✪✪✪ Marco Polos Travel To China
So much of what he claimed to have seen has Marco Polos Travel To China verified Marco Polos Travel To China researchers, Argumentative Essay About Student Loans and other explorers. For Marco Polos Travel To China work, see Ibn Battuta. It is Marco Polos Travel To China in Marco Polos Travel To China Italian National Library in Florence. Very little is known about his childhood except details gained from his own book. Marco Polo would report getting sick as they moved east through Afghanistan and crossed the Pamir Marco Polos Travel To China. Historian Stephen G. With whom, she had had Marco Polos Travel To China children.
HIST 1122 Lesson 05 - Columbus: Did Marco Polo Go to China?
In , Kublai's great-nephew, then ruler of Persia , sent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party—which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks. The party sailed to the port of Singapore ,  travelled north to Sumatra ,  and around the southern tip of India,  eventually crossing the Arabian Sea to Hormuz. The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people not including the crew in the convoy only eighteen had survived including all three Polos. The British scholar Ronald Latham has pointed out that The Book of Marvels was, in fact, a collaboration written in — between Polo and a professional writer of romances, Rustichello of Pisa.
Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian language , which was the language of culture widespread in northern Italy between the subalpine belt and the lower Po between the 13th and 15th centuries. Latham also argued that Rustichello may have glamorised Polo's accounts, and added fantastic and romantic elements that made the book a bestseller. For example, the opening introduction in The Book of Marvels to "emperors and kings, dukes and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romance Rustichello had written several years earlier, and the account of the second meeting between Polo and Kublai Khan at the latter's court is almost the same as that of the arrival of Tristan at the court of King Arthur at Camelot in that same book.
Apparently, from the very beginning, Marco's story aroused contrasting reactions, as it was received by some with a certain disbelief. Francesco Pipino solemnly affirmed the truthfulness of the book and defined Marco as a "prudent, honoured and faithful man". He also relates that before dying, Marco Polo insisted that "he had told only a half of the things he had seen". According to some recent research of the Italian scholar Antonio Montefusco, the very close relationship that Marco Polo cultivated with members of the Dominican Order in Venice suggests that local fathers collaborated with him for a Latin version of the book, which means that Rustichello's text was translated into Latin for a precise will of the Order.
Since Dominican fathers had among their missions that of evangelizing foreign peoples cf. At the time, there was open discussion of a possible Christian-Mongul alliance with an anti-Islamic function. At the council, Pope Gregory X promulgated a new Crusade to start in in liaison with the Mongols. Since its publication, some have viewed the book with skepticism. It has, however, been pointed out that Polo's accounts of China are more accurate and detailed than other travellers' accounts of the periods.
Polo had at times refuted the 'marvellous' fables and legends given in other European accounts, and despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few of the descriptions of irrational marvels. In many cases where present mostly given in the first part before he reached China, such as mentions of Christian miracles , he made a clear distinction that they are what he had heard rather than what he had seen.
It is also largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta who had confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal. Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique. Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China.
His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century. Sceptics have long wondered whether Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book.
While Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of China , tea , Chinese characters , chopsticks , or footbinding. Haeger argued that Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also raised the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions.
Supporters of Polo's basic accuracy countered on the points raised by sceptics such as footbinding and the Great Wall of China. Historian Stephen G. Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders. They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties.
The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta , who asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time. Haw also argued that footbinding was not common even among Chinese during Polo's time and almost unknown among the Mongols. While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate ,  no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practised in an extreme form at that time.
In addition to Haw, a number of other scholars have argued in favour of the established view that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book. During this meeting, Marco gave to Pietro details of the astronomical observations he had made on his journey. Reviewing Haw's book, Peter Jackson author of The Mongols and the West has said that Haw "must surely now have settled the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China". Her book can only be described as deceptive, both in relation to the author and to the public at large. Questions are posted that, in the majority of cases, have already been answered satisfactorily Her conclusion fails to consider all the evidence supporting Marco Polo's credibility.
Some scholars believe that Marco Polo exaggerated his importance in China. The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,  while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghostwriter Rustichello da Pisa. And the same Marco Polo, of whom this book relates, ruled this city for three years. This sentence in The Book of Marvels was interpreted as Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou.
This claim has raised some controversy. According to David Morgan no Chinese source mentions him as either a friend of the Emperor or as the governor of Yangzhou — indeed no Chinese source mentions Marco Polo at all. However, in the s the Chinese scholar Peng Hai identified Marco Polo with a certain "Boluo", a courtier of the emperor, who is mentioned in the Yuanshi "History of Yuan" since he was arrested in by an imperial dignitary named Saman. The accusation was that Boluo had walked on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, in contravention of the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides of the road inside the city.
The date could correspond to the first mission of which Marco Polo speaks. If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources. These conjectures seem to be supported by the fact that in addition to the imperial dignitary Saman the one who had arrested the official named "Boluo" , the documents mention his brother, Xiangwei. According to sources, Saman died shortly after the incident, while Xiangwei was transferred to Yangzhou in — Marco Polo reports that he was moved to Hangzhou the following year, in It has been supposed that these displacements are due to the intention to avoid further conflicts between the two.
The sinologist Paul Pelliot thought that Polo might have served as an officer of the government salt monopoly in Yangzhou, which was a position of some significance that could explain the exaggeration. It may seem unlikely that a European could hold a position of power in the Mongolian empire. However, some records prove he was not the first nor the only one. In his book, Marco mentions an official named "Mar Sarchis" who probably was a Nestorian Christian bishop , and he says he founded two Christian churches in the region of "Caigiu". This official is actually mentioned in the local gazette Zhishun Zhenjian zhi under the name "Ma Xuelijisi" and the qualification of "General of Third Class".
Always in the gazette, it is said Ma Xuelijsi was an assistant supervisor in the province of Zhenjiang for three years, and that during this time he founded two Christian churches. Stephen G. Haw challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire. In fact, Polo does not even imply that he had led 1, personnel. Haw points out that Polo himself appears to state only that he had been an emissary of the khan , in a position with some esteem. According to Haw, this is a reasonable claim if Polo was, for example, a keshig — a member of the imperial guard by the same name, which included as many as 14, individuals at the time.
Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio's manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan. Another controversial claim is at chapter when the Book of Marvels states that the three Polos provided the Mongols with technical advice on building mangonels during the Siege of Xiangyang ,. Adonc distrent les. Then the two brothers and their son Marc said: "Great Lord, in our entourage we have men who will build such mangonels which launch such great stones, that the inhabitants of the city will not endure it and will immediately surrender.
Since the siege was over in , before Marco Polo had arrived in China for the first time, the claim cannot be true   The Mongol army that besieged Xiangyang did have foreign military engineers, but they were mentioned in Chinese sources as being from Baghdad and had Arabic names. Therefore, this claim seems a subsequent addition to give more credibility to the story. A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen. Polo wrote of five- masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships, in fact, had only three masts.
Wood accused Marco Polo of taking other people's accounts in his book, retelling other stories as his own, or basing his accounts on Persian guidebooks or other lost sources. However, neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party,  and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale". Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din.
Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until —11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book. According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China.
Morgan writes that since much of what The Book of Marvels has to say about China is "demonstrably correct", any claim that Polo did not go to China "creates far more problems than it solves", therefore the "balance of probabilities" strongly suggests that Polo really did go to China, even if he exaggerated somewhat his importance in China. Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" seignora in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" sejourna there?
Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed": the book is, "in essence, authentic, and, when used with care, in broad terms to be trusted as a serious though obviously not always final, witness. Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine , but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known. Christopher Columbus was inspired enough by Polo's description of the Far East to want to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations. He never found the kingdom but ended his travels at the Great Wall of China in , proving that Cathay was what Matteo Ricci — called "China".
Marco Polo's travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography , ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery [the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano] was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father.
Though Marco Polo never produced a map that illustrated his journey, his family drew several maps to the Far East based on the traveller's accounts. These collections of maps were signed by Polo's three daughters, Fantina, Bellela and Moreta. There is a legend about Marco Polo importing pasta from China; however, it is actually a popular misconception ,  originating with the Macaroni Journal , published by a food industry association with the goal of promoting the use of pasta in the United States.
In fact, pasta had already been invented in Italy a long time before Marco Polo's travels to Asia. The Marco Polo sheep , a subspecies of Ovis ammon , is named after the explorer,  who described it during his crossing of Pamir ancient Mount Imeon in In , a three-masted clipper built in Saint John, New Brunswick also took his name; the Marco Polo was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months. Croatian state-owned shipping company 's Jadrolinija ship connecting Split with Ancona in Italy is named after Marco Polo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the trader and explorer. For other uses, see Marco Polo disambiguation. Italian explorer and merchant noted for travel to central and eastern Asia. Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century.
Venice , Republic of Venice. Main article: The Travels of Marco Polo. A miniature from Il Milione. Mario Eusebi, p. If this is not the case, a more likely date for their arrival is or , according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi. Britannica , p. They are fine fat beasts, and afford capital mutton. Stubbs, Robert G. Istituto Geografico DeAgostini in Italian. Marco Polo: Journey to the End of the Earth. Encyclopedia Britannica. The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated by Henry Yule. Edited and Annotated by Henri Cordier. John Murray: London, Venezia [Tipi di P. Naratovich] — via Internet Archive. Birthplace of Marco Polo is archivally undetermined, but it is assumed that his ancestors came from Dalmatia. II , Giunti, Venezia, Marco Polo.
New Word City. ISBN Total History. The Life and Times of Marco Polo. Mitchell Lane Publishers. A Critical Appraisal by I. The Travels of Marco Polo , p. New York: Penguin Books. For details, see, A. Retrieved November 25, Translated by John Frampton Second ed. Marsden , Thomas Wright ed. Marco Polo and his Description of the World. History Today. Le Tellier Divisata con cinque cronologie. Tomo primo Michele Cavalieri da Bergamo, maestro nella sagra teologia dello stesso Ordine, Con un catalogo de'cardinali Domenicani, e con cinque indici copiosissimi Internet Archive. Roberg, "Die Tartaren auf dem 2.
Konzil von Lyon ," Annuarium historiae conciliarum 5 , — Reviews in History. Problems with Internal Evidence". JSTOR Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Women and the Family in Chinese History. November 22, July The three Polos set off in a fleet of boats with golden tablets from Kublai Khan that guarantee them safe passage and special treatment throughout the Empire. The Polos end up needing to stop on the island of Sumatra for a while and then land in India, where they continue the rest of their journey on land.
After safely escorting the princess, they learn that Kublai Khan has died and the Polos return home to Venice in Marco Polo had left Venice at age 17 and did not return to his home city until age 41! Marco would spend three years in prison, where he would meet fellow prisoner and Italian romance writer Rustichello da Pisa. Many readers found it to be an enlightening account of Eastern culture and it would even inspire other famous explorers such as Christopher Columbus and traders to head East to cash in on the vast riches of the Orient. However, many other readers found the travelogue to be filled with unbelievable tales invented by two lying Italians. Marco Polo earned the nickname Marco il Milione, suggesting that Marco was a man who invented a million stories.
In the will, he leaves money to his wife and daughters and various religious and local institutions and releases a Tartar slave potentially someone who he met during his travels in Asia from servitude. Are the stories real? Did Polo ever make it to China? Marco Polo does not show up in any of the detailed records kept by the Vatican or the Chinese during this time. Much less noteworthy visitors to China are noted during this time but no mention of the Polos. Similarly, there is almost nothing in Venice, except the will and some say this just demonstrates someone with the same name existed.
A few sections of the book are contrary to surviving Chinese records, including the claim that Marco Polo was a Chinese governor records show otherwise or that his uncle and father helped the Mongols win an important Chinese battle again, records show otherwise. Skeptics also point to striking omissions of certain things in the book that any visitor to China would certainly have seen and would have been noteworthy, such as the Great Wall, chopsticks, calligraphy, foot binding, and tea drinking. The general lack of personal details, lack of precision about the route taken, and use of Mongol and Turkish words instead of Chinese have also led people to doubt whether Marco Polo ever visited China.
It would not be uncommon for a traveler to exaggerate or embellish his adventures and it would also not be unusual for the writer to take his own liberties on the tale to encourage sales. Further, since Marco Polo is recalling his own trip, many of the inaccuracies may be due to distorted memories, misunderstandings, and erroneous beliefs. Scholars also note that many of the embellishments could further have been added as it was hand copied and translated over t he years since no original version is known to exist.
Believers also point to the existing will and testament of Marco Polo in Venice and say that it demonstrates proof that he existed. Scholars are still divided. Others believe that Marco Polo existed and did do some traveling, but never reached China, which accounts for many of the books omissions and inconsistencies. Given that no original version of the book exists there are dozens of versions which vary widely and there are no written records of Marco Polo, except for the will, it seems fairly likely that this mystery may never be solved.
At the time of the book, most Europeans knew very little about China and many Europeans believed fantastical things such as that some Chinese had heads like dogs and that mythological beasts such as unicorns, dragons, and giant serpents roamed there. In fact, you can see in the book that Polo believes he sees unicorns rhinos and giant toothed serpents crocodiles on his journey. Many Europeans were very surprised to learn how populous, rich, and complex the East was and the accounts of the people showed that they were very much like Westerners. The book today also provides some of the best surviving descriptions of certain places such as the palace at Shangdu and had some influence on the development of European cartography. The great journey and tales of riches would inspire other explorers such as Christopher Columbus during the Age of Exploration.
To me, what is most amazing about the book is not whether or not it is true, but that the adventures of Marco Polo are still read today, centuries after Polo supposedly made his great journey. Most people have heard of Marco Polo and associate his name with visions of the exotic Orient and the great explorers of the past. Polo is often erroneously credited with introducing macaroni and ice cream to Europe and his name has been given to a number of travel clubs, frequent flier programs, a species of sheep, and even a popular swimming pool game.
He has also inspired more recent explorers to try to follow in his footsteps in order to try to prove his story true. Perhaps the thing that matters most is not the truth of the stories or existence of Marco Polo, but the fact that the book has inspired people to travel and instilled a curiosity to explore and learn about other cultures. Some landmarks are the same, whereas many places have changed significantly since the 13th century. Note that parts of the route of Marco Polo along the Silk Road now lies in countries and regions that can be challenging to travel due to travel restrictions, wars, and terrorism concerns.
So keep this in mind if trying to recreate his route. You can plan your own route or you can join a tour with a guide to explore Italy, Istanbul, the Silk Road, and China. Here are some tour options to check out:. Here is a list of books and resources we used when writing this article as well as a few others that may be of interest. Links to online translations and editions of the book many of these are not easy reads for the casual reader :. What do you think of Marco Polo and his book? Was any of this information about the great Venetian adventurer new to you? Hi Lauren, Glad you enjoyed it! I really love travel history and I think the story of Marco Polo is really interesting. I was about 7 when read this book in Brazil. I love reading and I was amazed!
It changed my life by inspiring me to see beyond my small world. I have traveled a lot and im still very curious about learning more about the world around me. Great post! Thanks Paula for taking the time to comment. I am glad that you were inspired by the book of Marco Polo and have used it as a source to keep you curious about the world! His tale is such a fascinating one. Thanks so much for sharing. I learned a lot. Yes, it really is inspiring when you think about people who took so much risk when they traveled! Now traveling is so much more safe and convenient, and it is so easy to stay in touch with people back home.
Marco Polo. I read a novel about him years and years ago, and I traveled to Mongolia hearing much of his story again. Love it. A true traveler! Thanks Corinne for stopping by! That sounds so wonderful to have traveled along some of the places in the book. I love reading books about a place while traveling there and would love to get to Mongolia someday! Certainly and in this case, the lack of hard evidence really makes it a bit more up for debate. It is really fascinating to me that all the hard evidence that has turned up is the will in Venice and dozens of copies of the book some varying widely from each other.
Very interesting. Have to admit that the swimming pool game is what I think of when I hear his name. Just amazing that a journey such as his took so many years, while my husband did a round trip to China 2 weeks ago.. Hi Seana, that is a quick trip to China. So glad you did not have to cross the Gobi desert by camel to get there! It really is amazing how fast and convenient travel to most places has become.Much less noteworthy visitors to China are noted during Marco Polos Travel To China time but no Marco Polos Travel To China of the Polos. See More. Marco Polos Travel To China Doubleday Publishing Group. Over the next 17 years, Marco travels throughout China, witnessing the use of silkworms Marco Polos Travel To China make silk, the dangers of tigers, the Marco Polos Travel To China ceremonies of monks Marco Polos Travel To China Tibet, great tombs and pagodas made of silver Marco Polos Travel To China gold Garth Brooks Research Paper Mien, the Burmese use of gold Marco Polos Travel To China their teeth and tattoos, the use of elephants for battle, magicians Marco Polos Travel To China Bangladesh, and Marco Polos Travel To China kinds of strange wild beasts Marco Polos Travel To China fauna that were completely foreign to Europeans. Setting off on camels, they Marco Polos Travel To China through the desert and Marco talks about Marco Polos Travel To China weary travelers Marco Polos Travel To China see Neil Howes North Dakota History and hear voices that can divert them from their paths and led them to stray into the depths of the desert. Knights of Labor.