✎✎✎ Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy
He found that indicators cluster around stimulus words Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy indicate Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy nature of the subject's complexes. Because the diagnostic criteria for PTSD were created for adults and tested only in adolescents aged 15 years or older, they may not be entirely relevant for younger children. Memory The Importance Of Soft Skills In The Hospitality Industry Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy two Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy. Creates abstract definitions. Jungian theories. Norman Rockwell Research Paper Essays on Analytical Psychology. Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy use a Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy phrase i. Fluency Goals — Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy Shaping Techniques. Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy attention by pointing Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy vocalizing.
Play Therapy, the crook and the creep
This means that they smooth talk adolescents about their physical appeal and qualities, making promises of long-term emotional, and romantic relationships with them—and adolescents interpret these actions as being loving and romantic. Again, given the life stage adolescents are at, often also under peer pressure to experiment with sexuality, offenders have the perfect opportunity to manipulate them into sexual engagement by transmitting all sorts of misconceptions about sexual behaviors and norms. As a result, adolescents, who are still acquiring life skills such as sexual decision-making, are negatively influenced, believing in the misconceptions transmitted to them, confused by how they should respond. They find it exceedingly difficult to discern this as an abused process and defend the offender, often refusing to accept that this is abuse.
Enabling adolescents to understand various forms of coercion, ranging from material lure to persuasion and threat; focussing on an understanding of consent in sexual relationships [ Box 7 ]. Personal safety awareness and education focussing on equipping adolescents with sexual decision-making skills a life skills approach. Validation of emotions and working with notions of self-identity, including feelings of guilt and shame, in children and adolescents who may be traumatized by the CSA. As also shown in Figure 2 , CSA interventions can be broadly categorized into three types of responses:.
In case a child is referred immediately after abuse, i. Treatment history and response to treatment in case the child has already undergone or is undergoing treatment should be recorded. Ideally, it must be ensured that the child is provided with emergency medical services within 24 h of filing the first information report FIR in case a police report has been filed or even otherwise. If a child is within the 36 h window period especially in case of penetrative abuse :. Has the child received Postexposure prophylaxis PEP within 36 h in case of penetrative abuse? Even if the child is not in the window period and the penetrative abuse has occurred within a month, refer to the Paediatric ART Centre so that a decision can be taken regarding initiation of PEP.
The STD investigation must be repeated at the end of 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Check whether an additional specific forensic evaluation has been done examination requested by police documenting abuse, if swabs have been taken in case of penetrative abuse , and if so, whether the report is available. Obtain the report from the relevant source. In case the results are a false negative, it would be best to obtain an additional gynecological opinion.
It is also advisable to liaise with an obstetrician at this time. Following medical assistance, or simultaneously, psychosocial and mental health interventions should be initiated for the child and family, based on the Psychosocial and Mental Health Assessment completed. Developmental assessments and forensic interviewing may follow subsequently, and be embedded in the counseling and therapy processes. Pharmacotherapy is not specifically indicated for CSA unless it results in severe anxiety and depressive states. SSRIs are also indicated in situations where CSA results in severe depression associated with self-harm behaviors, dissociation, and agitation.
States of agitation may call for SOS medication with low dosage benzodiazepines. There are a group of children with pre-existing vulnerabilities or those in whom the trauma is so destabilizing that it results in mood dysregulation. This group of children may require mood stabilizers. Older children and adolescents, particularly, must not be coerced to take medication in case they are unwilling i. Asking questions, and attempting to establish depth interventions when the child is facing a crisis, i. This is not the time to for detailed enquiry. If there are serious and disruptive manifestations such as self-harm behaviors, incapacitating anxiety, PTSD symptoms with severe panic, appropriate psychiatric referral at this stage is important as psychiatric medication may be required for anxiety symptoms to reduce before any counseling work is initiated.
However, certain initial responses or what are know as first level responses [ Box 9 ] of a supportive nature require to be provided to the child. Depending on where the abuse occurred and who the perpetrator is, it is essential to immediately take measures to protect the child from further abuse. In case the abuse has occurred at school, the child may be permitted to stay away from school until such time as other processes, legal and psychosocial, are in place; at a later stage, a change in school may also be considered, should the child and family wish not to return to the same school.
Children who have been sexually abused first and foremost require time to rest and recover from traumatic experiences. They may, therefore, be encouraged to play, listen to music, do art activities purely for recreational purposes to keep them entertained but at the same time also occupied so that they are not sitting idle and constantly thinking about the traumatic experience. Parents and caregivers must be encouraged to spend quality time with children, playing with them and reassuring them about their safety, but not trying to extract details of the abuse.
Drawing from cognitive behavior therapy methods, relaxation exercises can be used to help sexually abused children control and manage anxiety or anxiety-provoking thoughts. Such exercises entail deep breathing and guided imagery Guided imagery is a method of relaxation which concentrates the mind on positive images in an attempt to reduce pain, stress, etc. As and when children are ready, it is best for them to resume their daily routines so that their developmental needs continue to be met. Abuse-focused healing interventions alone are insufficient and healing and recovery can also take a long time; in the interim, it is therefore important to recognize the importance of maintaining children's developmental trajectories — which are disrupted by experiences of trauma and abuse.
Enabling children gradually to return to daily schedules and activities such as school and play helps to restore:. Predictability something that is lost in the abuse situation due to the lack of predictability of abusers and of abuse events. Control, i. All of the above therefore also help reduce anxiety. Helping children to structure and organize their day to accommodate various activities such as daily self-care activities bathing, eating, etc. Longer term therapy entails regular sessions between a trained therapist or mental health professional to engage the child in reflection and dialog to process and resolve the abuse experiences.
It is only after the first level responses that healing interventions are undertaken. They are longer-term processes, entailing in-depth work with the child. The objectives of depth therapeutic interventions for sexually abused children and adolescents are:. Therapeutic methods need to be innovative and age-appropriate. Thus, multiple creative methods that allow for children and adolescents to understand and reflect on situations and experiences require to be used versus mere information and instruction giving.
Below is a framework for designing activities and interventions to assist children with the trauma of sexual abuse [ Figure 3 ]. Various types of creative methods, ranging from art and story-telling to theater, and cognitive-behavior therapy methods for containment and emotional regulation may be used. Skill training self-estrangement to self-awareness; poor survivor skills to good coping skills, entrapment to empowerment; negative self-image to self-acceptance :. Vision for the Future self-estrangement to self-awareness; poor survivor skills to good coping skills, entrapment to empowerment; negative self-image to self-acceptance :. The fifth theme moves on to people safety. This theme also touches on the issue of disclosure through discussions on secrets, for children are often lured or threatened into secrecy, by abusers.
Adolescents learn to use each window and concept individually and then collectively to arrive at decisions about sex and sexuality behaviors [ Box 11 ]. The activities use a range of innovative and creative methods that allow for children and adolescents to understand and reflect on situations and experiences vs. Thus, the activities use methods such as movement games, body mapping, art, board games, adaptation of common children's group games hopscotch , story-telling and narratives, and film clips to make learning a participatory and entertaining experience for children. Karp and Traci L. Butler [ Box 10 ]. The authors offer a brief review of child sexual development and then present a four-stage approach to recovery for children aged from 6 to 12 years.
Designed for use in conjunction with traditional therapeutic interventions, the volume guides therapists through establishing a therapeutic rapport to helping children explore the trauma, repair their sense of self and become future-oriented. When they learn about their child being sexually abused, parents and caregivers are also likely to be in a state of confusion and distress. From understanding what medical and legal processes to follow and where to report to making decisions about seeking mental health assistance are some of the areas that parents initially require help with.
Help them understand abuse dynamics, i. They may also be needed to be educated on ways to manage children and adolescents who are in extreme distress, with self-harm behaviors. The purpose of mandatory reporting, under POCSO, is to ensure that sexual offense comes to light and gets punished, to ensure that the child especially when abuse takes place within the family is safe and does not continue to suffer abuse, to provide justice to the child concerned and prevent abuse of other children. As justified as it is in its intent, the stipulation of mandatory reporting is ridden with dilemmas and is often difficult to implement. Parents and caregivers are often reluctant to report CSA for reasons ranging from stigma and discrimination associated with sexual abuse to fear of legal procedures and systems.
It is recommended, therefore, that mandatory reporting is not a one-off procedure but that it follows a process which entails the following:. Explaining to the child and family that there are laws about CSA POCSO and that it is recommended that they report the abuse with reasons for how and why it could be advantageous to them, i. Understanding the child and family's hesitancy to report, i. Assuring the child and family that confidentiality would be maintained through the processes of reporting, i.
Explaining all processes involved in reporting, to child and family, i. There are two legal processes that may call for the involvement of mental health professionals — that of mandatory reporting and that of being an expert witness in a court of law. In such an instance, reporting processes are taken care of by the referring agencies. The Special Court judge may call upon mental health professionals to assist in the court proceedings to be an expert witness. In light of this, it is recommended that mental health professionals make the following preparations:. Ensure detailed documenting of all sessions and interactions with the child from assessment and inquiry to treatment and intervention reports. Study the case in minute detail before appearing in court, in preparation for detailed examination by the prosecutor as well as the defense lawyer.
Providing an opinion on the ability of the child to depose as a witness — this would call for presenting developmental assessments as well as psychosocial and mental health assessments to the court, including recommendations on the child's ability to provide abuse narratives, to enable the judge to make decisions on such matters. On request of the judge, assisting the court with child-friendly methods of inquiry and communication when they interview a child. Note: These last two components are particularly relevant in the context of very young children, under age 5 years and children with disability. Preventive workshops, personal safety workshop, life skills education can help as preventive strategies. However, when choosing the assessment it is very important to ensure that it examines both microstructure and macrostructure domains of storytelling.
Is the story organized and cohesive? I have not had the opportunity to review TNL However, the previous version of TNL had notable limitations. It was more effective at identifying narrative deficits in severely language impaired children vs. The orginal TNL , test-retest reliabilities were not separately calculated for different ages. It also did not equally represent all tested age-groups and SES levels.
Hayward et al They also increased the number of items on the comprehension tasks and added more inferential questions as well as more questions for the youngest, low-functioning and the oldest, high-functioning children. Supposedly scoring for the oral narratives is now similar across the three types of stories which makes the TNL-2 easier to score, and more reliable as per authors. According to the manual, the macrostructure domain of the NAP is currently under development.
However, since the most recent manual was last updated in August , I am not quite certain how up-to-date this information really is. To continue NAP is fairly easy to use. The child is first shown a book then asked to tell a story using pictures as prompts. One of the advantages of NAP is that it does not require narrative transcription and manual utterance tallying, since the examiner scores the narrative as the story is being told.
However, the lack of macrostructure analysis is a big disadvantage in my eyes, which is why I personally do not use this assessment when I analyze the narratives of preschool children. Next up is the NLM. Students are asked to listen to a brief narrative, and then retell that narrative. Scoring takes place in real-time. Additional sections of the NLM allow for the examination of story grammar comprehension and inferential word learning or word use. It contains:. Scoring rubrics contain 0—2 or 0—3 point ratings and 2 critical subscales story grammar and language complexity. Furthermore, single subtest administration should be avoided, and if infrequently probed seasonal the administration of all 3 subtests is recommended for validity purposes.
Personally, I prefer informal narrative assessments to the standardized ones. There are many advantages to informal assessments. Read more about it here. It stands for:. Again, if you cut and paste from above you should be in good shape. Smart goals examples for speech therapy would include the following:. The answer is 1. Anything more might not be attainable in the time period and is difficult to update. What do you do if they master half of the goal?
What is the solution? We either write a second goal or this is where goal objectives come in. A sample speech goal with objectives would look like this:. I get this. When I am working with my clients and students, I make sure everything is measurable. I needed to make my goals more functional. What do I mean by this? Case in point—I am currently working with a year-old young man, Chris.
After a few speech therapy sessions and communication with the gentleman, I understand that he is most excited about meal time, creating art and watching his favorite television shows. His goals are the following:. Goal 2: Describe e. So, during his twice-weekly speech therapy sessions, we use his communication device to make a choice for his desired meal items, describe the type of art he wants to create and ask for continuation of House of Payne, a television sitcom. The speech therapy goals directly impact his daily living activities. Watch this video of Chris as he uses his communication skills to participate in purchasing art supplies and going out to lunch:.
I remember having a group of 4 students working on different speech therapy goals at different levels. The 2nd graders definitely knew their goals. It made the group more accountable and was also a great way to build rapport. You can even do this with younger students. So, when they made the sound, they were SO proud of their efforts. Writing Measurable Goals. Read what we wrote on Sequencing Goals. Home First Time Here?
Just: Copy and paste the speech and language goals from below. During speech and language tasks , have children take data on their goal. Articulation Goals — Sounds. Articulation Goals — Consonant clusters. Receptive Language Goals — Vocabulary. Receptive Language Goals — Following Directions. Receptive Language Goals — Answering Questions. Receptive Language Goals — Other. Expressive Language Goals — Early Language.This course is organized owl eyes great gatsby twelve 12 core units. See also Child psychoanalysis Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy psychology Psychodynamics Psychoanalytic theory. Translated by Heather McCartney. If you intend Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy earn continuing education credits toward the RPT, you Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy apply for the CCPT Employee Tuition Reimbursement if you meet at least one Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy the following requirements:. Some highlight the study and promotion of subjective well-being and Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy human functioning rather than Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy and so identify with Personal Narrative: Child Play Therapy psychology.