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Dendur History



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Matthew Reilly Wiki Explore. Shane Schofield Series. Hell Island. Jack West Jr Series. Stand-Alone Novels. Interceptor Production of Film and Television Adaptions. Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account? Temple of Dendur. View source. William Hepworth Dixon , an English traveler, once noted of Denver, "a man's life is of no more worth than a dog's", but that in its people he saw "perseverance, generosity, [and] enterprise. The same year that Colorado became a territory, the American Civil War broke out and Colorado was not spared.

Most Denverites were from the North and their support for the Union drove many Southerners from town, including Denver's first mayor John C. William Gilpin, Colorado's first territorial governor, organized Colorado's volunteer militia, and sent them south in February to fight Confederate Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass. With resources tied up in the war there was little left over for mines, farms, and infrastructure, and Denver stagnated.

Though Denver surpassed most other cities in Colorado at the time and was transforming itself, it was still considered a frontier town. Churches, lacking permanent facilities, often held their services in public halls or saloons, and children attended pay schools led by teachers of questionable ability. Gold mining declined as miners exhausted the shallow parts of the veins that contained free gold, and found that their amalgamation mills could not recover gold from the deeper sulfide ores. Denver's early wooden buildings were extremely flammable, and on July 15, citizens organized a volunteer Fire Department.

Unfortunately, almost a year later, carts and buckets were still on order, and firemen were untrained and untried. On April 19, , a fire broke out in the center of downtown Denver. High winds fed the sparks and, in a few hours, a great majority of the wooden buildings in the heart of Denver were destroyed. As a result of the fire, new laws were passed to prohibit using wood and other flammable materials to construct downtown buildings. Denver's new buildings were built with brick, often larger than the original. As the rebuilding progressed, Denver began to look like a town rather than a temporary campground. On May 19, , just over a year after the fire, the spring melt combined with heavy rains caused severe flooding on Cherry Creek.

The flooding severely affected the low-lying Auraria, destroying the Rocky Mountain News building, the Methodist Church, City Hall, and numerous offices, warehouses, and outbuildings. Eight Denver residents were killed, and enormous number of livestock were drowned. The water was badly contaminated and threatened a major epidemic. Despite these overwhelming losses, rebuilding began almost immediately. Ignoring the risk, many rebuilt well within the flood plain , and flood waters subsequently engulfed Denver in , , , and It was not until the s, when the Army Corps of Engineers completed Cherry Creek Dam, that the flooding was stopped.

The summer of saw attacks on supply trains and market manipulations drive up prices. In , grasshoppers swarmed through the area, stripping away all the vegetation. Real estate values fell so low that entire blocks changed hands during poker games. The town's population shrank from 4, in , to only about 3, in Many of the original gold miners and town founders were among those who left.

By the mids the Civil War was over and Denver had survived many tragedies. The city began to grow again and ended the decade with a population of 4, With the freeing up of capital that the end of war brought, new investment was once again possible. Denverites began to look toward the next step for growing their city, ensuring that the route of the transcontinental railroad would pass through Denver. With investment once again flowing into the Denver area transportation became a greater concern.

Transporting goods to and from Denver was a large expense, an expense that railroads could alleviate. When the Union Pacific Railroad chose to go north through Cheyenne, Wyoming many at the time expected that Cheyenne would blossom into the major population center of the region. Thomas Durant, vice president of the Union Pacific, pronounced Denver "too dead to bury. As a result, Evans, together with other local business leaders, partnered with East Coast investors to form a railroad company that would link Denver and the Colorado Territory with the national rail network.

Loveland and citizens of nearby Golden , with the intention of linking that city directly with Cheyenne and making Golden the natural hub of the territory. The efforts seemed to be on the brink of failure when Evans was able to persuade Congress to grant the company , acres 3, km 2 of land on the condition that the company build a line connecting the Union Pacific line in Wyoming with the existing Kansas Pacific line, which then extended only as far west as central Kansas.

Racing to beat the Golden investors, the company broke ground on its Cheyenne line on May 18, and took approximately two years to complete. The first train from Cheyenne arrived in Denver on June 24, Two months later, in August , the Kansas Pacific completed its line to Denver and the first train arrived from Kansas. With the completion of the Kansas Pacific line to Denver, the Denver Pacific became integral to the first transcontinental rail link between the east and west coasts of America. While the Union Pacific line had been declared finished in with the Golden spike event in Utah, linking it with the Central Pacific Railroad , passengers were required to disembark the train and cross the Missouri River at Omaha by boat.

With the completion of the Denver Pacific line, it was finally possible to embark a train on the east coast and disembark on the west coast. By this time, Denver had established its supremacy over its rival as the population center and capital city of the newly admitted State of Colorado. The railroad brought residents, tourists, and much-needed supplies. In the s, it is estimated that the railroad brought new residents to Denver each day. Population statistics bear this out, for Denver's population soared from 4, in to over 35, by In addition to bringing new residents, it put Denver on the map as a tourist destination and brought 1, visitors in its first month of operation.

That first month also brought 13,, pounds 5,, kg of freight. Denver now had the people and supplies it needed to flourish and solidify its dominance in the region. Silver was discovered near Montezuma , Georgetown , Central City and Idaho Springs in the mids, but mining was delayed for the most part until smelters were built in the late s. Despite the early silver discoveries, Colorado's largest silver district, Leadville , was not discovered until With silver mining in Colorado booming much wealth came to the residents of Denver. The city's economy was gaining a more stable base rooted in railroads, wholesale trade, manufacturing, food processing, and servicing the growing agricultural and ranching hinterland.

From Denver's start as a gold mining town through its transformation into a supplier of goods and services, it had always been a place where miners, workers, and travelers could spend their hard earned money. Saloons and gambling dens sprung up quickly after the founding. In , the Apollo Hall theater opened followed over the years by such notables as the Denver Theatre, home to the city's first opera performance in , and the Broadway Theatre which brought in internationally renowned performers, but none was quite as luxurious as the Tabor Grand Opera House built in Built by Horace Tabor with the money he had made mining silver, the Tabor Grand Opera House in Denver was said to be the most opulent building and the best-equipped theater between Chicago and San Francisco at its opening.

It occupied the entire block and was claimed to have single-handedly changed Denver's image of itself from a frontier boomtown to a world class city. The s and s saw corruption as well as progress. Underworld bosses such as Soapy Smith and Lou Blonger worked side by side with city officials and police to profit from gambling and other criminal enterprises. There were a range of bawdy houses, from the sumptuous quarters of renowned madams such as Mattie Silks and Jenny Rogers to the squalid "cribs" located a few blocks farther north along Market Street. Edward Chase ran card games and regularly entertained many of Denver's most influential leaders.

Gambling flourished and bunco artists exploited every chance to separate miners from their hard-earned gold. Business was good; visitors spent lavishly, then left town. As long as madams conducted their business discreetly, and "crib girls" did not advertise their availability too crudely, authorities took their bribes and looked the other way. Occasional cleanups and crack downs satisfied the demands for reform. Once a territory, a justice system was set up for the county but it wasn't until that Denver created a position for chief of police. These early lawmen had to deal with the Vigilance Committee, often called the Law and Order League, which took matters of law into its own hands. Elizabeth Wallace writes of these vigilantes, "A judge presided and the offender was tried by a group of his peers.

Once given, the decision was final. Between and fourteen men were accused of murder and were brought before a jury of twelve men and at least one judge presiding. Six of the fourteen men were sentenced to death. Crime and corruption brought out others who wanted to combat it. Women's suffrage came early, in , led by married middle-class women who organized first for prohibition and then for suffrage, with the goal of upholding republican citizenship for women and purifying society. Protestants, Reform Jews and Catholics helped build Denver's social welfare system in the early 20th century by providing for the sick and hungry. The Baptist minister Jim Goodheart, city chaplain and director of public welfare in , set up an employment bureau and provided food and lodging for the homeless at the mission he ran.

The United Way of America has roots in Denver, where in church leaders began the Charity Organization Society , which coordinated services and fund raising for 22 agencies. Around the same time Colorado gained the nickname "The World's Sanatorium" for its dry climate which was considered favorable for curing respiratory diseases, tuberculosis in particular. Many people came from the East Coast looking for a cure, bringing with them training and skills which expand the industrial base of Denver. A number of Jews eventually established two well-renowned hospitals to take care of their health needs and serve their community: National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives now National Jewish Health and the Jewish Consumptives' Relief Society.

Intent on transforming Denver into one of the world's great cities, leaders had wooed industry and enticed laborers to work in new factories. Soon, in addition to the elite and a large middle class, Denver had a growing population of German, Italian, and Chinese laborers, soon followed by African-Americans and Spanish-surname workers. Unprepared for this influx, the Denver Depression of unsettled political, social, and economic balances, laying the foundation for ethnic bigotry, such as the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and the Red Scare , as well as corruption and crime.

In , financial panic swept the nation , and the silver boom collapsed. Denver was already suffering economically due to several successive years of droughts and harsh winters that had hurt the agricultural industry. With no federal insurance to support the money in the banks, many people lost their life savings. As the silver mines began to close due to the continued drop in silver prices, unemployed miners and other workers from the Colorado mountains flooded into Denver in hopes of finding work. Because of the city's inability to take care of the jobless, some train companies began offering reduced or free fares for people wanting to travel from Denver. This effort contributed to the exodus from the city, and Denver's population dropped from , in to 90, in A new municipal charter was given to Denver in by the state legislature that decentralized much of the mayor's powers into six different administrative departments, two of which were elected, two appointed by the mayor, and the remaining two appointed by the governor.

King writes "The plan gave the maximum of opportunity for [political] party groups and corporate control. Over half the expenditures of the city went through this board which gave the governor and his party much direct control over Denver. Governor Davis Hanson Waite , elected in on a Populist Party reform platform, tried to overturn the corruption in Denver in by removing police and fire commissioners that he believed were shielding the gamblers and prostitutes that he believed were resulting from and also worsening the depression. The officials refused to leave their positions and were quickly joined by others who felt their jobs were threatened. They barricaded themselves in City Hall, and the state militia were sent to remove them.

Federal troops were called in from nearby Fort Logan to intervene and quell the civil strife. Eventually Governor Waite agreed to withdraw the militia and allow the Colorado Supreme Court to decide the case. The court ruled that the governor had authority to replace the commissioners, but he was reprimanded for bringing in the militia, in what became known as the "City Hall War". That the governor, elected by the entire state, had so much power over the workings of Denver was not lost on the citizens of the city. As the economy faltered, the inefficiency and divisions of the new six department system became more evident.

The electorate became disillusioned with the major political parties and in the first non-partisan mayor in Denver's history was elected, T. Reelected in , he was ultimately defeated in in by the "big mitt", a ballot-stuffing campaign. Dissatisfaction with the major political parties that controlled the state legislature led to a " home rule " movement. In an amendment to the state constitution was passed that allowed cities to adopt home rule and Denver became a consolidated city—county. The U. Throughout the depression, the one constant industry was agriculture.

A developed irrigation infrastructure and increasing crop diversification led to a stable food industry throughout the state. Without the jobs brought by the production and processing of food, the depression in Denver would have been much worse. Denver gained back the population it had lost during the depression, mainly through the annexation of neighboring towns, and ended the century with a population of more than , The Progressive Era brought an Efficiency Movement typified in when the city and Denver County were made coextensive. In Robert W. Speer was elected mayor and initiated several projects that added new landmarks, updated existing facilities, or improved the city's landscape including the City Auditorium , the Civic Center and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

Denver pioneered the juvenile court movement under Judge Ben Lindsey , who gained national fame for his efforts. Through his efforts, an act was passed creating a juvenile court in Denver which represented an important advance in relation of the law to children. Also during this period Denver's park system was expanded and land in the mountains was acquired for a future mountain park system. Local ranchers wanted to concentrate on raising cattle rather than the logistics of shipping them east and in the first National Western Stock Show was held which quickly became the preeminent livestock show in the region. These events helped raise the national profile of Denver and live up to its nickname, the "Queen City of the Plains.

Labor unions were active in Denver, especially the construction and printing crafts affiliated with the American Federation of Labor AFL , and the railroad brotherhoods. City authorities had refused to allow IWW organizers to speak to people on street corners. Union members challenged the policy, with the aim of filling the jails to put pressure on city leaders. The Wobbly tactic, which they had employed successfully for half a decade throughout the North and West, clogged the courts so they couldn't handle anything but free speech cases. Taxpayers complained that they were being forced to feed "whole armies of jailed Wobblies. On their release they marched through the streets with banners and songs On the brink of World War I, Denver mirrored the rest of the nation in wanting to stay neutral.

However, once America entered the war in , Denver contributed what it could to the war effort. Clothing and supplies were donated, children enrolled in agricultural and garden clubs to free up young men for the war, and mining and agricultural interests were expanded to support the troops and the nation. As prices for goods rose with the demand from the war effort farmers began planting crops in greater numbers and mining companies opened new mines for molybdenum , vanadium , and tungsten.

Before the war Germans had been a very prosperous immigrant group, who often congregated in their own ethnic clubs. They had enough political clout to have a law passed in that required German and gymnastics be taught in public schools, and until all of Colorado's laws were printed in English, Spanish, and German. The Germans built churches and owned interests in mining and agriculture, but many in the temperance movement primarily associated them with the production and consumption of alcohol. Believing all evil began with the drink, prohibitionists cracked down on "un-American" activity and in alcohol was banned in the state. Many saloon owners and brewers lost their jobs and with the outbreak of World War I, many others were fired and ostracized.

German stopped being taught in schools and many Germans abandoned their heritage to avoid conflicts. Many individuals within the prohibition movement associated the crime and morally corrupt behavior of the cities of America with their large immigrant populations. In a backlash to the new emerging realities of the American demographic, many prohibitionists subscribed to the doctrine of "nativism" in which they endorsed the notion that America was made great as a result of its white Anglo-Saxon ancestry. This fostered xenophobic sentiments towards urban immigrant communities who typically argued in favor of abolishing prohibition. Stapleton mayor of Denver in and Clarence Morley Governor of Colorado in and receiving government postings for many of its other members.

As these communities became Americanized , the KKK lost influence especially during Morley's single scandal ridden term in office. As Prohibition lingered on many citizens saw the negative effects: toxic bootleg liquor , corruption, bribery, and binge drinking. Colorado voters suspended the state's Prohibition laws on July 1, , and while racism and discrimination against a new wave of Mexican immigrants and African-American migrants persisted, the KKK was never again a significant force in Colorado politics. When World War I ended, the economy continued to be strong for a short period.

However, with less demand for goods, prices dropped and saw a short recession , followed by a more severe one between and The mining industry was hard hit by decreasing prices and increasing foreign competition during the post-war recession years. Coal mining in Colorado was particularly affected as alternative sources of fuel were widely adopted and labor strikes hurt production. In Denver was on the receiving end of a major natural gas pipeline from Texas and as more households and businesses switched to gas, the more demand for coal fell.

Dryland farming was common on the prairies though many farmers removed the native grasses that helped control erosion. In the national economy crashed leading to the Great Depression. In the weather turned dry beginning the most widespread and longest lasting drought in Colorado history, a period of time that would later be referred to as the " Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl decimated agriculture and the Great Depression caused industries and mines to close, their workers laid off. Many of these unemployed came to Denver looking for work and a better life. It was estimated that in one in four Denverites was out of work. The Hoover administration promised that recession would be over quickly, but the economy continued to worsen, and Franklin D.

Roosevelt won the presidential election with his promise of a " New Deal ". The New Deal brought funds and jobs to Colorado and to Denver. The Historic American Buildings Survey hired architects and photographers to document historic buildings and in the process inspired the nascent historic preservation movement. The Works Progress Administration build roads, fixed schools and funded artists to decorate government buildings. The new roads and trails encouraged tourism and combined with improvements rail and air travel made Denver a hub for transportation.

In the mids Denver financed the Moffat Tunnel through the Rocky Mountains which, when it opened in , shortened the distance between Denver and the Pacific coast by miles km. The tunnel opened just as rail travel was undergoing a transformation in the s. The Burlington Railroad introduced the Zephyr in with a record-breaking 13 hours and 5 minutes trip from Denver to Chicago.

It was a revolutionary new diesel-powered train, streamlined and luxurious, that changed the public's expectations of rail travel. Air travel was advancing around the same period. When mayor Benjamin F. Stapleton opened Denver Municipal Airport in it was derided as a taxpayer subsidy for the powerful elite who flew for sport. Built northeast of Denver The Denver Post complained that it was too far from the city center and the location had been chosen to benefit the mayor's financial backers. However, with four gravel runways, one hangar, and a terminal, it was greeted by others as "the West's best airport. Denver Municipal Airport was used mainly for mail service and private pilots.

As pressurized planes came into general use, the mountains were no longer an issue and the advanced airport attracted major airlines positioning Denver as a major hub for air travel in the region. The economy began to recover at the end of the decade as World War II started in Europe and demand for goods increased. As America began to gear up for its entrance into the war, Denver was well positioned to benefit from the activity.

Denver had been selected for a new training airbase, Lowry Air Force Base which opened in , and in the Denver Ordnance Plant opened. These facilities brought many jobs with them which in turn attracted more people to the city. Denver had started the decade with just under , people and by had over , Until World War II, Denver's economy was dependent mainly on the processing and shipping of minerals and ranch products, especially beef and lamb. Like the rest of the nation most Denverites were isolationists , but after the bombing of Pearl Harbor Denver joined the rest of the nation in the war effort.

Denver's leaders continued their efforts to bring businesses to the city during the war and in the years following, specialized industries were introduced into the city, making it a major manufacturing center. One of Denver's selling points was its location away from either coast making an attack highly unlikely. In over federal employees lived and worked in Denver. With so many federal employees already in Denver, it was easier to convince the government to add more and by , the number increased to over 16, After the war many of the facilities continued to be utilized or were converted to different uses, for example the Denver Ordnance Plant was converted into the Denver Federal Center.

More federal agencies began to come to the area which already had a large federal footprint and a well trained work force. From to , the Rocky Flats Plant , a Department of Energy nuclear weapon facility formerly located about 15 miles 24 km from Denver, produced fissile plutonium " pits " for nuclear warheads. A major fire at the facility in , as well as leakage from nuclear waste stored at the site between and , resulted in the contamination of some parts of Denver , to varying degrees, with plutonium , a harmful radioactive substance with a half-life of 24, years. These businesses brought jobs and money with them and began to influence the city displacing the wealthy entrepreneurs and pioneer families that had previously dominated political life. In , J. Quigg Newton was elected mayor and began the process of modernizing the government, expanding public housing, setting up one of the nation's first civil rights commissions.

At the time restrictive racial covenants were common in every major city in the country. Long before the Civil Rights Acts were enacted, the Colorado Anti-Discrimination Commission passed one of the earliest fair housing laws in the nation permitting Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, Japanese-Americans, and Jews to move into neighborhoods previously denied to them. These new laws upset many and contributed to the flight of middle-class families to the suburbs. Despite these laws, discrimination was still prevalent, but the work of the Newtons's Human Rights and Community Relations spared Denver some of the racial unrest that occurred in other cities in the post-war years. Over four million soldiers had come through Denver during the war for training or recuperation and after the war ended many chose to make Denver their home.

As Denver's population expanded rapidly, many old buildings were torn down to make way for new housing projects. The Denver Urban Renewal Authority demolished block after block to make room for apartments and parking lots. Many of Denver's finest buildings from the frontier era were demolished, including the Tabor Opera House, as the city expanded upward and outward. By middle-class families were moving away from the downtown area seeking larger houses and better schools; the suburbs multiplied as more people moved out of the city.

In the s Victorian homes were considered old-fashioned and unpopular and were targeted for demolition. The destruction of so many of these homes spurred Denverites to form the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission and Historic Denver, Inc which raised awareness of the value of these historic buildings and established the local historical preservation movement. During this time Denver was a gathering point for poets of the " beat generation. It is seen as a landmark cultural episode in the city's history as the psychedelic and hippie movement had moved to Denver and the Family Dog became the nexus of that movement.

The resulting conflict between the city and the venue led to numerous municipal and federal court cases. The 10 months the Family Dog Denver was open is seen as a watershed episode when Denver not only was put on the national music map but the cultural began to change from midth Century western, conservative sensibility to its current, liberal political atmosphere. Denver was also a gathering place for a new Chicano Movement.

The Crusade for Justice was instrumental in bringing attention to the plight of Mexican-Americans living in Denver and laid the ground work for Hispanics to be in city government. After World War II, oil and gas companies opened offices in Denver because of its proximity to the mountains and the energy fields contained within. As the price of oil and gas rose during the s energy crisis these companies fueled a skyscraper boom in the downtown area. A second office core was opened in the suburban Denver Tech Center to accommodate the increasing demand for office space. Many original downtown saloons and old buildings were renovated and revitalized. While many other cities at the time were threatened by crime and bankruptcy Denver was actively growing and renewing its downtown.

In the Colorado Supreme Court ruled that 'optional' attendance zones constituted segregation and ordered schools to be de-segregated. This triggered the dynamiting of school vehicles and fire-bombing of school buildings. Denver complied with the law by annexing neighboring towns and busing students. By the mids many wealthy residents were leaving Denver. In anti-integrationists used the fears about the impact of racial mixing as well as the recent tensions between Denver and its neighbors to pass the Poundstone Amendment to the state constitution. Its supporters claimed the amendment would prevent Denver from abusing its size and status, while detractors pointed out that it greatly limited the ability of the city to absorb other school districts and thus end segregation in its schools.

The majority of the new people settled in the suburbs; Denver's population was essentially flat at about , from to even as the land area grew by 40 square miles km 2. With the expansion came problems. Traffic increased due to poor public transportation and pollution increased due to traffic. Denver Tramway had been responsible for all public transportation in Denver since the turn of the century, but with aging equipment, low revenues, and lackluster ridership it eventually dissolved. Author Sherah Collins writes, " During this period a "brown cloud" began to form over the Front Range, a result of air pollution from the increasing number of cars and people in the area. This cloud of pollution would take more than two decades to get rid of and was a serious concern for people living in the Denver area.

Many people had moved to Denver for the beautiful landscapes and climate. The environment had always been an important issue to Coloradans and when Denver was selected to host the Winter Olympics to coincide with Colorado's centennial anniversary, a movement against hosting the games was formed based largely on concerns around the environmental impact of having so many people come to the area.

Colorado voters struck down ballot initiatives allocating public funds to pay for the high costs of the games, and they were subsequently moved to Innsbruck , Austria. The movement against hosting the games was led by then State Representative Richard Lamm who was subsequently elected as Colorado governor in Thousands of oil and gas industry workers lost their jobs and unemployment rates soared. Downtown Denver had been overbuilt over the past two decades and the cost of office space dropped as office vacancy rates grew to the highest in the nation at percent.

Housing prices fell, the exodus from the city to the suburbs continued and the city fell into disrepair. By the population of the city had fallen to , the lowest level in over 30 years. One of his central campaign messages was a promise of inclusiveness targeted at minorities. Using the special tax district model exemplified by the Regional Transportation District , a Scientific and Cultural Facilities District was set up and a 0.

In , these organizations attracted over 7. In Denver's original airport, Stapleton International Airport , was the eighth busiest in the nation. By the mids it had become the seventh largest airport in the world and fourth busiest in the United States. When it was initially built 3 miles 4. The Colorado General Assembly brokered a deal to annex land from Adams County to Denver County for the new airport, increasing Denver's size by 53 square miles km 2 in the single largest annexation in the city's history.

Despite opening two years late and shuttering a much hyped automated baggage system , Denver International Airport is widely considered a success and has contributed significantly to economy of the region. During his administration, Denver built the Blair-Caldwell African American Research Library in the historic Five Points neighborhood , and helped pass several neighborhood bonds for infrastructure improvements citywide. At the end of the eighties Denver's economy started to grow. In unemployment dropped to 5. Pollution-control measures came into force, helping to eliminate the noxious "brown cloud" that had hung over the city. With office space in Denver the cheapest in the world, many local companies began locking in long-term leases, which kept those companies in Denver and began to drive prices back up.

As inventories emptied out and prices stabilized from speculation of earlier years, Colorado's climate and well educated labor force began to bring people and business back to the area. As the economy grew so did the population. Many Denverites left the city for the greater space offered by the suburbs, but for each citizen lost, others came from out of state to settle in their place. Traffic grew and many people from the suburbs moved out to rural areas. This situation of urban sprawl was a cause of concern, and the Sierra Club ranked the Denver metro area among its 10 worst offenders. In , Colorado residents ranked growth as the state's number one problem. Colorado's population had expanded from 3.

With Denver experiencing so much growth, the large scale transportation projects undertaken by the Regional Transportation District under the leadership of Clarence Marsella, needed to be successful. These projects helped to alleviate some of the worst traffic congestion in the metro area, allowing for continued growth. Through the late s the majority of Denver's economy was concentrated in a few key sectors: energy, government and the military, technology, and agriculture. Over the next decade Denver and Colorado attracted new industries and the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade OEDIT says the state now has 14 core industries including health care, financial services and tourism.

This diversification of the economy helped cushion the city and state from the global recession of The fact that Denver's tax base is made up mostly of sales and income tax meant that it felt the economic downturn faster than others, but this meant it also recovered more quickly, helping Denver weather the recession better than many other U. After he was elected governor of Colorado in , Michael Hancock was elected Denver's second African American mayor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Retrieved ISBN

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