❤❤❤ Poverty And Gender Analysis

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Poverty And Gender Analysis

Download PDF. A number of policy implications are Reflection On Transference by the microsimulations: Promoting female participation in the Poverty And Gender Analysis force should be a particular focus Poverty And Gender Analysis public policy in the countries studied. The correct Poverty And Gender Analysis is D. Poverty And Gender Analysis Brydon and S.

Why Does Poverty Affect More Women Than Men?

During slavery, while the social ideal of womanhood conjured up notions of being placed upon a pedestal of femininity, Black women worked alongside Black men, in what Angela Davis called a deformed equality under a racialized oppression that did not discriminate between women and men. This is why it is important that we develop a framework of analysis as we look at this history. These alternative program proposals were based on the idea that public support was a right not a privilege.

The programs that were able to generate support from power constituencies in the reform movement, business or the government, were programs that enforced the notion that public support was a burden on society and not a right of the public. Worthy women were rewarded with assistance barely above the poverty line, while unworthy mothers in poverty are further punished and made an example of to all of society. Race plays a significant role in this class based poverty program designed to serve women and their children.

Amid widespread unemployment, poverty, a crashing economy and growing social unrest, the federal government passed the Social Security Act of As part of the New Deal legislation created under President Roosevelt, the Social Security Act established two forms of cash benefits: social insurance and public assistance. Social insurance programs included Social Security and Unemployment Insurance. Social Security is a pension for retired workers that is generated through a payroll tax that is paid half by the worker and half by the employer.

Unemployment Insurance covers the wages of those temporarily unemployed and the program is funded entirely be a tax paid for by the employer. Because these two entitlement programs have benefited a large segment of society, they are thought of as social rights rather than government assistance. However, these two programs did not cover everyone. The social insurance programs of , excluded the majority of Black workers in the country. In order to win the support of Southern political leaders, the two entitlement programs did not include those in agricultural and domestic work.

With the majority of Black men and women working in these two occupations, especially in the South, social insurance programs furthered race based economic inequality. In addition to the exclusion of Black women workers in agriculture and domestic work, both white and Black women were excluded from Social Security as the following occupations did not receive this federal entitlement; teachers, nurses, hospital employees, librarians and social workers — all of which are heavily occupied by women. ADC, which came to be known as welfare, was severely limited by institutionalized racism and sexism. To begin with Congress rejected a definition of a dependent child that would have entitled any poor child assistance if the family was either unemployed or could not provide a reasonable subsistence.

This definition would have included children living in single or two parent homes as well as children living with extended families. ADC only offered assistance to children without parental support due to death, long-term absence or incapacity of the family breadwinner. ADC was also limited by Southern political leaders who again deprived Black women in the South from federal entitlements. Southern congressman, who chaired key committees, insisted that states reserve the right to establish the criteria for eligibility and make the decisions about who received benefits. Southern leaders prevented Black women and men from receiving federal entitlements, because the economy of the South depended on the underpaid labor of Black workers to generate enormous profit.

Federal entitlements like ADC would have created opportunities for Black women to leave low-paying jobs. Underpaid labor in the South resulted in families working full-time jobs living in poverty while the profit of this labor created the wealth of the white upper-class. Hence, the economic motivation behind Southern leaders racist practice of excluding Black workers from entitlements and Black women from public assistance, brings us to the second form of oppression, which is structural political inequality. She then notes that Black women have been forbidden to vote, excluded from public office, denied literacy, attended underfunded public schools, treated more severely in the criminal justice system and discriminated against in federal assistance programs as well.

While political oppression disempowers Black women it institutionalizes power inequality that benefits white men, particularly those who hold economic power. As the example of Social Security and ADC demonstrate, Black women who are denied formal political power are further oppressed both politically and economically because of their race and gender by Southern leaders who directly benefit from this oppression. As mentioned earlier, ADC was originally a program available primarily to white single mothers. Several major events changed the racial composition of ADC recipients. As the number of Black mothers receiving ADC grew, the program developed a racial coding that attached Black racialized meaning to a program that originally benefited white women almost exclusively.

How did this happen. To begin with, in , the Congress amended the Social Security Act. This impacted women in two ways. Black women who were widows of working men, or had worked themselves, were largely unable to receive OAI as most Black workers male or female were still excluded from Social Security benefits all together. Women who switched to OAI received double the amount of benefits.

The next major event effecting welfare programs took place during and after World War II. There was an enormous movement of Black people from rural areas into cities in the South and from the South into the North. The promise of jobs and the need to escape racial and sexual violence in the South motivated hundreds of thousands of Black people to move to large northern cities. These programs were initiated due to pressure from protest movements, particularly the Civil Rights and Welfare Rights movements, along with widespread urban unrest in the mid to late While white women continued to make up a majority of those on welfare, Black women where on welfare in higher percentages then their percentage in the population as a whole for example, a city might be 20 percent Black, while 40 percent of those on welfare were Black, yet the majority receiving welfare overall remained white.

In 2o percent of all whites, nearly 50 percent of families living in female headed-households and more than half of all African Americans were poor. In the Social Security Act was amended, which changed ADC to AFDC and allowed women on welfare to work and collect benefits, opened up eligibility to include some two parent families, and permitted the states to provide services to a broad range of current and potential recipients. While the numbers of people on welfare grew, so too did the number of welfare recipients who began organizing under the banner of Welfare Rights.

The National Welfare Rights Organization was founded in by dozens of local groups that had already been doing years of grassroots organizing in their communities. The welfare rights movement was primarily lead and composed of mothers who were welfare recipients. Due to the number of people on welfare growing, the influx of Black women on welfare, the growing power of the welfare rights movement, and the expanding government programs to aid the poor, the situation led to a backlash by the white male power structure that feared it was losing its ability to govern The backlash focused on long held notions of welfare mothers, such as illegitimacy, dependency, and immorality.

The stigma of welfare and the corrupting effects of welfare on the family became racialized. The social construction of gender that defines women as dependent on men is continued to the social construction of the welfare mother dependent on society. An article written in for the New York Times Magazine reflects the discourse shaping headlines and newspaper articles across the country. Energy poverty in rural households causes the health problems of women and children.

One health problem is caused by indoor air pollution from traditional stoves. Study indicated that cooking with biomass is predicted to lead to 1. Meanwhile, the scarcity of fuel makes them less likely to use the fuels for cooking waters, which might increase risk of water-borne diseases. Energy poverty further affects women by putting them into the situation of "time poverty", which refers to the lack of time for resting, working outsides, getting education etc. It is the consequence of spending a long time gathering the fuels to supply the domestic energy use. The forest degradation caused by climate change might exaggerate the current problem. Studies also show that in the rural areas in developing countries, men usually have more power in making decision in purchasing energy devices or new technologies.

In sub-Saharan African countries, energy poverty is especially challenging, due to the high cost of extending grid electricity in existing scattered rural settlement. Hence the basic capabilities for development, like education, health, transportation are restricted. A case study in Tanzania examines impact of a women-oriented solar lighting social enterprise project on health, education, livelihood and gender equality. In developed countries, lone and old women are affected disproportionately by energy poverty. Those older women usually have less pensions to support themselves, because they worked mostly inside the house.

The rise in energy cost affects the affordability of heating and cooling service at home. Furthermore, the increasing energy price, relative low income, and together energy-inefficient houses contribute to energy poverty in developed countries. There are gender gaps in the energy labor market, energy-related education and decision-making process in developed countries. Studies show that the under-representation is attributed to the following reasons: lack of necessary skills caused by the energy education gap, the perception of stereotypical men-domain energy sectors, and lack of opportunities for women working in energy sectors.

Zafar successfully runs a fully chartered bank, the Kashf Microfinance Bank, with 31 branches in three provinces, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh. MIX Market www. Zafar, who attended Yale University and the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, has the required financial knowledge and skills. She was a specialist on women in development and community for the U. Development Programme and the World Bank. The daughter of a renowned jurist and constitutional expert, S. She sees social entrepreneurship as her lifetime mission. Both men and women must work together to increase family incomes and contribute to development of the community and the country: Only then can Pakistani society become gender-sensitive, she says.

Zafar decided to help them get that money and build better lives. Her meeting with Yunus prompted her visit to Bangladesh, to learn from the Grameen Bank experience. Zafar studied the methods with Yunus for two years, and visited other successful projects in Nepal and India. Her success received recognition early when, in , she was awarded a fellowship from the U. Families get loans to fund a business of their choice and for which they have skills. Zafar relates the story of year-old Nasim Baji with pride. Nasim Baji runs a costume jewelry business with microfinancing provided by Kashf.

She borrowed Rs. She later diversified and today owns two molding machines to manufacture metal jewelry. She employs 30 women workers. Her husband works for her now. Her jewelry is sold in several cities. Nasim Baji inspires other women to set up small businesses to generate income. She explains that Kashf has expanded from working only with women to working with families.

To increase access to capital, Zafar founded the Kashf Microfinance Bank. Kashf was among the first such institutions to offer insurance for clients, at a minimal premium, to assist in debt payment when the head of household dies. Advisory Group on Inclusive Financial Services. Kashf Foundation was ranked 34 out of the top 50 microfinance institutions by Forbes magazine in , and was honored in with the OneWoman Initiative Award by the U. State Department. More recently Roshaneh Zafar was a delegate to the U. Shafqat Munir is a journalist, researcher and communications specialist in Pakistan.

Honduran Dulce Marlen Contreras knew that poverty was the source of domestic violence and other problems afflicting women in her community, so she began an organization to educate women about their rights. It soon evolved into an agricultural cooperative that has given its members economic stability. A daughter of farmers in the rural region of La Paz, Honduras, Marlen was tired of watching the women of her community endure widespread alcoholism and domestic violence. Along with seven of her friends, Marlen began COMUCAP in order to educate local women about their rights, how to stand up for themselves and eventually become economically independent. In addition to the consciousness-raising workshops, the organization started training women to grow and sell organic coffee and aloe plants.

Traditionally, the women of La Paz looked after the children and relied on men for economic support. Growing coffee and aloe vera, selling the crops and developing products to sell not only enabled women to earn additional income for their families, but gave them economic independence and stability. The initial reaction from the community was hostile. More and more women now made decisions jointly with their husbands.

The women could more effectively resist domestic abuse. Economic stability and equality within family structures dramatically decreased household violence and improved quality of life within COMUCAP families. Most programs focus on agricultural production: cultivation of oranges to make orange wine, aloe vera plants for a variety of products, organic coffee, organic fertilizers. There is now training and support for women to start their own businesses. A cooperative agriculture program helps members form groups ranging in size from five to 25 women.

They rent or own small pieces of land where they collectively grow coffee and aloe vera plants. The aloe vera plants are used to produce Wala Organic Aloe products such as shampoo, juices and desserts. In the COMUCAP business model, co-op members grow their own crops, refine and prepare them for use and manufacture products which are distributed in local, regional, national and international markets.

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