either primitive or totally spontaneous, and among architects; but the aspects, or periods, of history that architecture is too complex to be approached with carefully seem at any given time to merit the closest attention cer- maintained ignorance.
From what we find we like-what we are considered. The historical comparisons chosen are part of a easily attracted to-we can learn much of what we really continuous tradition relevant to my concerns. When Eliot are. Louis Kahn has referred to "what a thing wants to be," writes about tradition, his comments are equally relevant to but implicit in this statement is its opposite: what the architecture, notwithstanding the more obvious changes in architect wants the thing to be.
In the tension and balance architectural methods due to technological innovations. English writing," Eliot says, "we seldom speak of tradi- The comparisons include some buildings which are nei- tion. Seldom, perhaps, does the word appear except in ther beautiful nor great, and they have been lifted abstractly a phrase of censure. If otherwise, it is vaguely approbative, from their historical context because I rely less on the idea with the implication, as to a work approved, of some of style than on the inherent characteristics of specific pleasing archeological reconstruction.
Yet if the only buildings. That is no longer true, and there is present. It is only indirectly polemical. Everything is said in little reason to fear that it will, in our time, become so the context of current architecture and consequently certain again. Both the architects and the historian-critics of the targets are attacked-in general, the limitations of orthodox early twentieth century, when they were not merely seeking Modern architecture and city planning, in particular, the in the past fresh ammunition for current polemical warfare, platitudinous architects who invoke integrity, technology, taught us to see all architecture, as it were, abstractly, false or electronic programming as ends in architecture, the though such a limited vision probably is to the complex popularizers who paint "fairy stories over our chaotic sensibilities that produced most of the great architecture of reality" lo and suppress those complexities and contradic- the past.
Nevertheless, this book aspect of earlier building production today, it is with no is an analysis of what seems to me true for architecture now, idea of repeating its forms, but rather in the expectation of rather than a diatribe against what seems false. To the pure historian this may seem regrettable, as introducing highly subjective elements into what he believes ought to be objective studies. Yet the pure historian, more often than not, will eventually find himself moving in directions that have been already determined by Note to the Second Edition more sensitive weathervanes.
I have not tried to "improve the connections be- architect responding to aspects of architectural theory and tween science and technology on the one hand, and the dogma of that time. The issues are different now, and I humanities and the social sciences on the other. Sir John its time, more historical than topical. For this reason the Summerson has referred to the architects' obsession with second part of the book, which covers the work of our firm "the importance, not of architecture, but of the relation of up to , is not expanded in this second edition. In the early 'bus, however, form was king in and have been staking a claim for architecture rather than architectural thought, and most architectural theory focused producing architecture.
Architects seldom planning. The architect's ever diminishing power and his thought of symbolism in architecture then, and social issues growing ineffectualness in shaping the whole environment came to dominate only in the second half of that decade. Perhaps then ments our focus on symbolism in architecture several years relationships and power will take care of themselves. I later in Learning from Las Vegas. Krautheimer, who shared his insights on Roman Baroque because the arts belong as the ancients said to the prac- architecture with us Fellows at the American Academy in tical and not the speculative intelligence, there is no sur- Rome.
I am grateful also to my friend Vincent Scully for rogate for being on the job. I am happy that The Museum of Modern Art is en- in relation to the present. It does not attempt to be visionary larging the format of this edition so that the illustrations except insofar as the future is inherent in the reality of the are now more readable. Perhaps it is the fate of all theorists to view the ripples from their works with mixed feelings. I have some- times felt more comfortable with my critics than with those who have agreed with me. The latter have often misapplied or exaggerated the ideas and methods of this book to the' point of parody. Some have said the ideas are fine but don't go far enough. But most of the thought here was intended to be suggestive rather than dogmatic, and the method of historical analogy can be taken only so far in architectural criticism.
Should an artist go all the way with his or her philosophies? Nonstraightfoward Architecture: 2. A Gentle Manifesto Simplification or Picturesqueness I like complexity and contradiction in architecture. I Orthodox Modern architects have tended to recognize do not like the incoherence or arbitrariness of incompetent complexity insufficientlyor inconsistently. In their attempt architecture nor the precious intricacies of picturesqueness to break with tradition and start all over again, they ideal- or expressionism.
Instead, I speak of a complex and contra- ized the primitive and elementary at the expense of the dictory architecture based on the richness and ambiguity of diverse and the sophisticated. As participants in a revolu- modern experience, including that experience which is in- tionary movement, they acclaimed the newness of modern herent in art. Everywhere, except in architecture, complex- functions, ignoring their complications. In their role as ity and contradiction have been acknowledged, from reformers, they puritanically advocated the separation and Godel's proof of ultimate inconsistency in mathematics to exclusion of elements, rather than the inclusion of various T.
Eliot's analysis of "difficult" poetry and Joseph Albers' requirements and their juxtapositions. As a forerunner of definition of the paradoxical quality of painting. And today the and such building harmonies appear that. So I believed. Purism, spoke of the "great primary forms" which, he pro- The increasing dimension and scale of architecture in urban claimed, were "distinct. I welcome the Modern architects with few exceptions eschewed ambiguity. By embracing con- But now our position is different: "At the same time tradiction as well as complexity, I aim for vitality as well as that the problems increase in quantity, complexity, and dif- validity.
I like elements which are hybrid rather than ''pure," and orderly to a view of life as complex and ironic is what compromising rather than "clean," distorted rather than every individual passes through in becoming mature. But "straightforward," ambiguous rather than "articulated," per- certain epochs encourage this development; in them the verse as well as impersonal, boring as well as "interesting," paradoxical or dramatic outlook colors the whole intellectual conventional rather than "designed," accommodating rather scene.
Amid simplicity and order rationalism is born, than excluding, redundant rather than simple, vestigial as but rationalism proves inadequate in any period of upheaval. Such direct and clear. I am for messy vitality over obvious unity. A feeling for para- I am for richness of meaning rather than clarity of dox allows seemingly dissimilar things to exist side by side, meaning; for the implicit function as well as the explicit their very incongruity suggesting a kind of truth.
I prefer "both-and to "either-or," black and Rationalizations for simplification are still current, white, and sometimes gray, to black or white. A valid however, though subtler than the early arguments. They are architecture evokes many levels of meaning and combina- expansions of Mies van der Rohe's magnificent paradox, tions of focus: its space and its elements become readable "less is more. Indeed it is a characteristic of the twentieth has a special obligation toward the whole: its truth must be century that architects are highly selective in determining in its totality or its implications of totality. It must embody which problems they want to solve.
Mies, for instance, the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of makes wonderful buildings only because he ignores many exclusion. More is not less. It does, indeed, permit the architect to be "highly selective in determining which problems [he wants to solve. He can exclude important considerations only at the risk of separating architecture from the experience of life and the needs of society. If some problems prove insoluble, he can express this: in an inclusive rather than an exclusive kind of architecture there is room for the fragment, for contra- diction, for improvisation, and for the tensions these pro- duce.
Mies' exquisite pavilions have had valuable implica- tions for architecture, but their selectiveness of content and language is their limitation as well as their strength. I question the relevance of analogies between pavil- ions and houses, especially analogies between Japanese pa- 1. Wiley House, New Canaan vilions and recent domestic architecture. Thev ignore the real complexity and contradiction inherent in ;he-domestic program-the spatial and technological possibilities as well as the need for variety in visual experience. Forced simplic- ity results in oversimplification. In the Wiley House, for instance I , in contrast to his glass house 2 , Philip Johnson attempted to go beyond the simplicities of the elegant pavilion.
He explicitly separated and articulated the enclosed "private functions" of living on a ground floor pedestal, thus separating them from the open social func- tions in the modular pavilion above. But even here the building becomes a diagram of an oversimplified program for living-an abstract theory of either-or. Where simplic- ity cannot work, simpleness results.
Blatant simplification means bland architecture. Less is a bore. The recognition of complexity in architecture does not negate what Louis Kahn has called "the desire for simplic- ity. The Doric temple's simplicity to the eye is achieved through the famous subtleties and precision of its distorted geometry and the contradictions and tensions inherent in its order. The Doric temple could achieve apparent simplic- ity through real complexity.
When complexity disappeared, as in the late temples, blandness replaced simplicity. A false complexity has recently countered the false simplicity of an earlier Modern architecture. Its intricate forms do not reflect genuinely ' complex programs, and its intricate ornament, though de- P 'A pendent on industrial techniques for execution, is dryly '"a, reminiscent of forms originally created by handicraft tech- niques. Gothic tracery and Rococo rocaille were not only expressively valid in relation to the whole, but came from a valid showing-off of hand skills and expressed a vitality derived from the immediacy and individuality of the method. This kind of complexity through exuberance, per- haps impossible today, is the antithesis of "serene" architec- ture, despite the superficial resemblance between them.
But if exuberance is not characteristic of our art, it is tension, rather than "serenity" that would appear to be so. The best twentieth-century architects have usually re- jected simplification-that is, simplicity through reduction -in order to promote complexity within the whole. But the charac- teristics of complexity and contradiction in their work are often ignored or misunderstood. Critics of Aalto, for in- stance, have liked him mostly for his sensitivity to natural materials and his fine detailing, and have considered his whole composition willful picturesqueness. I do not con- sider Aalto's Imatra church picturesque.
By repeating in the massing the genuine complexity of the triple-divided plan and the acoustical ceiling pattern 3 , this church repre- sents a justifiable expressionism different from the willful picturesqueness of the haphazard structure and spaces of Giovanni Michelucci's recent church for the Autostrada 4. Though we no longer argue over the primacy of form or function which follows which? The desire for a complex architecture, with its attend- ant contradictions, is not only a reaction to the banality or prettiness of current architecture.
It is an attitude common Today this attitude is again relevant to both the me- dium of architecture and the program in architecture. First, the medium of architecture must be re-examined if the increased scope of our architecture as well as the complexity of its goals is to be expressed. Simplified or superficially complex forms will not work. Instead, the - 1 variety inherent in the ambiguity of visual perception must once more be acknowledged and exploited. Second, the growing complexities of our functional problems must be acknowledged.
I refer, of course, to those programs, unique in our time, which are complex because of their scope, such as research laboratories, hospitals, and particularly the enormous projects at the scale of city and.. But even the house, simple in scope, is complex in purpose if the ambiguities of contemporary experience are expressed. This contrast between the means and the goals of a program is significant. Although the means involved in the program of a rocket to get to the moon, for instance, are almost infinitely complex, the goal is simple and contains few contradictions; although the means involved in the program and structure of buildings Mlcheluccl Church of the Autostrada near Florence are far simpler and less sophisticated technologically than almost any engineering project, the purpose is more com- plex and often inherently ambiguous.
I am therefore sorry I made this unsympathetic comparison. Ambiguity While the second classification of complexity and con- scientist does, breaking it up into parts, distinguishing part tradiction in architecture relates to form and content as from part, classifying the various parts. His task is finally to manifestations of program and structure, the first concerns unify experience. He must return to us the unity of the ; the medium and refers to a paradox inherent in perception experience itself as man knows it in his own experience. If the poet. Joseph Albers calls "the dis- sity, then his use of paradox and ambiguity is seen as!
I crepancy between physical fact and psychic effect" a contra- necessary. He is not simply trying to spice up, with a diction which is "the origin of art. He is rather giving us an insight which t has been characteristic of painting and amply recognized in preserves the unity of experience and which, at its higher art criticism. Abstract Expressionism acknowledges percep- and more serious levels, triumphs over the apparently con- I tual ambiguity, and the basis of Optical Art is shifting tradictory and conflicting elements of experience by unify- i juxtapositions and ambiguous dualities relating to form and ing them into a new pattern.
Pop painters, too, have employed ambiguity to And in Seven Ty9es of Ambigaity William Empson create paradoxical content as well as to exploit perceptual. As in archi- from Shakespeare, "the supreme ambiguist, not so much tectural criticism, they refer to a Mannerist era, but unlike from the confusion of his ideas and the muddle of his text, I- - - - -. Plan ist" strain continuing through particular poets, and some, complexity of his mind and art.
Architecture is form dium of poetry, just as Albers does with painting. An architectural element is perceived as form and "in a play of Shakespeare," he said, "you get several levels structure, texture and material. These oscillating relation- of significance" l8 where, quoting Samuel Johnson, "the most ships, complex and contradictory, are the source of the heterogeneous ideas are yoked together by violence. The conjunction "or" with a question mark provide an interesting example of a very great literary and can usually describe ambiguous relationships.
The Villa dramatic genius directed towards chaos. The size of Van- for example, Kenneth Burke, who refers to "plural interpre- brugh's fore-pavilions at Grimsthorpe 6 in relation to tation" and "planned incongruity," have analyzed elements the back pavilions is ambiguous from a distance: are they of paradox and ambiguity in the structure and meaning of near or far, big or small? Bernini's pilasters on the Palazzo other poetry besides that of the seventeenth century meta- di Propaganda Fide 7 : are they positive pilasters or nega- physical poets and those modern poets who have been in- tive panel divisions?
The ornamental cove in the Casino fluenced by them. The central dip in Lutyens' facade at Nashdorn and contradiction by their necessity as the very essence of 9 facilitates skylighting: is the resultant duality resolved art: 'Yet there are better reasons than that of rhetorical or not? Luigi Moretti's apartments on the Via Parioli in vainglory that have induced poet after poet to choose ambi- Rome 10 : are they one building with a split or two guity and paradox rather than plain discursive simplicity. It buildings joined? Lincolnshire 8.
Vatican, Rome 7. Nashdom, Taplow Via Parloll, Rome confusion of experience as reflected in the architectural program. This promotes richness of meaning over clarity of meaning. As Empson admits, there is good and bad ambi- guity: ". Contradictory Levels: The Phenomenon of "Both-And" in Architecture Contradictory levels of meaning and use in architec- ture involve the paradoxical contrast implied by the con- junctive "yet. Le Corbusier's Shodhan House 11 is closed yet open-a cube, precisely closed by its corners, yet randomly opened on its surfaces; his Villa Savoye 12 is simple outside yet com- plex inside.
The Tudor plan of Barrington Court 13 is symmetrical yet asymmetrical; Guarini's Church of the Im- maculate Conception in Turin 14 is a duality in plan and yet a unity; Sir Edwin Lutyens' entrance gallery at Middle- ton Park 15, 16 is directional space, yet it terminates at a blank wall; Vignola's fasade for the pavilion at Bomarzo 17 contains a portal, yet it is a blank portico; Kahn's buildings contain crude concrete yet polished grantite; an urban street is directional as a route yet static as a place.
This series of conjunctive "yets" describes an architecture of contradiction at varying levels of program and structure. None of these ordered contradictions represents a search for beauty, but neither as paradoxes, are they caprice. Cleanth Brooks refers to Donne's art as "having it both ways" but, he says, "most of us in this latter day, cannot. W e are disciplined in the tradition either-or, and lack the mental agility-to say nothing of the maturity of attitude-which would allow us to indulge in the finer distinctions and the more subtle reservations permitted by the tradition of both-and.
Even "flowing space" has implied being outside when inside, and inside when outside, rather than both at the same time. Such manifestations of articulation and clarity are foreign - to an architecture of complexity and contradiction, which tends to include "both-and" rather than exclude "either-or. It can in- clude elements that are both good and awkward, big and little, closed and open, continuous and articulated, round and square, structural and spatial. An architecture which includes varying. Barrington Court, Somerset.
Pavilion, Bomarzo. Elevation Church of the Immaculate Conception, Turin. Plan Middleton Park, Oxfordshire. Simulta- neous perception of a multiplicity of levels involves struggles and hesitations for the observer, and makes his perception more vivid. Examples which are both good and bad at the same time will perhaps in one way explain Kahn's enigmatic remark: "architecture must have bad spaces as well as good spaces. The decisions for such valid compromises are one of the chief tasks of the architect. In Hawksmoor's St. George-in-the-East 18 the exag- gerated keystones over the aisle windows are wrong in relation to the part: when seen close-up they are too big in relation to'the opening they span. When seen farther back, Peter's 1 9 are wider than' they are high, so that they must be spanned the long way.
This is perverse in relation to the spanning limitations of masonry, which dictate in Classical architecture that big openings, such as these, be vertically proportioned. But because one usually expects vertical proportions, the longitudinal spanning ex- presses validly and vividly their relative smallness. The main stair in Frank Furness' Pennsylvania Acad- emy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia 20 is too big in relation to its immediate surroundings. It lands on a space narrower than its width, and faces an opening narrower than its width. Furthermore, the opening is bisected by a post. But this stair is ceremonial and symbolic as well as functional, and it relates to the hall immediately beyond the opening, to the whole building, and to the great scale of Broad Street outside.
The outer thirds of Michelangelo's stair in the Laurentian Library vestibule 2 1 are abruptly Miche langelo. Laurentian Library. Plan chopped off and lead virtually nowhere: it is similarly wrong in the relation of its size to its space, and yet right in rela- tion to the whole context of the spaces beyond. Vanbrugh's end bays in the central pavilion of the entrance fagade of Blenheim Palace 22 are incorrect because they are bisected by a pilaster: this fragmentation produces a duality which decreases their unity.
Their very Rear Faqade. The pavilions which flanked the chlteau at Marly 2 3 contained a similar paradox. The compositional dual- ity of their two-bay fasades lacks unity, but reinforces the unity of the whole complex. Their own incompleteness implied the dominance of the chlteau itself and the com- pleteness of the whole. The basilica, which has mono-directional space, and the central-type church, which has omnidirectional space, represent alternating traditions in Western church plans.
But another tradition has accommodated churches which are both-and, in answer to spatial, structural, programma- tic, and symbolic needs. The Mannerist elliptical plan of the sixteenth century is both central and directional. Its culrni- nation is Bernini's Sant' Andrea a1 Quirinale 24 , whose main directional axis contradictorily spans the short axis. Nikolaus Pevsner has shown how pilasters rather than open chapels bisect both ends crf the tiansverse axis of the iide walls, thereby reinforcing the short axis toward the altar.
The rounded corners, as well, begin to imply a continuity of enclosure and a central- type plan. These characteristics occur in the courtyard of San Carlo alle b a t t r o Fontane too. And the diagonal gridlike ribs in the ceiling indicate a multidirectional struc- ture as much like a dome as a vault. Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is equivocal in a similar way. Its central dome on the square bay with pendentives implies a central type church, but its two apses with half-domes begin to set up a longitudinal axis in the tradition of the directional basilica.
The horseshoe plan of the Baroque and neo-Baroque opera house focuses on the stage and the center of the auditorium. Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome. Plan The central focus of the elliptical plan is usually reflected in the ornamental ceiling pattern and the enormous central chandelier; the focus toward the stage in the directional distortion of the ellipse and partitions between the sur- rounding boxes as well as in the interruption of the stage itself, of course, and the seating in the pit.
This reflects the dual focus in the program of the gala theatre: the performance and the audience. Borromini's San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane 26 abounds in ambiguous manifestations of both-and. The San Carlo alle Ouattro Fonlane. Rome San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rudolf Wittkower has analyzed similar contradictions in section. The pattern of the ceiling in the articulations of its complex mouldings suggests a dome on pendentives over the crossing of a Greek cross 2 7. The shape of the ceiling in its overall continuity distorts these elements into parodies of themselves, and suggests rather a dome generated from an undulating wall. These distorted elements are both continuous and articu- lated. At another scale, shape and pattern play similarly contradictory roles.
For example, the profile of the Byzantine capital 28 makes it seem continuous, but the texture and vestigial patterns of volutes and acanthus leaves articulate the parts. The pedimented porch of Nicholas Hawksmoor's St. The west entrance and tower, the interior configuration of balconies, and the east apse which contained the altar all suggest an equally dominant counter axis.
By means of contrary ele- ments and distorted positions this church expresses both the contrasts between the back, front, and sides of the Latin cross plan and the duo-directional axes of a Greek cross plan. These contradictions, which resulted from particular site and orientation conditions, support a richness and ten- sion lacking in many purer compositions. The domed basilica of Vierzehnheiligen 31 has a central altar under a major dome in the nave. Nikolaus Pevsner has vividly contrasted its series of domes, which are distorted and superimposed on the Latin cross plan, with the conventional placing of a single dome at the crossing.
This is a Latin cross church, which is also a central-type church because of the unusual position of the altar and the central dome. Other late Baroque churches juxtapose the square and the circle. Bernardo Vittone's elements-ambig- uously pendentives or squinches-in the nave of S. Maria di Piazza in Turin 32 support what is both a dome and a square lantern. Hawksmoor juxtaposes mould- ings in rectangular and elliptical patterns on the ceilings of some of his churches.
They create contradictory expressions of both central and directional-type churches. In some Hawksrnoor St. George, rooms of the Palazzo di Propaganda Fide 33 a straddling George, Bioornsbury Bloornsbufy. Pilgrimage Church. Vierzehnheiligen, near Banz. Plan ' Palazzo d i Propaganda Fide. Marla di Plazza. Turln Stephen Walbrook. This is similar to Wren's ceiling configuration in St. Stephen Walbrook 3 4. In the ceilings of his secular chambers 35 Sir John Soane glories in spaces and structures both rectangular and curvilinear, and domed and vaulted. His methods include complex combinations of vestigial structural shapes resem- bling squinches and pendentives, oculi, and groins.
Soane's Museum 3 6 employs a vestigial element in another di- mension: the partition in the form of suspended arches, meaningless structurally yet meaningful spatially, defines rooms at once open and closed. The facade of the cathedral at Murcia 3 7 employs what has been called inflection to promote largeness yet smallness. The broken pediments above the shafts are in- flected toward each other to help suggest an enormous portal, appropriate spatially to the plaza below and symbol- ically to the region beyond. Storied orders within the shafts, however, accommodate the scale of the immediate conditions of the building itself and its setting.
Bigness and smallness are expressed at once in a characteristic Shingle Style stair through distortion in width and direction. The risers and treads remain constant, of course, but the widen- ing of the run at the bottom accommodates the spacious living-room hall below, while the narrower run at the top relates to the narrower hall above. Precast concrete construction can be continuous yet fragmentary, flowing in profile yet surfaced with joints. The contours of its profiles between columns and beams can 35 Soane. Court of Exchequer, Palace of W e s l m n s t e r , London Interlor perspective designate the continuity of the structural system, but the pattern of its grouted jbints can designate ;he fragmented method of its erection.
The tower of Christ Church, Spitalfields 3 8 , is a manifestation of both-and at the scale of the city. Hawks- moor's tower is both a wall and a tower. Toward the bottom the vista is terminated by the extension of its walls into kinds of buttresses 3 9 perpendicular to the ap- proaching street. They are seen from only one direction. The top evolves into a spire, which is seen from all sides, spatially and symbolicalIy dominating the skyline of the parish. In the Bruges Cloth Hall 4 0 the scale of the building relates to the immediate square, while the vio- lently disproportionate scale of the tower above relates to the whole town.
For similar reasons the big sign sits on top Soane Soane House and Museuni. The Arc de Triomphe also has contrasting functions. Seen diagonally from the radial approaches other than the Champs Elyskes, it is a sculptural termination. Seen perpendicularly from the axis of the Champs Elyskes, it is spatially and symbolically both a termination and a portal. Later I shall analyze some organ- ized contradictions between front and back. But here I shall mention the Karlskirche in Vienna 42 , whose exterior contains elements both of the basilica in its fasade and of the central-type church in its body.
A convex form in the back was required by the interior program; the urban space required a larger scale and a straight fagade in front. The disunity that exists from the point of view of the building itself is contradicted when the building is seen in relation to the scale and the space of the neighborhood. The double meanings inherent in the phenomenon both-and can involve metamorphosis as well as contradic- tion. I have described how the omni-directional spire of the tower of Christ Church, Spitalfields, evolves into a direc- tional pavilion at its base, but a perceptual rather than a formal kind of change in meaning is possible.
In equivocal relationships one contradictory meaning usually dominates another, but in complex compositions the relationship is not always constant. This is especially true as the observer moves through or around a building, and by extension through a city: at one moment one meaning can be per- ceived as dominant; at another moment a different meaning seems paramount.
In St. George, Bloomsbury 30 , for instance, the contradictory axes inside become alternatingly dominant or recessive as the observer moves within them, SO that the same space changes meaning. Here is another dimension of "space, time and architecture" which involves the multiple focus. Christ Church. Cloth Hall and Belfry, Bruges Fischer von Erlach. Contradictory Levels Continued: The Double-Functioning Element The "double-functioningm27 element and "both-and" Le Corbusier's Algerian project, which is an apartment house are related, but there is a distinction: the double-function- and a highway, and Wright's late projects for Pittsburgh ing element pertains more to the particulars of use and Point and Baghdad, correspond to Kahn's viaduct architec- structure, while both-and refers more to the relation of the ture and Fumihiko Maki's "collective form.
Both-and emphasizes double meanings have complex and contradictory hierarchies of scale and over double-functions. But before I talk about the double- movement, structure, and space within a whole. These functioning element, 1 want to mention the multifunction- buildings are buildings and bridges at once. At a larger ing building. By this term I mean the buil4ing which is scale: a dam is also a bridge, the loop in Chicago is a complex in program and form, yet strong as a whole-the boundary as well as a circulation system, and Kahn's street complex unity of Le Corbusier's La Tourette or the Palace "wants to be a building.
A room can have ArmCe du Salut in Paris. The latter approach separates many functions at the same time or at different times. Kahn functions into interlocking wings or connected pavilions. It prefers the gallery because it is directional and nondirec- has been typical of orthodox Modern architecture. The tional, a corridor and room at once. And he recognizes the incisive separations of the pavilions in Mies' design for the changing complexities of specific functions by differentiat- urban Illinois Institute of Technology can be understood as ing rooms in a general way through a hierarchy of size and an extreme development of it.
As in his project for the Trenton back , and by using a similar wall pattern camouflages Community Center, these spaces end by paralleling in a the fact that at the top there is a different kind of space more complex way the pre-eighteenth century configura- for mechanical equipment. The idea of corridors and rooms World Trade center New York even more exaggeratedly each with a single function for convenience originated in simplifies the form of an enormous complex. The typical the eighteenth century.
Is not Modern architecture's charac- office skyscrapers of the '20's differentiate, rather than cam- teristic separation and specialization of program functions ouflage, their mechanical equipment space at the top within the building through built-in furniture an extreme through architecturally ornamental forms. While Lever manifestation of this idea? Kahn by implication questions House includes differently-functioning spaces at the bot- such rigid specialization and limited functionalism.
In this tom, it exaggeratedly separates them by a spatial shadow context, "form evokes function. In contrast, one exceptional Modern building, the The multifunctioning room is a possibly truer answer P. The room complexity of its program. It integrates a shop on the first with a generic rather than a specific purpose, and with floor and a big bank on the second with offices above and movable furniture rather than movable partitions, promotes special rooms at the top. These varieties of functions and a perceptual flexibility rather than a physical flexibility, and scales including the enormous advertising sign at the top permits the toughness and permanence still necessary in our work within a compact whole. Valid ambiguity promotes useful flexibility.
Instead, Modern architec- function. At the lower pedestrian level it directs space ture has encouraged separation and specialization at all around the corner. Each contains within the whole - divergence for different materials. Wright's - from his master contrasting scales of movement besides complex functions. T o Wright, "appropriate designs for one material would not be appro- priate for another material. Saarinen overcame the current ob- session against using different materials in the same plane or the same material for two different things. In Robert Rauschenberg's painting, Pilgrim 4 3 , the surface pattern continues from the stretcher canvas to the actual chair in front of it, making ambiguous the distinction between the painting and the furniture, and on another level, the work of art in a room.
A contradiction between levels of func- tion and meaning is recognized in these works, and the medium is strained. But to the structural purist, as well as the organicist, the double-functioning structural form would be abhor- rent because of the nonexact, ambiguous correspondence between form and function, and form and structure. In contrast, in the Katsura Villa 4 4 the bamboo rod in tension and the wood post in compression are similar in form. To the Modern architect, I think, the two would seem sinisterly similar in section and size despite the current inclination toward traditional Japanese design. The Renais- sance pilaster as well as other structural elements used in a nonstructural way can involve the phenomenon both- and at several levels.
It can be at the same time physically structural or not, symbolically structural through associa- tion, and compositionally ornamental by promoting rhythm and also complexity of scale in the giant order. Modern architecture is never implicit. In promoting the frame and the curtain wall, it has separated structure from shelter. Even the walls of the Johnson Wax Building are enclosing but not supporting. And in detailing, Modern architecture has tended to glory in separation.
Even the flush joint is articulated, and the shadow joint predomi- nates. The versatile element which does several things at once is equally rare in Modern architecture. Significantly the column is favored over the pier. Maria in Cosme- din's nave 4 5 the column form results from its domi- nant, precise function as a point support. But the alternating piers in the same nave are intrinsically double-functioning. They enclose and direct space as much as they support structure. The Baroque piers in the chapel at FrPsnes 46 , residual as form and redundant as struc- ture, are extreme examples of double-functioning elements which are structural and spatial at once.
Le Corbusier's and Kahn's double-functioning ele- ments may be rare in our architecture. Are they wall segments, piers, or columns? Kahn's clusters of columns and his open piers "harbor" space for equipment, and can manipu- late natural light as well, like the rhythmically complex columns and pilasters of Baroque architecture. Like the open beams in the Richards Medical Center 47 , these elements are neither structurally pure nor elegantly mini- mum in section. Instead, they are structural fragments in- separable from a greater spatial whole.
It is valid to sense stresses in forms which are not purely structural, and a structural member can be more than incidentally spatial. However, the columns and the stair towers in this build- ing are separated and articulated in an orthodox manner. Flat plate construction consists of concrete slabs of constant depth and varied reinforcement, with irregularly placed columns without beams or caps. To maintain a constant depth, the number of reinforcing bars changes to accommodate the more concentrated structural loads in the constant, beamless section.
This permits, in apartment 46 Mansart Chapel. Flat plates are structurally impure: their section is not minimum. The demands of structural forces are compromised because of the demands of architectural space. Form follows function here in a contradictory way; substance follows structural function; profile follows spatial function. In some Mannerist and Baroaue masonrv construction I J the pier, pilaster, and relieving arch about evenly make up a facade, and the resultant structure, like that of the Palazzo Valrnarana 48 , is bearing wall and frame at once.
The relieving arches in the Pantheon 49 , in this case not originaliy part of the visual expression, similarly generate a wall structurally double-functioning. Palazzo Valrnarana. Church of the Sagrada Farnilia, Barcelona. Section I I Redentore. Venice Perspective In contrast to the segregated flying buttress, the Roman countervault spans as well as but- tresses, and Gaudi's subtle invention of the tilted pier- buttress supports the weight of the vault as well as buttresses the thrust in one continuous form.
Palladio's but- tresses are also broken pediments on the fagade. A flying buttress at S. Chiara in Assisi forms a portal for the piazza as well as a support for the building. The double-functioning element can be a detail. Man- nerist and Baroque buildings abound in drip mouldings which become sills, windows which become niches, cornice ornaments which accommodate windows, quoin strips which are also pilasters, and architraves which make arches The pilasters of Michelangelo's niches in the en- trance of the Laurentian Library 54 also look like brack- ets.
Borromini's mouldings in the rear facades of the Propa- ganda Fide 55 are both window frames and pediments. Lutyens' chimneys at Grey Walls 56 are literally sculp- tural entrance markers as well, a dado at Gledstone Hall 57 is an extension of a stair riser in the same room, and the stair landing at Nashdom is also a room. The balloon frame, which has been traced by Siegfried Giedion, becomes on all levels. Structurally and visually it evolves from a separate frame to a skin which is both structural and sheltering: to the extent that it is made up of 2 x 4's, it is frame; to the extent that the 2 x 4's are small, close together, and braced and meshed by diagonal siding, it becomes skin. These intricate characteristics are evident in the way penetrations are made in it and in the way it is terminated.
The balloon frame is another element in archi- tecture which is several things at once. It represents a method between two pure extremes, which has evolved Conventional elements in architecture represent one stage in an evolutionary development, and they contain in their changed use and expression some of their past meaning as well as their new meaning. What can be called a the vestigial element parallels the double-functioning ele- ment. It is distinct from a superfluous element because it contains a double meaning.
This is the result of a more or less ambiguous combination of the old meaning, called up by associations, with a new meaning created by the modi- fied or new function, structural or programmatic, and the new context. The vestigial element discourages clarity of meaning; it promotes richness of meaning instead. Project for a Gateway. Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire basis for change and growth in the city as manifest in enriches meaning by underscoring.
In the project for a remodeling which involves old buildings with new uses gateway at Bourneville by Ledoux 58 , the columns in the both programmatic and symbolic like palazzi which be- arch are structurally rhetorical if not redundant. Expres- come museums or embassies , and old street patterns with sively, however, they underscore the abstractness of the new uses and scales of movement.
The paths of medieval opening as a semicircle more than an arch, and they further fortification walls in European cities became boulevards in define the opening as a gateway. As I have said, the stair- the nineteenth century; a section of Broadway is a piazza way at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts by and a symbol rather than an artery to upper New York Furness is too big in its immediate context, but appropriate state. The ghost of Dock Street in Philadelphia's Society as a gesture towards the outside scale and a sense of entry.
Hill, however, is a meaningless vestige rather than a work- The Classical portico is a rhetorical entrance. The stairs, ing element resulting from a valid transition between the columns, and pediment a e juxtaposed upon the other-scale, old and the new. I shall later refer to the vestigial element real entrance behind. Paul Rudolph's entrance in the Art as it appears in Michelangelo's architecture and in what and Architecture Building at Yale is at the scale of the city; might be called Pop architecture. The rhetorical element, like the double-functioning Much of the function of ornament is rhetorical-like element, is infrequent in recent architecture. If the latter the use of Baroque pilasters for rhythm, and Vanbrugh's offends through its inherent ambiguity, rhetoric offends disengaged pilasters at the entrance to the kitchen court at orthodox Modern architecture's cult of the minimum.
But Blenheim 59 which are an architectural fanfare. The the rhetorical element is justified as a valid if outmoded rhetorical element which is also structural is rare in Modern means of expression. An element can seem rhetorical from architecture, although Mies has used the rhetorical I-beam one point of view, but if it is valid, at another level it with an assurance that would make Bernini envious.
When I - circumstances defy order, order should bend or break: anomalies and uncertainties give validity to architecture. A valid order accommodates the circumstantial contra- Meaning can be enhanced by breaking the order; the dictions of a complex reality. It accommodates as well as exception points up the rule. A building with no "imper- imposes. It thereby admits "control afid spontaneity," "cor- fect" part can have no perfect part, because contrast sup- rectness and easew-improvisation within the whole. It tol- ports meaning. An artful discord gives vitality to architec- erates qualifications and compromise. There are no fixed ture. You can allow for contingencies all over, but they laws in architecture, but not everything will work in a cannot prevail all over.
If order without expediency breeds building or a city. The architect must decide, and these formalism, expediency without order, of course, means subtle evaluations are among his principal functions. He chaos. Order must exist before it can be broken. No artist must determine what must be made to work and what it is can belittle the role of order as a way of seeing a whole possible to compromise with, what will give in, and where relevant to its own characteristics and context. He does not ignore or exclude inconsistencies of no work of art without a system" is Le Corbusier's dictum. Indeed a propensity to break the order can justify I have emphasized that aspect of complexity and con- exaggerating it.
A valid formalism, or a kind of paper Palazzo Tarugi. Montepulciano tradiction which grows out of the medium more than the architecture in this context, compensates for distortions, program of the building. Now I shall emphasize the com- expediencies, and exceptions in the circumstantial parts of plexity and contradiction that develops from the program the composition, or for violent superimpositions in juxta- and reflects the inherent complexities and contradictions of posed contradictions.
In recent architecture Le Corbusier in living. It is obvious that in actual practice the two must be the Villa Savoye, for example, accommodates the excep- interrelated. Contradictions can represent the exceptional tional circumstantial inconsistencies in an otherwise rigid, inconsistency that modifies the otherwise consistent order, dominant order. But Aalto, in contrast to Le Corbusier, or they can represent inconsistencies throughout the order seems almost to create the order out of the inconsistencies, as a whole. In the first case, the relationship between as can be seen in the Cultural Center at Wolfsburg.University of Notre Dame Student Government. I would fain say something, not so much concerning the Chinese and Sandwich Islanders as you who read these pages, who are said to Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden in New England; something about your condition, Summary Of J. C. Penneys Strategy your outward Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden or circumstances in this world, in this town, what it is, whether it is necessary that it be as bad as it Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden, whether it cannot be improved as Supervisory Role Of Staff Nurse as not. Of two patterns which differ only Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden a few threads more or 3 Week Diet Analysis of a particular color, the one will be sold readily, the other lie on the shelf, though it frequently happens Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden after the lapse of a season the latter becomes the most fashionable. Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden, and these are undoubtedly the ancestors of the Chalmers of this county, whose Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden are still here. Mail Management. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows Compare And Contrast Hudson River School And Walden students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges that accepted them.