✯✯✯ Religious Therapy Vs Secular Therapy

Sunday, November 21, 2021 12:24:58 PM

Religious Therapy Vs Secular Therapy



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The Difference Between Christian Counselors and Secular Therapy - 5 Ways

They tend to have fewer sports and extracurricular activities. Unfortunately, not all charter schools are well-run, and many fail each year. Well-run schools offer exceptional academic opportunities to their students. Be prepared to do extensive research if this is an option. The Bottom Line on Public vs. While public schools are required by federal and state laws to provide services for students with special needs, it does not mean they will do the job well.

As a parent, you must be prepared to fight for what your child needs. Some parents seek other avenues when they feel that the public school system failed them. However, for every negative story, there are those where the student thrives in this setting. No one knows your child better than you do. Be watchful of specific signs and behaviors after a day at school. Does your child seem calm or agitated, happy or acting out? The answers can signal that everything is going right or all wrong. Your child may also thrive in a specialized learning environment for special needs students. If you believe this is an option for your child, check with your local school board to determine what is available in your community. Ultimately, the goal is for you to find the right fit for your child.

Do not hesitate to make a change if you believe the current situation is not working out well. You must be logged in to post a comment. We help guide you through the stages of raising a child with special needs! Get started now! Sign up for a FREE subscription below. Public School vs. Many Christians believe that life begins at conception and an entire anti-abortion industry has been built around this concept. But it presents a quandary. Does a fertilized egg that fails to implant in the uterus go to heaven? This seems a bit absurd, but it is important to consider in the context of Christian dogma. If one assumes this is not the case, then it becomes very difficult to identify when a developing fetus becomes eternal in the eyes of God.

Is it at the moment of birth, such that a baby that dies just before delivery is denied heaven? There is no non-arbitrary way to solve this dilemma. Another point to consider is that well over half of conceptions end in spontaneous abortions. No matter how you look at it, a logical solution does not exist. The band of Jewish followers of Jesus, led by his brother James, no longer existed.

Another is the story of the Roman centurion who was allegedly commended by Jesus for having more faith than anybody else in Israel Matthew The stories told in the gospels tended to become more impressive as each new gospel was written. In Mark, there is no account of a virgin birth or of a resurrected Jesus interacting with the disciples other than the ending verses that were added much later , with Luke, the virgin birth is added, and with John, the raising of Lazarus is first presented, and Jesus is for the first time equated with God the Father.

Another example is that the temptation of Jesus by the devil grows in significance and details from Mark to Luke to Matthew. These examples reflect a classic illustration of mythmaking, such that over time events are embellished to make for a more dramatic story. In Matthew, Jesus is expressing displeasure with God for allowing the crucifixion, but in the later gospels, Luke and John, there are no longer any hints of dissatisfaction. It suggests that the writers of the gospels made revisions to boost the image of Jesus and to make it appear that he viewed his crucifixion as an expected and necessary part of his earthy mission.

An extension to the previous point conclusively illustrates the myth of Christianity. In the gospels of Mark, and to a lesser extent, the later gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus talks very little about himself and is more focused on his Father and preparing the way for the coming Kingdom of God. He makes no inferences as to having a divine status. He is principally focused on himself, who he is, and where he came from.

He touts his status as being divine and equal to God himself. This is a dramatic departure from the earlier gospels as well as from the traditions of the Jewish faith. Modern Christianity has fully incorporated the implications of the Gospel of John, precisely defining its doctrine thereby, but in so doing it has placed itself upon an extremely flimsy foundation. If the scriptures were inspired by God and then accurately copied by scribes, we would expect to see a fairly rigorous consistency among the books. The best way to test this hypothesis is to examine the four gospels, as they all claim to describe the same events. What we see are numerous contradictions, including:. In any event, it is clear that God was not overseeing the Bible-building effort to ensure a perfect product.

As such, the Bible cannot be viewed as a reliable portrayal of history. A highly controversial topic is whether atheists tend to be more intelligent than theists. If so, what does this mean? A study conducted in used a meta-analysis of 63 scientific studies and found that 53 showed a reliable correlation between intelligence and a disbelief in supernatural beings. Only 10 showed a neutral or negative correlation. A different way to look at this issue is to examine the beliefs of one of the most intelligent groups of people, The National Academy of Sciences.

A third way to examine this topic is to compare education levels with the degree of belief in the inerrancy of the Bible, as documented at:. The following graph shows a negative correlation between religiosity and the average intelligence of each country:. This represents important evidence against Christianity and other religions as well because, in the history of mankind, any sea change in conventional wisdom is first promoted by the smartest and most educated members of society. This was true of the rejection of the earth-centered model of the solar system. It was also true of the change from a flat earth to a spherical earth, as well as the ongoing transition from a creationist explanation of life to an evolutionary one.

Given those examples, it can be predicted that the intellectuals who have embraced atheism have once again identified the correct sense of reality. The stories of the raising of Lazarus from the dead and the woman caught in adultery are extremely important in the effort to define who Jesus was. One tells of his immense power, and the other tells of his divine wisdom. Both would have been told and retold throughout the region, spread virally, and held up as convincing evidence for having faith in Jesus. However, curiously, neither of these events is documented in the first three gospels Mark, Matthew, and Luke.

Not until the gospel of John, written at least 70 years after the death of Jesus, is the raising of Lazarus documented in scripture. And the story of the woman caught in adultery is not found in the oldest manuscripts of the gospel of John, and only appears in manuscripts beginning in the fifth century. This casts considerable doubt on the historical truth of these events. Jesus is adored and worshipped as a King as he enters Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. He then proceeds to work miracles, heal the sick, and demonstrate his supreme wisdom, making him even more a figure for adulation.

But five days later, without explanation, he is abruptly hated so much by his own people that, given a chance to have him released, they chose to free a common criminal instead. There is something seriously wrong with this story. This is because by the time the scriptures were written, the focus of Christian evangelism was on the gentiles throughout the Roman Empire, while the Jews, freshly defeated in their war with Rome, were viewed as detestable villains.

The story of Judas, the traitor, is fraught with inconsistency. First and foremost, it should be obvious that what he allegedly did actually hastened the salvation of mankind, as defined by Christianity. Second, Jesus was not in hiding during his time in Jerusalem. He was out and about, performing miracles, and routinely in plain view of the Roman authorities, making it unnecessary for anyone to rat him out for arrest.

Third, if we are to believe Christian doctrine, Jesus knew that he was to be executed and that this was the principal point of his mission, so why would he call out Judas as a traitor both at the last supper and in the garden at the time of his arrest? To make some sense of this story, one has to assume that it was changed to fit a new narrative that placed blame on the Jews for the crucifixion, and painting Judas as a traitor was a part of that effort. What probably happened, assuming that the story was not completely made up, was that Judas was sent by Jesus to entice the Roman soldiers to the Garden of Gethsemane. Jesus then expected that God would miraculously intervene to defeat the Romans and begin the reign of Jesus as the king of the restored Kingdom of Israel.

There is no record of this in Roman history. According to Luke, the residents were required to travel to their cities of birth to be counted. This absurd requirement was never applied to any census that the Romans conducted throughout their empire. Obviously, the Romans would want to know how many people were living currently in each area rather than how many were born in a certain city. The reason for this artifice from the writer of this gospel is evident. Jesus was known by many to have been born and raised in Nazareth, but the scriptures said that the savior was to be born in Bethlehem. Therefore, some device was needed to convince followers that Jesus was not born in Nazareth as everyone had assumed, but rather that he had the appropriate credentials of the savior.

Further, that device had to entail something of a compulsory nature to explain why a full-term pregnant woman was transported 90 miles on a donkey away from her home and her doulas and midwives. As a side note, this deception by the author of Luke provides some evidence that Jesus was a true historical figure, given that a mythical person could just as easily have been invented who was born and raised in Bethlehem. There are no Roman records suggesting that such a custom existed. Further, the implication of such a practice would be absurd.

It would mean that the Jews could plan for someone to perform a heinous crime just before the Passover and then have that perpetrator released. So, in effect, the crowd was actually demanding the release of Jesus, finding that his arrest was unwarranted. When the author of Mark was confronted with the folklore that the Jews were asking for the release of Barabbas, he simply made Barabbas into a separate individual and then concocted the myth of the prisoner release tradition. He went away from there and came to his hometown, and his disciples followed him.

What is the wisdom given to him? How are such mighty works done by his hands? And are not his sisters here with us? This is a significant admission. The fact that this negative reaction was written into the Gospel of Mark and subsequent gospels is telling evidence that Jesus was probably both a real person and that he actually was rejected by the people who knew him best. It must be acknowledged that if Jesus was indeed the son of God, then the people of Nazareth would have known that he was a person of unusually superior wisdom and power and would have considered him as a celebrity with pride and veneration, just as many people today take pride in their hometown luminaries.

But if he was just a mortal human with all of the typical frailties, then being rejected by his neighbors for making lofty claims is exactly what would be expected. Mark was the first documented gospel, and it is notoriously silent on many points added to the subsequent gospels. But the crux of this point is that the original version of this gospel contains no mention of Jesus appearing and talking to his disciples after the resurrection. A unanimous consensus of Biblical scholars agree that the earliest manuscripts of Mark end at verse , which is as follows:.

He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him. There you will see him, just as he told you. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid. The early Christians were not satisfied with this ending, so various versions of alternate endings were devised. One of these was selected for inclusion in the King James Bible and is now documented therein and in other translations as Mark Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.

And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not. After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country. And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them. Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. This creates many problems for Christianity. First, it brings into question the authenticity of the scriptures as a whole.

This forgery was caught because we have an early manuscript of Mark, but, lacking the original, we do not know how many other forgeries were also added to that document. Second, it exposes the fact that the early Christians were not averse to adding to scripture tales and stories of questionable authenticity. In effect, it means that they had no problem making things up to embellish the accounts. Third, the forged ending portion of the Book of Mark contains demonstrably false statements.

Many Christians have died handling serpents in this manner, many have died of poisoning, and many have died after being prayed for. The fabricated scriptures at the end of Mark are a Rosetta Stone for recognizing the questionable historical accuracy of the scriptures. They are, in effect, telling the reader to be wary of everything written in the Bible. The Bible suggests that Jesus rose from the dead and made appearances to hundreds of people before ascending into heaven. It is unlikely that this would have escaped the notice of Herod and Pilate and the vast majority of the Roman occupiers, not to mention the Jews, who would have either directly witnessed this amazing phenomenon or heard about it from credible sources.

This would have provided proof that Jesus was a divine being, prompting Herod and Pilate to convert along with the Romans and the Jews, with Christianity then becoming the official religion of Judea. One thing is certain: If Jesus actually rose from the dead, there would be no separation between Judaism and Christianity- they would be one and the same. At this council, four gospels were selected from a total of approximately 60 that were in use at the time. Three of the four gospels selected are called the synoptic gospels, Mark, Luke, and Matthew.

These were not independent efforts, but had many elements borrowed and shared among them. The fourth gospel, John, is very different from the other three and presents a somewhat contradictory theology. The other 56 or so gospels that were discarded do not agree for the most part with the four that were selected. It is likely that the truth of what happened lies buried amid the numerous tales told by all of these gospels, with various true and fictional elements scattered throughout. But, what should be troubling to a questioning believer is that the council undoubtedly preferentially selected the gospels that were favorable to the Romans i. It is certain that this process resulted in a whitewashed portrayal of history. Most Christians believe that Jesus was a unique figure in his time, a one-of-kind preacher who mesmerized followers with his wisdom and magical acts.

This is not true. There were many messiahs at this time including Hezekiah the bandit, Simon of Peraea, Athronges the shepherd boy, and Judas the Galilean. In addition, there were many other preachers and prophets who were gathering followers and preaching a messianic message about the coming of the Kingdom of God. Some advocated a violent overthrow of the Roman occupiers as a prelude to the coming. Others stressed a less violent approach including repentance, prayers, and beseeching of God for deliverance. Added to this list is the most popular preacher of all, John the Baptist. Jesus was just one of many itinerant preachers of his day, and there was nothing particularly unique about him, because all were preaching the same ideas, and almost all of them ended up being crucified for the crime of sedition against the Roman Empire.

Unbeknownst to most Christians, the early Christian church had two distinct divisions or denominations. One was organized by the Jewish followers of Jesus, his disciples, and close associates. The other was headed by Paul and his mostly non-Jewish followers. This group did not view Jesus as being divine, which would be unquestionably contrary to the Jewish faith, but rather a prophet setting the stage for the coming of the new kingdom of Israel to be established on earth. As mentioned earlier, they viewed the empty tomb as evidence that God has resurrected Jesus into heaven.

After all, Jesus had just been defeated by the very forces he intended to overcome. It is also likely that Jesus himself did not expect to be put to death. His complaint to God for being abandoned as recorded in the gospel of Matthew is probably one of the few Biblical statements by Jesus that can be assumed true because of its disparity with the main gospel message. They were based in Jerusalem and had some success in recruiting new followers for several decades after the crucifixion. In contrast, Paul viewed Jesus as being both a human and the divine savior of all mankind. Instead of the Jewish concept of a human messiah reigning over a restored kingdom of Israel, Paul envisioned a heavenly kingdom that was open to all peoples with admittance predicated simply on accepting Jesus as a personal savior, and without any obligation to perform good works.

For obvious reasons, a conflict developed between Paul and the original apostles, which shows up the book of Acts and Galatians. This eliminated the opposition to the gospel of Paul, which then became the template for the new religion of Christianity. The New Testament books were written by followers of Paul after the destruction of Jerusalem. They were fashioned to support this new gospel, including statements added to make it appear that Jesus saw himself in the role as envisioned by Paul. In summary, Jesus was a failed prophet, as was ultimately well understood by the Jews. Paul reversed the Jewish theology by viewing Jesus as a god-man and viewing his death as a final sacrifice for the propitiation of sins, making unnecessary any further animal sacrifices that were standard rituals in the Jewish temples.

These events explain the historical irony of how a Jewish preacher became the cornerstone of a new religion that was rejected by the Jews themselves. Setting aside this bewildering doctrine, most Christians simply claim that Jesus is God. Where this goes terribly wrong, is as follows: Jesus was a Jew and was following Jewish custom and law without making any effort to depart ways and start a new religion. The Jewish faith would not allow for a man to be a god, for the Jews were unyieldingly monotheistic. Such a thing did not exist in Judaism. In the 5,year history of Jewish thought, the notion of a God-man is completely anathema to everything Judaism stands for. The unmistakable conclusion is that Christianity concocted a fatal contradiction regarding its central figure of worship, painting him as being something he absolutely could not have been within the context of his life and mission.

If Christianity wanted a god-man, they needed to find someone other than a Jewish preacher. For those Christians who believe in evolution, there is a noteworthy problem dealing with the starting point when humans first became bound for eternity in the eyes of God. Whenever this happened, there were undoubtedly a lot of people scattered over much of the world. To be clear, there has to be a starting point when God first awarded an eternal life to human beings.

Without this demarcation, we would have single-celled animals living for eternity in heaven. Whenever this occurred, it would create a problem. It would mean that many people going to heaven would do so without the company of their parents, who would die and not be raised up, similar to all of the other animals. No matter where the cut was made, this problem was unavoidable.

At the time the Bible was created, most people viewed the earth as the center of the universe and that the sun, stars, planets, and moon revolved around its flat surface. Christianity is based on this world view, placing an emphasis on humans as the ultimate reason that the universe was created in the first place. Not only is Christianity earth-centered, but it was also limited to a few hundred square miles in its beginning and did not reach all areas of the earth until about years later. Further, it is limited in its overall time scope to something less than 10, years.

What we have since learned about the age and size of the universe has spectacularly dwarfed the Christian world view. Instead of 10, years old, the universe is 13,,, years old. Instead of the earth and a few objects orbiting around it, we have the earth, 4,,, years old, orbiting the sun, which is just one of over ,,, stars in the Milky Way galaxy, which itself is only one of at least ,,, galaxies in the observable universe.

The idea that all of this was created so that God could create and test human beings is absurd. If that was so, then:. The stage is too big for the drama. Christians are obligated to accept the fact that God first chose to minister and support only the Jews, and to ignore all others, and even to assist the Jews in plundering the neighboring gentile populations.

People living in these areas did not learn anything about Jesus until centuries later, some even until around years later. To consider this fact is sobering. Why would a god do this, ignore humans for tens of thousands of years only to present himself solely to a desert tribe on a tiny spot of land? A more reasonable explanation is that the Jewish people invented a god that favored them, just like every other culture that has existed. Some Christians are aware of the absurd laws that are described in the Old Testament, such as being sentenced to death if you work on the Sabbath, or for children to be killed for cursing their parents.

They usually say that the Old Testament has been superseded by the New Testament and therefore no longer applies. This is despite the fact Jesus emphatically said the opposite. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. What we find are many scriptures even there that are completely ignored by Christians, such as the following examples:.

Then he must call for the elders of the church and they are to pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer offered in faith will restore the one who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up. But when you give a banquet, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind, and you will be blessed. Although they cannot repay you, you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous. It goes without saying that a Christian has no authority to pick and choose which scriptures he will follow; they either all apply or else none of them apply. If God chose the Jews as his chosen people a fact necessary for Christianity to be authentic , why did they suffer so many defeats and tribulations at the hands of their enemies?

The outcome of many of these conflicts would make it appear that God had chosen the other side instead. This is best exemplified by the Jewish-Roman war of AD , where the Romans slaughtered the Jews all of the way from Jerusalem to the final stronghold of Masada. It makes no sense that the people backed by an all-powerful god would fall victim to its non-god-aided enemies, much less in such a brutal and convincing fashion.

Modern Christians consider the Book of Revelation to be about the end of the world. This is not the case. It is likely that the author was a preacher. The book is principally about what the author considered to be the end of his world, specifically the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in AD At that time 60, Roman soldiers stormed Jerusalem, burned down the Temple, and killed countless Jews. What happened was the exact opposite of these expectations. The author was trying to rally the Jews and present his vision that God would return to destroy the Romans and restore the Kingdom of the Jews.

Modern Christians have used their misinterpretation of this book, which was one of many similar books but the only one that made it into the Bible, to define a whole host of religious dogma, including the appearance of an Antichrist, the Tribulation, and the Battle of Armageddon, all seen as future apocalyptic events. What this shows is that scripture is widely open to being misused and thus it becomes an unreliable guide to defining reality. The Christian failure to understand the Book of Revelation, its inclusion in the Bible, and the false doctrines that it spawned is solid evidence against the authenticity of Christianity.

Objective studies have revealed that prayers are not effective beyond any statistical measure of coincidence. Most notably, they do not work for amputees or paralyzed individuals. Prayers for terminally ill people almost always fail. But what do the scriptures say? Nothing will be impossible for you. An objective person must realize that the promises described in these scriptures are not true. The fact that there is no discernible efficacy for prayers is a valid clue that there is no god listening and responding to them. Eva became sick with ovarian cancer and asked the Argentinian people to pray for her health to be restored. The very structure of society speaks to the ineffectiveness of prayer. The Gospels tell of many encounters with angels, mostly to announce warnings or instructions, or to offer aid in some manner.

The following list of angel encounters is from this site:. It is clear to most people today that angels are not actual beings in the world that we live in. It then becomes incumbent on a Bible-believing Christian to assert that, for some reason, angels left the world soon after the death of Jesus, never yet to return. To a more skeptical mind, the mention of angels in the Gospels is an indication that superstition and myth were copiously at play. Most Christians imagine heaven to be a place of eternal bliss, a peaceful and joyful experience that will never end, where we will meet and live with our loved ones and friends.

But there is a dark side to this concept. For one, the only thing that gives our lives texture and meaning is the difficulties and setbacks that we experience. Without these, our lives would be quite boring. Second, it is quite possible that the God that Christians worship is an extremely egotistical figure who demands constant worship. Third, much of the meaning of our lives resides in the progression we make in various aspects of lives, where we learn new skills, or gain new abilities. In an eternal existence, progressions would have to end at some point, as described quite well in the following video:.

It seems as though what we imagine to be the best of all possibilities is actually the worst of all destinies. The Christian embrace of the concept of an eternal reward is good evidence that it was invented by men for reasons other than being a divine reality. Suppose you were managing an ant farm and after monitoring the ants for a period of time, you decided to elevate certain ants that were more industrious to a better living arrangement. Would your first impulse be to inflict pain and suffering on the lesser industrious ants? Of course not, but this is what Christianity claims is the malicious impulse of the god of the universe. How much more likely is it that the concept of Hell was invented by men as a means of frightening and controlling people to keep them aligned with the precepts of the faith, while serving the needs of the church with their efforts and money?

The latter theory is by far the more likely. There can be no question that the theology of Christianity is confusing. The scriptures are unclear and contradictory, leading to many different interpretations of what it means. The following quote is taken from this website:. It contains instructions to humankind for avoiding the eternal fires of hell. How wonderful and kind of this God to provide us with this means of overcoming the problems for which he is ultimately responsible!

The all-powerful God could have, by a mere act of will, eliminated all of the problems we humans must endure, but instead, in his infinite wisdom, he has opted to offer this indecipherable amalgam of books which is the Bible as a means for avoiding the hell which he has prepared for us. The perfect God has decided to reveal his wishes in this imperfect work, written in the imperfect language of imperfect man, translated, copied, interpreted, voted on, and related by imperfect man. No two men will ever agree what this perfect word of God is supposed to mean, since much of it is either self- contradictory, or obscured by enigmatic symbols.

And yet the perfect God expects us imperfect humans to understand this paradoxical riddle using the imperfect minds with which he has equipped us. Surely the all-wise and all-powerful God would have known that it would have been better to reveal his perfect will directly to each of us, rather than to allow it to be debased and perverted by the imperfect language and botched interpretations of man. It should be clear that the Bible and Christianity as a whole is not the work of a perfect creator who is infinitely intelligent, powerful, and perceptive.

It is most surely the creation of mortal human beings. Christians claim that God created man in his own image, but a thoughtful reading of the Bible indicates something different- that men created God in their own image, replete with the full spectrum of human qualities and frailties. This point is best expounded by a quote from Mark Twain:. The portrait is substantially that of a man—if one can imagine a man charged and overcharged with evil impulses far beyond the human limit; a personage whom no one, perhaps, would desire to associate with, now that Nero and Caligula are dead. He is always punishing—punishing trifling misdeeds with thousand-fold severity; punishing innocent children for the misdeeds of their parents; punishing unoffending populations for the misdeeds of their rulers; even descending to wreak bloody vengeance upon harmless calves and lambs and sheep and bullocks, as punishment for inconsequential trespasses committed by their proprietors.

It makes Nero an angel of light and leading, by contrast. In summary, the God of the Old Testament behaves much like a human being. He has a human form, suffers human weaknesses and displays human failings. He lives in remote high places and controls the elements. He is astonishingly partisan and brutal by modern standards, with a taste for blood sacrifice. He is capricious, spiteful, bloodthirsty, and he had the same outlook and prejudices as Jews who lived 3, to 2, years ago.

We might also note that he has no objection to capital or corporal punishment, genocide, mutilation, polygamy, concubinage, slavery or racism. Indeed he encourages all of them. By modern standards he veers between the immoral and amoral, and bears no resemblance at all to the merciful, omniscient and omnipotent God favoured by modern theologians. All in all, the God of the Old Testament is a perfect example of an ancient tribal sky god. It should be clear that a real god would transcend any anthropomorphic tendencies and project an ethereal and other-worldly demeanor.

On the other hand, an invented god would be expected to behave just like the god we find in the Bible. Christians accept without reservation that the miracles described in the Bible were actual historical events. However, at the same time they discount the miracle stories of other religions, such as:. Every religion has claimed a set of miracle traditions to provide evidence of its connection to a supernatural source. Christianity is no different. What should be evident to an objective person is that the evidence for the Christian miracles is no more convincing than the evidence for non-Christian miracles.

During , a frenzy of witch hunts occurred in and around the area of Salem in colonial Massachusetts. Witch hunters would accuse a woman of being a witch, after which she would be required to prove her innocence, but anyone testifying in her favor would be assumed to be under her spell and therefore unreliable. Before this absurdity ended, approximately 20 women were either hanged or burned alive. An additional 50 were in prison awaiting sentencing, and the conditions were so bad that an additional 5 of the incarcerated women died.

This is but one of many atrocities committed by Christians over the past twenty centuries. But it begs the question: If Christianity is the true reality of our existence, why would it cause so many people to make so many fatal errors of judgment? On the other hand, a false religion, based on human superstition with no divine guidance, would be expected to engender just the types of atrocities that Christianity has spawned. The Bible condones slavery. Some Christians today claim that the Bible actually refers to servants, who were presumably working voluntarily for wages. The following scriptures demonstrate otherwise:. Accessibility is how easily a schema comes to mind, and is determined by personal experience and expertise.

This can be used as a cognitive shortcut; it allows the most common explanation to be chosen for new information. With priming, a brief imperceptible stimulus temporarily provides enough activation to a schema so that it is used for subsequent ambiguous information. Although this may suggest the possibility of subliminal messages , the effect of priming is so fleeting that it is difficult to detect outside laboratory conditions. The original concept of schemata is linked with that of reconstructive memory as proposed and demonstrated in a series of experiments by Frederic Bartlett.

One of his most famous investigations involved asking participants to read a Native American folk tale, "The War of the Ghosts", [18] and recall it several times up to a year later. All the participants transformed the details of the story in such a way that it reflected their cultural norms and expectations, i. The factors that influenced their recall were:. Bartlett's work was crucially important in demonstrating that long-term memories are neither fixed nor immutable but are constantly being adjusted as schemata evolve with experience.

Much of what people "remember" is confabulated narrative adjusted and rationalized which allows them to think of the past as a continuous and coherent string of events, even though it is probable that large sections of memory both episodic and semantic are irretrievable or inaccurate at any given time. An important step in the development of schema theory was taken by the work of D. Rumelhart describing the understanding of narrative and stories. Brewer and J. Treyens, who demonstrated that the schema-driven expectation of the presence of an object was sometimes sufficient to trigger its erroneous recollection. A number of the participants recalled having seen books in the study whereas none were present.

Brewer and Treyens concluded that the participants' expectations that books are present in academics' studies were enough to prevent their accurate recollection of the scenes. In the s, computer scientist Marvin Minsky was trying to develop machines that would have human-like abilities. When he was trying to create solutions for some of the difficulties he encountered he came across Bartlett's work and decided that if he was ever going to get machines to act like humans he needed them to use their stored knowledge to carry out processes. To compensate for that he created what was known as the frame construct, which was a way to represent knowledge in machines. His frame construct can be seen as an extension and elaboration of the schema construct. He created the frame knowledge concept as a way to interact with new information.

He proposed that fixed and broad information would be represented as the frame, but it would also be composed of slots that would accept a range of values; but if the world didn't have a value for a slot, then it would be filled by a default value. In the s, David Rumelhart extended Minsky's ideas, creating an explicitly psychological theory of the mental representation of complex knowledge. Roger Schank and Robert Abelson developed the idea of a script, which was known as a generic knowledge of sequences of actions.

This led to many new empirical studies, which found that providing relevant schema can help improve comprehension and recall on passages. Schemata have also been viewed from a sociocultural perspective with contributions from Lev Vygotsky , in which there is a transactional relationship between the development of a schema and the environment that influences it, such that the schema doesn't develop independently as a construct in the mind, but carries all the aspects of the history, social, and cultural meaning which influences its development.

Schemata are not just scripts or frameworks to be called upon, but are active processes for solving problems and interacting with the world. New information that falls within an individual's schema is easily remembered and incorporated into their worldview. However, when new information is perceived that does not fit a schema, many things can happen. The most common reaction is to simply ignore or quickly forget the new information. People may also interpret the new information in a way that minimizes how much they must change their schemata.

For example, Bob thinks that chickens don't lay eggs. He then sees a chicken laying an egg. Instead of changing the part of his schema that says "chickens don't lay eggs", he is likely to adopt the belief that the animal in question that he has just seen laying an egg is not a real chicken. This is an example of disconfirmation bias , the tendency to set higher standards for evidence that contradicts one's expectations. However, when the new information cannot be ignored, existing schemata must be changed or new schemata must be created accommodation. Jean Piaget — was known best for his work with development of human knowledge.

He believed knowledge was constructed on cognitive structures, and he believed people develop cognitive structures by accommodating and assimilating information. Accommodation is creating new schema that will fit better with the new environment or adjusting old schema. Accommodation could also be interpreted as putting restrictions on a current schema. Accommodation usually comes about when assimilation has failed.

Assimilation is when people use a current schema to understand the world around them. Piaget thought that schemata are applied to everyday life and therefore people accommodate and assimilate information naturally. This schemata will then be either changed or removed, in the future. Assimilation is the reuse of schemata to fit the new information. For example, when a person sees an unfamiliar dog, they will probably just integrate it into their dog schema. However, if the dog behaves strangely, and in ways that doesn't seem dog-like, there will be accommodation as a new schema is formed for that particular dog. With Accommodation and Assimilation comes the idea of equilibrium.

Piaget describes equilibrium as a state of cognition that is balanced when schema are capable of explaining what it sees and perceives. When information is new and cannot fit into existing schema this is called disequilibrium and this is an unpleasant state for the child's development. When disequilibrium happens, it means the person is frustrated and will try to restore the coherence of his or her cognitive structures through accommodation.

If the new information is taken then assimilation of the new information will proceed until they find that they must make a new adjustment to it later down the road, but for now the child remains at equilibrium again. The process of equilibration is when people move from the equilibrium phase to the disequilibrium phase and back into equilibrium. In view of this, a person's new schemata may be an expansion of the schemata into a subtype.

This allows for the information to be incorporated into existing beliefs without contradicting them. An example in social psychology would be the combination of a person's beliefs about women and their beliefs about business. If women are not generally perceived to be in business, but the person meets one who is, a new subtype of businesswoman may be created, and the information perceived will be incorporated into this subtype. Activation of either woman or business schema may then make further available the schema of "businesswoman". This also allows for previous beliefs about women or those in business to persist.

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