⒈ Ask Me Anything Case Study

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Ask Me Anything Case Study

Ask Me Anything Case Study your Instagram bio and Ask Me Anything Case Study last nine posts as your first impression on Instagram. The New Reddit Journal of Science. Prior studies of online Ask Me Anything Case Study examined scientific communication within the context of Ask Me Anything Case Study one-directional model, investigating the roles of traditional mediators journalists, healthcare Ask Me Anything Case Study, government organizations, etc. Explore this Article methods. Do they effectively communicate some Essay On Astrology In Romeo And Juliet of consistency Ask Me Anything Case Study personality, filters, colors, or layout? You want to know if this school offers Ask Me Anything Case Study type of environment you are looking for.

Radix Technical Ask Me Anything

You're interested in exploring how the officers themselves describe these experiences. You are eager to hear their own stories, and you want to avoid prejudicing them. To do so, you decide that you will open your interview with an opening question, such as:. By "affected you," I mean anything you wish to tell me about—the emotions or thoughts or feelings you went through, how you handled it all, what effects there might have been on your health or on your family life—anything whatever that comes to mind. Just take your time and tell me whatever you can in your own words. The officer does not tell you anything about feelings of guilt, although he touches on the other experiences that the quantitative research found.

Please write a guiding question to get into the topic of guilt. I wonder if you would mind sharing your thoughts on guilt in this situation? But, due to the topic's very sensitive nature, phrasing the question this way allows the officer to interpret it as permission to say if he does not want to share his thoughts. Do you like your own version of the question better than this one? Does it satisfy the characteristics? Good for you! Objectives After reviewing this document, you will be able to: Discuss what guiding questions are and how they differ from quantitative survey items. Recognize when guiding questions are needed. Identify the characteristics of good interview guiding questions. Evaluate the quality of sample guiding questions.

Write an example of a good guiding question. What Are Guiding Questions? The list of guiding questions for an interview is sometimes called the interview protocol. Open-Ended Questions This is an example of an open-ended guiding question: "In your own words, and in as much detail as you can, please tell me about the last time you were involved in a conflict with one of your employees.

Here's another example of an open-ended guiding question: "During that conflict, how did you manage your anger? Quantitative Survey Items Compared with Guiding Questions For a quantitative survey, you might ask the same question about anger in a different, more structured, or closed way. For example: During that conflict, did you become angry? Choose one: Yes or No. During that conflict, did you express your anger directly or indirectly? Choose one: Directly or Indirectly. During that conflict, did you raise your voice? For example: During that conflict, describe whether the issue of anger came up, and, if it did, how you handled it. When Are Guiding Questions Needed? Types of Guiding Questions: Follow-Ups The two most common types of guiding questions are follow-up questions and topical guiding questions.

Here are a few different kinds: Clarifying follow-up questions: What would be an example of that? Please explain that in more detail. What did you mean by that? Deepening or expanding follow-up questions: Please tell me more about that. Notice that silence or a quiet sound like "Mmmhh" can be an effective, deepening follow-up. Focusing follow-up questions: I'd like to ask you to return to something you said a few minutes ago. Please tell me about Types of Guiding Questions: Topicals You will never find the phrase "topical guiding questions" in research design texts, nor will most methodologists recognize it.

Example of a Necessary Guiding Question Here is the research question for a generic or basic qualitative study: How do fourth-grade teachers describe their perspectives on six commonly reported problems in teaching special education children? Characteristics of Good Guiding Questions Characteristics of successful guiding questions include: Clear and to the point, unambiguous words. Assumptions made explicit, not hidden. Language is geared to the participants, technical language is absent; if jargon must be used, it is explained.

No offensive words or phrases unless essential to understanding. Answers elicited in respondents' own words. No forced choices or closed questions. No scientists repeated AMA hosting during this period. When we analyzed the code, Answer Status RQ3a , we found that the number of questions posed and the percentage of which were answered during an AMA varied see Table 2. Considering the two AMAs with higher response rates, we observed that the responses by the two hosts in the biology AMA were very succinct and to the point. It appeared that they aimed to respond to as many questions as possible by keeping their answers brief. The Medicine AMA had six researchers answering questions. They seemed to be able to divide the labor of answering questions among themselves effectively—another key factor in answering more questions successfully.

Although the answer rate was lower, the detailed responses this researcher provided were impressive. The answers were generally a paragraph or more, unlike other AMAs in which responses could be as short as a sentence. The answers in the Chemistry AMA also included specific scientific references; we did not observe any links i. Here, the researcher seemed to emphasize quality i. Not all of the posts in an AMA were answering questions. Table 2 includes the numbers and percentages of posts that were coded PI5, meaning the poster—whether they were a host or a participant—intended to answer a question. We further examined the numbers and percentages of posts by different types of participants that intended to answer questions Fig 1 and S4 Table.

The number of answers provided by participants with a flair were less. Even though posts answering questions by participants with a flair were limited, these answers were insightful; we speculate that the audience would value these answers more than answers provided by participants without a flair. This makes sense in that questions and answers are the purpose of the Ask Me Anything forums on Reddit and the participants evidently focused on asking and answering questions. However, there were some variations. For example, AMA 3 had more posts seeking information than average, and AMA 6 had more posts answering questions than average.

As such, hosts and participants in AMA 6 were more inclined to contribute by answering questions rather than simply seeking information. Note: Percentages were calculated by the number of posts for each code divided by the total number of all the posts coded for PI i. It is clear that comments on governance were almost non-existent. In addition, AMAs 3 and 5 had slightly more inquiry posts than the rest, while AMA 2 had more posts providing opinions. We observed that the hosts for AMA 2 received many posts that included thanks for the AMA session and that provided positive feedback on their research and the topic of their AMA. Most of the posts making inquiries were presented as initial questions rather than embedded questions.

Fig 3 also shows that AMA 2 and 4 had more posts providing factual information than others while AMA 3 had fewer such posts. This may reflect the topics of discussion. The topics of bird genetics AMA 2 and climate change AMA 4 may be more familiar to laypeople; nanomaterials AMA 3 is less likely to be common knowledge among laypeople. Finally, AMA 6 had significantly more off-topic posts than others. This is not necessarily negative. As previous research has indicated [ 43 ], off-topic comments may facilitate the well-being of online communities.

We also noticed that the hosts for AMA 6 offered participants more opportunities to express their opinions, rather than the straightforward question-answer rapport established in other AMAs. Note: Percentages were calculated by the number of posts for each code divided by the total number of all the posts coded for CF i. This result indicated that participants were actively engaged in these AMAs. We then examined the types of response posts in which AMA participants were seeking information RQ3e. Regardless of whether posts seeking information were answered or not, they tended to be initial questions that appeared at the start of a discussion thread rather than follow-up questions embedded within the discussion.

Furthermore, the posts coded as seeking information tended to receive direct answers rather than comments that did not necessarily reply to the question asked. It makes sense that posts seeking information were initial questions, which were likely asking for information, and that they did not get comments once answered. Some posts did not receive comments or answers; in other words, some questions were left unnoticed. The S7 Table shows the frequency of response types for posts seeking information. This is the nature of AMAs—Reddit users can ask any question, but there is no guarantee that their question will be answered.

Further analysis of these questions in the posts may be useful. The posts that sought discussion were fewer in number than the posts seeking information see Fig 2 , and these posts tended to be initial questions. Whenever these posts received answers, they were not likely to be commented on. Similar to posts seeking information, if these posts were not answered, then they were not likely to receive comments. Most of the hosts who responded to our survey were college faculty with a Ph. These scientists appeared to understand the culture of Reddit and how to follow the general rules—either explicitly stated as policies or implicitly implemented by norms. However, it should be noted that the only responses we received from the survey were either positive or neutral.

We suspect that we are not getting the whole picture and that hosts with less positive experiences may have declined to participate. Future research should try to collect data from those who had negative experiences through other sampling strategies, such as snowball sampling. In terms of the number of questions and responses, there was variation among the range of AMAs studied. Some hosts responded to more questions than others—most often by responding briefly—while those who only responded to a few questions often provided considerably more detailed responses.

We are not judging which approach is better, but it would be useful for researchers who host AMAs, and online PES practitioners who assist these researchers, to consider goals or guidelines appropriate to the topic and to decide what approach to take when responding to questions—either responding briefly to as many questions as possible or answering fewer questions but with more in-depth responses. Another point for online PES practitioners to consider is that in the AMA format, most answers and comments were focused on initial questions. As such, researchers participating in similar online PES can be advised that they do not need to feel obligated to attempt to answer all of the questions, including embedded questions.

One of the positive experiences that our survey respondents commented on was the collaboration with other researchers as a way to participate in this online PES. In this way, the experience may be less intimidating and burdensome, and more enjoyable. It appears that this openness is intrinsic to the culture of Reddit. This active participation was evident in our analysis of the types of responses. Participants were actively engaged, and were not always content to wait to hear from experts i.

At least some aspects of the potential for online science communication advocated by Brossard [ 16 ] and others are realized to some extent in this platform. In the past, scientists used various means to help lay audiences engage in public participation, such as policy making, dialogue, and knowledge production [ 4 ]. Online PES is an alternative to face-to-face PES, which has some advantage in its relative ease of access anyone with an Internet connection can participate and the possibility for an unlimited number of participants.

As for limitations, our use of manual coding limited the sample size six AMAs. However, it should be possible in the future to detect some of the codes automatically, using natural language processing. Second, the survey responses were all positive. This suggests that the AMA hosts who had negative experiences did not respond to our survey. Therefore, the results of the survey should be taken with a grain of salt. We are currently conducting another study to address this gap. Future studies should consider asking these types of questions in a survey.

Despite these limitations, this study makes several contributions to investigating this emerging form of public engagement in science. Both our in-depth content analysis and the results of our survey will help scientists who are curious about becoming AMA or IAmA hosts or hosts on similar platforms to better prepare for the experience. Such preparation could also lead to increased participation, and we hope that more scientists will participate in this emerging form of science communication with the general public. Third, other researchers can apply the coding scheme we developed for other question and answer sites.

In short, AMAs hosted via Reddit have the potential to provide unique and interesting opportunities for dialogue between scientists and the general public. In addition, an increased understanding of the AMA process will help scientists interested in using this platform for communicating with the public to better prepare to meet the needs and expectations of participants. We greatly appreciate the scientists who participated in the study. We also thank Ralf Shaw, Phil Eskew, and the anonymous reviewers for their comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. Ellen Ogihara assisted with the formatting of this manuscript. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Abstract Originally, online public engagement with science tended to be one directional—from experts to the general population via news media. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Introduction Engagement with the general public is an important scientific responsibility. Do questions receive answers? What kind of content features appear? Who is posting comments? What kind of responses do posts receive? Data collection To gain an overview of who the scientist AMA hosts were and what they discussed with the general public, we used a mixed method approach, employing two data collection methods: survey and content analysis. Survey A survey that consisted of 26 questions was distributed using the online Qualtrics platform see S1 File.

Download: PPT. For example, one of the respondents said: I did not have any previous experience of chatting in public and was a bit nervous about it, but I found that once it got started it was great fun to try to answer as many questions as succinctly, accurately, and pedagogically as possible. Answering questions. Intention to answer questions. Fig 1. Types of discussions. Types of participants. Table 3. Number and percentage of contributions by type of user.

Seeking information posts. Fig 4. Percentage of posts seeking information based on answer status, comment status, and question location. Seeking discussion posts. Fig 5. Percentage of posts seeking discussion based on answer status, comment status, and question location. Supporting information. S1 File. Survey instrument for scientists who hosted AMA in science subReddit. S1 Fig.

S1 Table. S2 Table. Codebook for the content analysis. S3 Table. Descriptive statistics of participants and their reported satisfaction with hosting an AMA. If you just happen to find that a piece of code does not work, please ask google about the syntax of the database management system you use. We created a table using create. When writing queries, you should put storage into consideration because your table can contain large amounts of data and retrieving them may not be as fast as you desire. This means it cannot contain duplicate values integers in our case. This query simply can retrieve all the data from the startup table. As we can use from the result, it includes all the columns we created with 0 rows in it. We can fix this by an updating query:.

Since you Ask Me Anything Case Study conducting a statistical analysis, you do not need to recruit a diverse Ask Me Anything Case Study of society. The station quickly apologized and Ask Me Anything Case Study to prevent Ask Me Anything Case Study the mistake, but it failed. After the call, Ask Me Anything Case Study called Martha and gave her an update. Classroom management definition Ask Me Anything Case Study a Necessary Guiding Ask Me Anything Case Study Here is the research question for a Ask Me Anything Case Study or basic qualitative study: How do fourth-grade teachers describe their perspectives on six commonly reported problems in teaching special education children? Partner Center. Keep Ask Me Anything Case Study study readable and powerful. Seeking Ask Me Anything Case Study.

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