✍️✍️✍️ Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea?
Judgment about risks should not be based on the method Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea? classical or modern but on the quality of the final Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea?. Retrieved 6 December Such processes help the governments and regulatory agencies to gauge public opinion, generate dialogue, gather useful information, and develop awareness within their populations on modern biotechnology [ 50 ]. Jay Gatsbys Career Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea? of risk assessment methodology separate risk assessment from risk Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea?. Hi, Jo. Birkenhead, Y. Get diet and wellness tips to help your kids stay healthy and happy.
What is genetic testing?
Many go to clinics that specialize in caring for those with Down syndrome. Almost half of all children born with Down syndrome will have a congenital heart defect. All infants with Down syndrome should be checked by a pediatric cardiologist. About half of all kids also have problems with hearing and vision. Hearing loss can be related to fluid buildup in the inner ear or to structural problems of the ear itself. Vison and hearing problems can affect language and learning. Regular checkups by an otolaryngologist ear, nose, and throat doctor , audiologist, and an ophthalmologist can find and correct any problems. Children may need to see other medical specialists, depending on their needs.
Medical problems that happen more often with Down syndrome include:. People with Down syndrome sometimes have an unstable upper spine and should be checked by a doctor every year or sooner if they have symptoms, such as neck pain, walking funny, or loss of bladder or bowel control. Some children may need neck X-rays before playing some sports or before getting anesthesia. Two types of prenatal tests can look for Down syndrome in a fetus:.
Screening tests are cost-effective and easy to do. But they can't give a definitive answer about whether a baby has Down syndrome. So these tests are used to help parents decide whether to have more diagnostic tests. Diagnostic tests accurately diagnose Down syndrome and other chromosomal problems. But they're done inside the uterus, so there is a risk of miscarriage and other complications. If you're unsure about which test, if any, is right for you, your doctor or a genetic counselor can help you sort through the pros and cons of each. If the doctor suspects Down syndrome after a baby is born, a karyotype — a blood or tissue sample stained to show chromosomes grouped by size, number, and shape — can verify the diagnosis.
If your child has Down syndrome, you may at first have feelings of loss, guilt, and fear. Talking with other parents of kids with Down syndrome may help you deal with your concerns and find ways to look toward the future. Many parents find that learning as much as they can about the condition helps ease fears. Children with Down syndrome benefit from getting early intervention services as soon as possible. Physical therapy , occupational therapy , and speech therapy can help, and early childhood educators can work with your child to encourage and boost development. States provide early intervention services to kids with disabilities from birth to age 3. Check with your doctor, developmental pediatrician, or a social worker to find resources in your area. This is particularly important for genetically engineered microorganisms that have the potential to survive, persist, and spread in the environment to which they may gain access.
As cited by the European food safety authority [ 13 ], the following points should be addressed when appropriate: i the potential for survival and persistence in the receiving environment and any selective advantage that may be offered: in case of selective advantage, its nature should be identified along with any potential for negative effects; ii the potential for gene transfer; iii the potential for negative effects or consequences based on interactions with indigenous microorganisms; iv possible effects on humans, animals, and plants; v possible effects or nonreversible perturbations on biogeochemical processes.
These points may be assessed by a combination of laboratory studies, micro- and mesocosm experiments, and small-scale field releases to identify hazards and to quantify actual levels of exposure [ 56 ]. However, extrapolation of assessment from one context to another, that is, from laboratory research to small-scale field trials and finally to commercial scale is not recommended. Small-scale trials involve a lesser number of GMOs and may provide valuable information related to concerns like survival and persistence, competitive fitness, and some ecological implications of release. Commercial release, on the other hand, involves a higher number of GMOs to be released in different, complex ecosystems and needs to be carefully carried out over time and at different sites to reveal impact on relationships between species and ecosystem interactions [ 57 ].
Generally, potential risks by use of GMOs can be mitigated using risk-management strategies that may make some proposed activities acceptable. This can be achieved, for example, using confinement strategies and monitoring. It relates to the actual process of genetic modification, and also to the use, storage, transport, and destruction of GMOs. Containment of GMOs can be physical or biological. Physical containment includes barriers designed to prevent organisms from escaping the laboratory and be accidentally released. This may involve the use of specially built laboratories, sterilization procedures, restriction of access, and so forth. Biological containment involves designing the organism in such a manner that they cannot grow out of the laboratory.
An important aspect in the process of GMO risk management is the postrelease monitoring phase initiating from the moment of environmental release. Regular inspections are necessary for effective monitoring, using a diversity of analyses over an extensive period of time. Monitoring will have two focuses: 1 possible effects of the GMO identified in the formal risk assessment procedure and 2 identification of the occurrence of adverse unforeseen effects of the GMO or its use that were not anticipated in the environmental risk assessment.
The establishment of monitoring procedures may be difficult, but such monitoring is essential not only to understand the effectiveness of the introduced organism but also to detect unexpected spread. In general, the procedures involve development or application of already existing techniques for identifying the organism in environmental samples. These procedures have been developed and are, in most cases, well accepted [ 58 ]. The scientific knowledge and experiences gained from monitoring will in turn inform the risk assessment process. Thus, the results of monitoring provide opportunities to update risk assessment continually in the light of any new knowledge.
Biosafety regulatory frameworks of GMO should serve as mechanisms for ensuring the safe use of biotechnology products without imposing unintended constraints to technology transfer. To be able to judge the sensitive balance between these aspects of GMO risk management, measuring the costs of biosafety regulation and the potential impacts on biotechnology research and development is crucial. A necessary first step to answering questions about the causes and consequences of the process of regulatory approval for new biotech crops is to understand the operation of the regulatory system and the size and structure of the costs of compliance.
It seems that the compliance costs incurred by biotechnology developers are quite high, and the regulatory burden of novel biotech crops might be out of balance. Reflections on trends, challenges, and issues on risk assessment and management in a developing country context were presented. Biosafety regulatory frameworks were reviewed in relation to the development process, challenges, and trends in its formulation, especially in the context of risk assessment and management. The choice of a biosafety regime in the context of developing countries is influenced not only by the science-based approach in risk analysis but also by the social, political, and environmental governance mechanisms and experience gained in relation to practice and conventions within a particular country.
The regulatory systems designed to deal with GMO should reduce the amount of risk and create the social adaptive capacity necessary to cope with the risks associated with new technologies. There are many different ways to achieve these goals. However, the three separate methods for addressing these challenges are biosafety protocols, a moratorium, and insurance. Such moratoriums delay the introduction of GMO that could reduce the amount of ecological degradation produced by GM.
However, moratoriums offer a number of benefits. A delay could provide the opportunity to develop institutions to effectively evaluate and monitor GMO. It would also allow science to better assess the potential indirect impacts of existing GM, such as the evolution of Bt resistance. Furthermore, a moratorium may provide the time needed to allow a richer public debate to address how to fairly balance the risks and benefits of GMO. Given the uncertainty surrounding both the likelihood and degree of potential impacts of GMO risks, it is sensible for society to purchase insurance against these risks [ 59 ].
However, due to the unknown and variable nature of risks, private insurance is virtually impossible, which forces the public to play this role. Taxes on the use of transgenic products could function as a type of social insurance, as long as such a tax was invested in ecological conservation and restoration, to mitigate against any disruption caused by GMO. When there is a risk, two or more outcomes are possible, which one will occur is unknown but at least one of them is undesired. It is within this context that the precautionary approach from Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration [ 60 ] can be introduced. Precautionary approach is premised on the notion of reducing, if not eliminating, risks to human health and the environment.
It acknowledges the complexity and variability of the natural environment and embodies certain humility about scientific procedures and knowledge. It prioritizes the rights of those who stand to be affected by an activity, rather than those who stand to benefit from it [ 57 ]. It involves scrutiny of all available alternatives and an examination of justifications and benefits as well as risks and costs. In short, a precautionary approach involves the adoption of long-term, holistic, and inclusive perspectives in environmental protection [ 46 , 61 , 62 ]. Precautionary approach or precautionary principle is the borderline between science and policy or science and governance, in modern parlance.
It is often divided into three components: 1 the lack of scientific certainty, 2 a risk of irreversible or serious damage, and 3 an obligation for states to take measures accordingly. The precautionary principle aims to replace uncertainty to ensure safety until other measures or solutions can be implemented. Within a policy that strives to achieve sustainable development over a long period, the precautionary principle seems to be indispensable. As the precautionary principle intends to protect the environment beyond current scientific knowledge, its implementation may not be justified or questioned on the basis of current scientific data alone.
The virtue of precautionary principle is the avoidance of risks that are impossible to assess. Its vice is that these risks, which may not even exist, can only be avoided by refusing to improve quality, being product quality or the quality of life. It has been justified by academics and pressure groups for imposing restrictions on the use of genetic modification technology claiming that the lost species and ecosystems can never be recovered for future generations.
On the other hand, the development-focused environmentalists note that future generations may not come into being to appreciate these ecosystems without effective action on development imperatives. The precautionary calculus often overlooks the fact that even when technologies introduce new risks, very often they confer net benefits—that is, their use reduces many other serious and costly hazards.
For example, the use of GMOs with enhanced pest and disease resistance has reduced the use of pesticides, reducing runoff into waterways, and the exposure of workers who manufacture, transport, and apply these chemicals. It has also permitted farmers to adopt environment-friendly, no-till farming practices. Rice varieties enhanced with provitamin A and iron could drastically improve health of hundreds of millions of the malnourished in developing countries. Such tangible environmental and health benefits are usually given little or no weight in precautionary risk calculations [ 63 ]. To gain more clarity on whether the precautionary principle could be used as an effective tool to reduce the overall risks or to merely regulate risks, we can consider the experience of the European Union and the US, respectively, with the genetically modified crops [ 64 ].
The EU has ensured low rates of adoption of GM crops within Europe, but it does not follow that this has reduced overall environmental or health risks, the very reason for the precautionary approach. But the US approach, which incorporates a moderate version of the principle requiring governmental approval prior to their commercial cultivation , has led to rapid adoption of GM crops and brought significant environmental benefits relative to conventional crops such as higher yields, lower pesticide usage, and increases in biodiversity [ 65 ].
On the other hand, in several countries e. Examples include general and biodiversity-related environmental laws in Argentina, Peru, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. On the other hand, in the United States of America, precaution is rarely stated explicitly in any of its laws. However, the precautionary principles are well entrenched in several protection acts such as Endangered Species Act of and the Wild Bird Conservation Act of The increasing acceptance of precautionary principles has, however, been accompanied by changes in their public profile. Many European industries decreasingly view precautionary principles as acceptable risk management approaches and increasingly view them as tools for environment and health advocates.
Some environmental groups argue that this world requires an expanded role for NGOs, representing and interpreting precautionary principles. These groups do not dismiss science but doubt its ability to resolve issues with great uncertainties and pervasive value conflicts. However, even those who acknowledge limits to conventional science may be uncomfortable with the transfer of power where NGOs made the arbiters of ambiguity [ 66 ]. Some US agencies accepted that businesses and governments may invoke precautionary principles to protect their markets from outside competition. The Commission of the European Communities [ 68 ] has recognized these possibilities without offering a clear resolution. In contrast, the above precautionary principle is anultimate key issue within the sustainable development framework.
New approaches are needed to take into account the risk, uncertainty, and complexity involved. There is a need to identify normative preferences, and the stakeholders perspectives and extended peer communities are needed. The precautionary approach offers the public and decision makers a forceful, common-sense approach to environmental and public health problems. In order to deliver the promise implied by its name, the principle should not increase the overall risks. To ensure that a policy is truly precautionary, one should compare the risks of adopting the policy against not adopting it.
It should take care of some ethical criteria to ensure that it actually reduces overall risks when outcomes are ambiguous. These include the human mortality and morbidity threat, threats from outcomes that are irreversible or persistent, the immediacy criteria wherein immediate threats must be taken care of prior to threats that could occur later, and the uncertainty criteria where threats of harm that are more certain should take precedence over less certain harms.
It is important to emphasize that although this principle operates in the context of scientific uncertainty, it is considered by its proponents to be applicable only when, on the basis of the best scientific advice available, there is good reason to believe that harmful effects might occur [ 44 ]. The precautionary principle is most often applied in the context of the impact of human actions on the environment and human health, as both involve complex systems where the consequences of actions may be unpredictable. Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration remains by far the most widely quoted version of the precautionary principle.
It also brings in the element of proportionality by stating that measures should be applied according to the capability of the states. The Cartagena Protocol on biosafety based on the Precautionary Principle, emerged as a result of international negotiation to reduce the transboundary movement transit, handling and use of living modified organism LMO that may negatively impinge on the biological diversity. Three are three core elements of the Cartagena Protocol: advance information agreement AIA , risk assessment and the precautionary principle.
The idea of the for requiring AIA of LMO is that states have a right to know what is coming into their territories, and the information should be provided in time to prepare possible harm. This procedure applies only to LMOs for introduction into environment. AIA procedures are embodied in Articles 8, 9, and According to these procedures, the exporting party must communicate a written request to importer prior to transfer of LMOs intended to be introduced into environment.
The risk assessment of the Article 10 is envisioned in the protocol as guideline for parties in their decisions to import LMOs. An assessment of risk will enable them to anticipate and prevent environmental harm. Risk assessment should be performed with information available to importing state in the AIA documentation. Procedures to assess risk should be conducted in a scientifically sound manner. This article also contains explicit support for the risk management and precautionary approach. Article 11 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety requires parties to comply with information requirements set in Annex II, according to which states have provided information facility in the protocol, the biosafety clearing house, a risk assessment report according to guidelines established in AnnexIII.
Article 17 stated that the unintentional transboundary movements and emergency measures of the living modified organisms that likely have significant adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity take into account risk to human health. Article 18 of the Caratagena Protocol addressing handling transport, packaging, and identification of transboundary movements of LMOs for intentional introduction into the environment must identify the organisms as LMOs. The objective of this article is to make sure that the LMOs are handled and moved safely to avoid adverse effects on biological biodiversity and human health. The precautionary principle of the Cartagena Protocol of Biosafety in Articles 5 and 6 mainly contained the advance information agreement and the risk assessment requirement.
The catalyst for the application of precautionary measures in this agreement is the risk assessment. If the risk assessment shows unacceptable level of risk, then the GMO in question could be opposed to introduce in the environment. Thus, the precautionary principle is not panacea, and it will not change world overnight, but it can make a difference in the protection of human health and environment by providing the guidance to policy makers when considering threats posed by GMOs [ 70 , 71 ]. The use of genetically modified organisms is important in order to meet increasing demands and improve existing conditions prevalent in our environment. We are at an anxious juncture where, on one hand, we are faced with unprecedented threats to human health and environment, while on the other hand we have opportunities to change the way things are done.
Regulations concerning use of GMOs need a broader basis for decision. Postrelease impacts of GMOs can follow preventive and precautionary measures based on risk assessment and management. Monitoring and detection methods are vital for risk assessment and management to control the negative environmental and health impacts. The international biosafety regulatory frameworks are sufficiently stringent in order to protect against genuine ascertainable risks, as well as the ability of decision makers to discern the appropriateness of data necessary to adequately conduct a risk assessment, which all have considerable consequences.
Consideration of social, economic, and ethical issues needs to be taken care of. Application of the precautionary approach provides avenues for future development and use of genetic engineering. Regulation of GMO deals with a transscientific problem, that is, the resolution of the problems is beyond the competence of the scientific system. Public perception and acceptance are dependent on trust and whether the products or processes benefit them as citizens and consumers. To take proper accounts of uncertainties and public concern would help to capture the benefits, minimize the risk, and provide goals for future development and use of genetic engineering.
Judgment about risks should not be based on the method modification classical or modern but on the quality of the final product. Encouragement of new monitoring and detection methods and tools is therefore vital for assessment, control of environmental, and health impacts as well as collection of ecological knowledge of relevance to future releases. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.
Academic Editor: L. Received 09 Aug Accepted 18 Sep Published 22 Nov Abstract Commercial potential of biotechnology is immense since the scope of its activity covers the entire spectrum of human life. Introduction Modern biotechnology has allowed the movement of genetic material across unrelated species, something impossible with the traditional breeding methods. Risks Related to the Use of Genetically Modified Organisms Ecological Stability of the GMO The application of genetic modification allows genetic material to be transferred from any species into plants or other organisms.
Risk Assessment Risk is ubiquitous and unavoidable. Risk Management Once a risk is assessed, it must be managed. Role of Impact Assessment Processes Within the concept of risk management, the mechanism of impact assessment plays a crucial role. Direct Public Participation and Awareness Mechanisms With regard to direct public participation in biosafety-related decision making, a small number of countries, including Denmark, The Netherlands, and New Zealand, are also taking a leading role in developing mechanisms for public awareness.
Design of Regulatory Systems for GMO Development and Use In many different fields of endeavour, technological capacity to act has moved significantly faster than has the governmental ability to oversee and regulate it. Sociocultural Impacts It is in the area of sociocultural impacts that the controversy over GMOs and biosafety takes on its most complex aspect. Ways to Manage Risks Management and mitigation of risk allows feedback for validation of the initial assessment. Monitoring the Fate of GMOs Released in the Environment An important aspect in the process of GMO risk management is the postrelease monitoring phase initiating from the moment of environmental release.
Precautionary Approach When there is a risk, two or more outcomes are possible, which one will occur is unknown but at least one of them is undesired. How to Ensure the Role of Precautionary Measures The precautionary approach offers the public and decision makers a forceful, common-sense approach to environmental and public health problems. The precautionary principle is most often applied in the context of the impact of human actions on the environment and human health, as both involve complex systems where the consequences of actions may be unpredictable Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration remains by far the most widely quoted version of the precautionary principle.
Conclusion The use of genetically modified organisms is important in order to meet increasing demands and improve existing conditions prevalent in our environment. Future Prospective of GMO Regulation of GMO deals with a transscientific problem, that is, the resolution of the problems is beyond the competence of the scientific system. References C. How can I go about this? Hi, Patty. You could test with a child of your Aunt, if that child is willing.
Even then, there is no guarantee of conclusive results. I suggest you contact our relationship-testing experts directly to see if they can help you find more options: M-F, am to pm Eastern. I have a 21 year old daughter. I am listed on the birth certificate as the legal Father, but i have this feeling that another man fathered this girl. Can i do a secret paternity test? I do have ways to do so tooth brush. Is that possible? Hi, Costas. Keep in mind that doing this test in secret is not an option…you need to obtain her permission for testing.
Is it possible to get a dna test done to find out if my fiance is the legit father of my son without his consent? I however need to know for peace of mind. Hi, Patricia. We always suggest that people be upfront with their partner when it comes to paternity testing. If a father wants to do a test with his alleged daughyer. What documents does he need to provide to prove he is the legal father? In the past, this man physically assaulted me while I was pregnant, and has a record of that in the state the child was born. Hi, Weary. So even if he somehow managed to do a home test with your child, it would do him no good. If things do get that far, you want to retain a family-law attorney or legal social worker immediately to protect yourself and your child.
Neither of them knew what was happening…until the results came back…Is this illegal to do? And how is this possible? Hi, Renee. Per our terms and conditions, the responsibility is on the customer to ensure that all permissions, especially for minors, have been acquired prior to testing. We take it on good faith that customers are abiding by those terms and conditions. A family-law attorney would best advise you on whether or not you have grounds to pursue any action.
Hi,weve been 2 moths with my ex,we undergo pregnancy test because her LMP is Nov. Hi, Mark. You should contact a family-law attorney in your state for their opinion on whether or not you might have a case that would stand up in court. I want to have a test done between my child and her possible biological father. Can I have the test done without my BF knowing about it?
Hi, Diana. Which we all knew it was his child the results just verified it, but we want to go through this the right way. Hi, Sassha. Paternity law varies from state to state, so that is a question best answered by a family-law attorney where you live. The mother is married to my brother however he knows the baby is not his but refuses to take a paternity test. Would I be able to do this legally?
Hi, Zillie. This is a question best answered by a family-law attorney in your area. Also, if dad had tobacco in and brushed teeth immediately before the test? Hi, Jo. If results were issued, then there was enough viable DNA on the swabs from the alleged father to be able to test. We had a home test performed and it came back the child was not my BF. We petition the court and they would not allow another test.
Hi, Jennifer. You can if your boyfriend has legal authority to act on behalf of the minor child. I have a 7 month old son his father is out of the picture he just recently popped back into the picture he is not on the birth certificate I think he did a DNA test on my son I feel violated as my rights have been striped from me am I able to take this to court? Hi, LJ. Is he trying to push to get a DNA test so he can see your son?
He has no rights to your son right now. Being nice I allowed my son to spend some time with him and his mother. No one said anything to me about getting a paternity test done. I have suspension that he did one because another one of his children mother told me he said he took a DNA test on my child. My boyfriend has a kid…he has lived with my boyfriend and I…well my boyfriend since he was 6 months old, he came into my life shortly after he turned 1. My boyfriend is not on his birth certificate and baby momma has told him that some other man is his father so now he has 2 dads. My question is although hes not on the birth certificate, if she gave my boy friend power of attorney, since shes leaving state for a while, would he be able to get a dna test done with mpower of attorney?
His mother is deceased. How can I discreetly learn if I am really his grandfather? Hi, Bruce. My mother mentioned something once while intoxicated and other factors match up as well. It seems to be a deeply buried secret that I would like to find the truth about since my uncle as now had his first child, which may be my half sibling. I do not think I could get consent from any of my other family members. Hi, Rose. It really depends on which DNA you share in common. This is a lot like putting together a jigsaw puzzle…the more pieces you have, the more likely you are to get a clear picture. Ideally, the men would both test.
At the very least, your mother would participate with the two sisters and the lab would need to be notified of the possibility that the uncle is the father rather than the presumed father. I am now divorced from my wife. My son is 20 years old. I have strong information that my son is not really mine. How can I get a DNA test to check this? Hi, Draco. If the court sees reason for one to be performed, then she would be compelled to do so. Hi, Don. If you test with them and then give permission for them to make your DNA data public, you may be able to find clues to your biological connection to her.
But of course, this is only if she has also allowed her DNA to be public. She divorced my father when I was 3 as my father also had an affair with my current stepmother who has 3 younger children from my father. There is therefore a possibility that I am not my alleged fathers daughter, all my life everyone says I look nothing like my father but a spitting image of my mother which contrasts to my older sister who looks like a spitting image of my alleged father. Hi, Ayesha. Because you are still a minor child, your parent with legal guardianship would need to approve any DNA test. Hi, Lucy. Hi, G. I am a 29 year old man. My girlfriend and I have a 9 month old son.
I am on the birth certificate as the legal father. We are in Ohio where I know that mothers have all rights if you are not married. Do I still need her consent? Hi, Mason. Technically, a DNA test could be performed, as long as the mother consents. You definitely want to consult with a family-law attorney in your area before taking any steps. I have doubts that my neice is really my brothers daughter. She is now an adult. How can I go about testing her DNA without her or my brother knowing? His kids and I look nothing alike. Do I need his persmission to test to see if he really is my father? Hi, Lee. That would be the simplest, most cost-effective way to get your answer. Hi, Red. Yes, as long as you notify the lab ahead of time of the other possible father and how he is biologically related to you.
That way, the scientists can take this information into consideration when doing their analysis and establishing a probability of paternity. He now brought them from China and now got them legal citizenship here. I am not close with them at all but I am concerned my father is being used by these people and want to prove it is not his son. How can I do this? Hi, Teya. If you want to prove or disprove a relationship through DNA, you would need their consent. Hi , This is Jim. I have a partner before and her sister told me that her sister got pregnant and maybe I am the father however my ex partner keeps on telling me that I am not the father of the baby.My Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea? slept around and they tutor marked assignment example. Wolt and R. United Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea?. Hi Me and my significant other had our Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea? and he signed the birth certificate and acknowledgment of Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea? but since I put him on child The Milgram Experiment Essay now he is asking for a dna test to make sure. Adopting internationally Reflective Essay: How To Improve My Writing Style even more parts because you're dealing with governmental red tape and regulations. I think we need to know where we're going in order to know whether we're Genetic Testing For Kids: Is It A Good Idea? progress getting there.