⚡ The Great Lorenzo

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The Great Lorenzo

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Bernini would have studied painting as a normal part of his artistic training begun in early adolescence under the guidance of his father, Pietro, in addition to some further training in the studio of the Florentine painter, Cigoli. His earliest activity as a painter was probably no more than a sporadic diversion practiced mainly in his youth, until the mids, that is, the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII reigned — who ordered Bernini to study painting in greater earnest because the pontiff wanted him to decorate the Benediction Loggia of St. The latter commission was never executed most likely because the required large-scale narrative compositions were simply beyond Bernini's ability as a painter.

According to his early biographers, Baldinucci and Domenico Bernini, Bernini completed at least canvases, mostly in the decades of the s and 30s, but currently there are no more than 35—40 surviving paintings that can be confidently attributed to his hand. His work was immediately sought after by major collectors. Most noteworthy among these extant works are several, vividly penetrating self portraits all dating to the mid s — early s , especially that in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence, purchased during Bernini's lifetime by Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici. Bernini's Apostles Andrew and Thomas in London's National Gallery is the sole canvas by the artist whose attribution, approximate date of execution circa and provenance the Barberini Collection, Rome are securely known.

As for Bernini's drawings, about still exist; but this represents a minuscule percentage of the drawings he would have created in his lifetime; these include rapid sketches relating to major sculptural or architectural commissions, presentation drawings given as gifts to his patrons and aristocratic friends, and exquisite, fully finished portraits, such as those of Agostino Mascardi Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris and Scipione Borghese and Sisinio Poli both in New York's Morgan Library. But his most trusted right-hand man in sculpture was Giulio Cartari, while in architecture it was Mattia de' Rossi, both of whom traveled to Paris with Bernini to assist him in his work there for King Louis XIV.

Other architect disciples include Giovanni Battista Contini and Carlo Fontana while Swedish architect, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger , who visited Rome twice after Bernini's death, was also much influenced by him. Among his rivals in architecture were, above all, Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona. Early in their careers they had all worked at the same time at the Palazzo Barberini , initially under Carlo Maderno and, following his death, under Bernini. Later on, however, they were in competition for commissions, and fierce rivalries developed, particularly between Bernini and Borromini.

Francesco Mochi can also be included among Bernini's significant rivals, though he was not as accomplished in his art as Bernini, Algardi or Duquesnoy. As far as Caravaggio is concerned, in all the voluminous Bernini sources, his name appears only once, in the Chantelou Diary which records Bernini's disparaging remark about him specifically his Fortune Teller that had just arrived from Italy as a Pamphilj gift to King Louis XIV.

However, how much Bernini really scorned Caravaggio's art is a matter of debate whereas arguments have been made in favor of a strong influence of Caravaggio on Bernini. Bernini would of course have heard much about Caravaggio and seen many of his works not only because in Rome at the time such contact was impossible to avoid, but also because during his own lifetime Caravaggio had come to the favorable attention of Bernini's own early patrons, both the Borghese and the Barberini. Indeed, much like Caravaggio, Bernini used a theatrical light as an important aesthetic and metaphorical device in his religious settings, often using hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative.

The most important primary source for the life of Bernini is the biography written by his youngest son, Domenico, entitled Vita del Cavalier Gio. Lorenzo Bernino, published in though first compiled in the last years of his father's life c. Until the late 20th century, it was generally believed that two years after Bernini's death, Queen Christina of Sweden , then living in Rome, commissioned Filippo Baldinucci to write his biography, which was published in Florence in Pietro Filippo who commissioned the biography from Baldinucci sometime in the late s, with the intent of publishing it while their father was still alive.

This would mean that first, the commission did not at all originate in Queen Christina who would have merely lent her name as patron in order to hide the fact that the biography was coming directly from the family and secondly, that Baldinucci's narrative was largely derived from some pre-publication version of Domenico Bernini's much longer biography of his father, as evidenced by the extremely large amount of text repeated verbatim there is no other explanation, otherwise, for the massive amount of verbatim repetition, and it is known that Baldinucci routinely copied verbatim material for his artists' biographies supplied by family and friends of his subjects. As one Bernini scholar has summarized, "Perhaps the most important result of all of the [Bernini] studies and research of these past few decades has been to restore to Bernini his status as the great, principal protagonist of Baroque art, the one who was able to create undisputed masterpieces, to interpret in an original and genial fashion the new spiritual sensibilities of the age, to give the city of Rome an entirely new face, and to unify the [artistic] language of the times.

Maintaining a controlling influence over all aspects of his many and large commissions and over those who aided him in executing them, he was able to carry out his unique and harmoniously uniform vision over decades of work with his long and productive life. In the eighteenth century Bernini and virtually all Baroque artists fell from favor in the neoclassical criticism of the Baroque , that criticism aimed above all on the latter's supposedly extravagant and thus illegitimate departures from the pristine, sober models of Greek and Roman antiquity.

It is only from the late nineteenth century that art historical scholarship, in seeking a more objective understanding of artistic output within the specific cultural context in which it was produced, without the a priori prejudices of neoclassicism, began to recognize Bernini's achievements and slowly began restore his artistic reputation. However, the reaction against Bernini and the too-sensual and therefore "decadent" , too emotionally charged Baroque in the larger culture especially in non-Catholic countries of northern Europe, and particularly in Victorian England remained in effect until well into the twentieth century most notable are the public disparagement of Bernini by Francesco Milizia, Joshua Reynolds, and Jacob Burkhardt.

Most of the popular eighteenth- and nineteenth-century tourist's guides to Rome all but ignore Bernini and his work, or treat it with disdain, as in the case of the best-selling Walks in Rome 22 editions between and by Augustus J. But now in the twenty-first century, Bernini and his Baroque have now been enthusiastically restored to favor, both critical and popular. Since the anniversary year of his birth in , there have been numerous Bernini exhibitions throughout the world, especially Europe and North America, on all aspects of his work, expanding our knowledge of his work and its influence.

In the late twentieth century, Bernini was commemorated on the front of the Banca d'Italia 50, lire banknote in the s and 90s before Italy switched to the euro with the back showing his equestrian statue of Constantine. Another outstanding sign of Bernini's enduring reputation came in the decision by architect I. Pei to insert a faithful copy in lead of his King Louis XIV Equestrian statue as the sole ornamental element in his massive modernist redesign of the entrance plaza to the Louvre Museum, completed to great acclaim in , and featuring the giant Louvre Pyramid in glass.

Ecstasy of St. Terracota Modello [82]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bernini disambiguation. Italian sculptor and architect. Naples , Kingdom of Naples. Rome, Papal States. Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius Rape of Proserpina — Apollo and Daphne — David — Main article: List of works by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Gale, Thomson Encyclopedia of World Biography. For the other collaborative works, see the Galleria Borghese exhibition catalogue, Bernini eds. Simon Schama's Power of Art. London: BBC. Unfortunately Schama's popularizing version of Bernini's life, done for TV, is not always factually accurate, repeating old unsubstantiated legends.

The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. It also accepts too readily the whitewashed, hagiographic depictions of Bernini, his patrons, and of Baroque Rome as supplied by the first, official biographies by Baldinucci and Domenico Bernini. Similar criticism regarding an insufficiently critical reading of contemporary sources especially ecclesiastical ones and a simplistic reductionism in the description of Bernini's true mindset and artistic vision could also be made of the scholarship of Wittkower and Lavin.

Scholars, however, are still in debate as to which of the four 'putti' came from the hand of Gian Lorenzo. Una introduzione al gran teatro barocco Rome: Bulzoni, , cat. Contrary to what the Fagiolo dell'Arco brothers claim in their cat. DOI: Press, , p. Lionel Cust Van Dyck. Wellhausen Press. ISBN Teresa Cross a 17th-century Line of Decorum? The long, broad, straight avenue Via della Conciliazione to the river Tiber was an early 20th century addition, when Benito Mussolini ordered the clearing of housing that led up to Bernini's piazza in order to afford a more commodious access to the Vatican.

Renaissance Studies. Bernini in France: an episode in 17th-century history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. For more recent treatments of the same episode in Bernini's life, incorporating the most recent documentary research since Gould's book of , see Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome, , chap. Another issue of concern was the fact that Bernini's plan would have called for the demolition of older portions of the Louvre contrary to royal wishes. Source: Notes in the History of Art. S2CID Press, , pp. Mormando, ed.

See also "Caterina Tezio Bernini". For Luigi's crime, see Mormando , pp. Guide to Baroque Rome , Granada, , p. A second Fontana delle Api in the Vatican has sometimes been attributed to Bernini of which Blunt has written, "Borromini is documented as having carved the fountain in , but it is not certain whether he made the design for it, and it has also been attributed—not very plausibly—to Bernini. Art Bulletin. XXIX 3 : The elephant, in fact, is not smiling, and even though he may have had professional reasons to resent Paglia, the conservative, pious and utterly orthodox Bernini personally had no grudges against the Dominican Order or the Inquisition.

Moreover, Giuseppe Paglia was director of the overall project to reconstruct the piazza in front of Santa Maria Minerva, appointed by Pope Alexander VII himself and, as such, had supervisory authority over Bernini and the design of his Elephant and Obelisk monument. The final design of that monument, in fact, owes much to Paglia's direct intervention. Hence, it is unlikely that Paglia or Pope Alexander would have allowed this supposed insult to him or his Dominican order. Finally, if Bernini did intend to deliver this visual insult, he failed totally, for there is no contemporary documentation indicating that visitors to the piazza during the artist's lifetime ever noticed the supposed insult: see Franco Mormando , ed.

Instead, the origins of this anecdote can be traced to the very end of the 17th century, when the satirist Lodovico Sergardi circulated a two-line epigram in which the elephant tells the Dominicans that the position of his rear end is meant to announce "where I hold you in my esteem" see Ingrid Rowland, 'The Friendship of Alexander VII and Athanasius Kircher, ' in Early Modern Rome: Proceedings of a Conference Held on 13—15 May in Rome, ed. Portia Prebys [Ferrara: Edisai, ], pp. More recent is the catalog of the exhibition of Bernini drawings in Leipzig's Museum der bildenden Kunste which boasts one of the largest collection of Bernini drawings in the world : Hans-Werner Schmidt et al. For the drawings by Bernini and his workshop in the Vatican collection, see the comprehensive, detailed, illustrated catalog: Manuela Gobbi, and Barbara Jatta , eds.

Vatican City: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the rivalry that transformed Rome. New York: Harper Perennial. The rivalry between Borromini and Bernini, though very much real, tends to be over-dramatized in popular works like that of Morrissey and in self-published non-scholarly works like that of Mileti. Press, , passim, but especially pp. Linda Wolk-Simon Philadelphia: St. Joseph's University Press, Translated from the Italian by Enggass, C.

Unfortunately, the Enggass edition of Baldinucci contains many translation errors; readers should always consult the text of the original edition. It is significant that Christina's extant financial records nowhere report the queen's having monetarily subsidized the publication of Baldinucci's biography, which would have been her responsibility as patron. As Mormando further explains, we also know from his extant personal notes and correspondence with his sources that in compiling his famous collection of artists' lives, Baldinucci routinely copied material, word for word, from texts supplied to him by family members and close friends and associates of his subjects.

Also significant is the fact that in Domenico's biography of his father, the author is completely silent about the queen's supposed patronage of the Baldinucci biography, a strange omission since he devotes much space to the friendship between Gian Lorenzo and Queen Christina, recording the queen's many signs of favoritism, protection, and adulation towards the artist. Bernardini and M. Bussagli [Milan: Skira, ], p. Accessed 6 April Associated Press. Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 24 March Hermitage Museum. Avery, Charles Bernini: Genius of the Baroque.

London: Thames and Hudson. Bacchi, Andrea, ed. I marmi vivi: Bernini e la nascita del ritratto barocco. Firenze: Firenze musei. Bernini and the Birth of Baroque Portrait Sculpture. Los Angeles: J. Baldinucci, Filippo []. The Life of Bernini. Bernini, Domenico []. Franco Mormando ed. The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Or are they just spewing by the by? What have they ever done to deserve More than a glance and a glimpse As we ride on by? The darkness hovers Just as black at a. How can that be? And what have we learned? On The Table. The Line. About AE. Reader Mail. Search AE. The ID information strings is used to target groups having similar preferences, or for targeted ads. This cookie is used to set a unique ID to the visitors, which allow third party advertisers to target the visitors with relevant advertisement up to 1 year.

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