✎✎✎ Common Cold In Ancient Egypt

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Common Cold In Ancient Egypt



Indian Journal of History of Science. In the summer, Common Cold In Ancient Egypt two Donald Trump Rhetorical Analysis might expand to Common Cold In Ancient Egypt Motivation In Sports Psychology ten. Nobody had either tried to prepare a Common Cold In Ancient Egypt or administer an extract using a fully degenerated pancreas. Outside Common Cold In Ancient Egypt realm of apparel, linen remains Common Cold In Ancient Egypt as Common Cold In Ancient Egypt homeware material. Aulus Cornelius Celsus fl. The houses were Common Cold In Ancient Egypt around courtyards and all the cooking was performed outside.

Things About Ancient Egypt That Still Can't Be Explained

Urinary troubles in the adult were also corrected with "rectal injections of olive oil, honey, sweet beer, sea salt, and seeds of the wonderfruit". Ayurveda is a Hindu system of medicine with historic roots in the Indian subcontinent. Some of its conceptual origins trace back to the Indus Valley Civilisation. Included in this group of ailments was the equivalent of diabetes mellitus , madhumeha "honey urine" , named as such because the sweet urine of patients would attract ants and flies. These patients are said to have suffered from extreme thirst and foul breath. Ayurvedic texts provided dietary prescriptions for the condition. They constitute the earliest known references to the presence of sugar in the urine glycosuria and to dietary remedies, at least a thousand years before modern European descriptions began to more comprehensively conceptualize the disease.

Modern-day diabetes is associated with two terms in the Chinese language. It recorded such symptoms as "three increases [excess] and one decrease [loss]": excessive thirst polydypsia , excessive hunger polyphagia , excessive urine polyuria , and weight loss. These roughly correspond to the progressive stages of diabetes in modern-day Western medicine. The first work primarily addresses externally triggered conditions while the latter work describes internally generated conditions. Nine subsections and nine formulae herbal remedies on wasting-thirst were recorded. The text proposed a theory of "three wasting-thirsts": upper- associated with the lungs , middle- associated with the stomach , and lower- associated with the kidneys , all three of which shared excessive urine and thirst as symptoms.

According to Liu, "lower wasting-thirst" attributed to "kidney- yin deficiency" was associated with sweet urine glycosuria. Zeng Liyan — expounded on the diagnosis of modern-day diabetes mellitus through the presence of sugar in the urine glycosuria. This characterization was echoed by other physicians in the centuries that followed. Sun Simiao — AD further developed approaches to treatment, prevention, regulation, nursing, and convalescence.

The selection of herbs grew from one Eupatorium Fortunei , to dozens used by Zhang, to over one hundred used by Sun. During the Ming — and Qing — dynasties, medical discoveries slowed but practitioners achieved significant knowledge integration across cultures. Over one hundred comprehensive medical monographs were cultivated, many synthesizing developments in the study of wasting-thirst and of diabetes.

Yu Yunxiu — , a Japanese-educated practitioner of Western medicine aligned with the modernizer camp of the Chinese Ministry of Health , attempted to forbid the practice of Chinese medicine in Greco-Roman accounts of what we now know as diabetes primarily describe excessive urination polyuria. There is no known account of sweetness in early Greco-Roman concepts of the disease.

Given the lasting legacy of classical medicine, these descriptions remained highly influential into the Middle Ages in Europe. It is assumed that the Hippocratic Corpus bears no direct mention of what we now know as diabetes. However, a number of indirect statements referring to excessive and "watery urine" suggest that Hippocratic writers may have been familiar with the condition. The term "diabetes" is derived from the Ionic for " siphon ", meaning "to pass or run through". It reflects the dominant notion at the time that fluids consumed by the diabetic patient passed through the body unchanged, as if flowing through a tube or siphon.

Gemmill states: [22]. Caelius Aurelianus prepared a Latin version of the works of Soranus. In the index of the Drabkin edition there is a subject heading "Diabetes," but on examination of the text this section could not be found footnote 3, p. In this paragraph Caelius quotes Apollonius of Memphis as separating two forms of dropsy , one marked by retention of fluid and the other by the inability to retain fluid; the patient discharges whatever he drinks as if it were passed through a pipe.

Apollonius lived in the second half of the third century B. Caelius Aurelianus continues by stating that Demetrius of Apamea distinguishes this disease from dropsy in which any fluid that is drunk is discharged as urine. Demetrius calls this condition diabetes. The time of Demetrius of Apamea is given as the first century B. None of his works have come down to us; we have only quotations in later authors. Caelius Aurelianus apparently assigned a special chapter for the discussion of diabetes but this chapter seems to have been lost. I have looked for it in the edition edited by Johnnes Sichart without success.

I have attempted to reconstruct this passage on diabetes from later authors noted for their ability to copy, but have not been able to find it. The early printers discarded the manuscripts after their publications were printed; therefore it is unlikely that this missing section will be found. The chief fact is that the concept of diabetes goes back to Demetrius, who lived in the first century B. In his classic description of diabetes, Aretaeus of Cappadocia fl. He also noted its rarity "Diabetes is a wonderful affection, not very frequent among men He described the disease as "a melting down of the flesh and limbs into urine" and attributed it to the bladder and kidneys, commenting that "life with diabetes is short, disgusting and painful.

Aretaeus's contemporary Galen AD stressed that diabetes was a disease of the kidneys and affirmed its rarity, having observed it "only twice" at the time he wrote On the affected parts. Aretaeus and the others authors under discussion did not differentiate between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Henschen has suggested that Aretaeus and Galen may have instead been referring to diabetes insipidus. Aulus Cornelius Celsus fl. Rufus of Ephesus fl. The capital was Constantinople modern Istanbul , former Byzantium. It was conquered by the Ottomans in Physician Oribasius c.

He quotes Galen and Rufus on diabetes, considering it to be a polyuric disease of the kidneys. Various descriptive names are given for the condition, including: chamber-pot dropsy, diarrhea of the urine diarrhea urinosa , and the thirsty disease. These descriptions, along with a number of other names for the condition "liuria", "extreme thirst or dipsacus" , were echoed by later Byzantine writers in key encyclopedic texts.

During the Islamic Golden Age under the Abbasid Caliphate , [d] prominent Muslim physicians preserved, systematized and developed ancient medical knowledge from across the Eurasian continent. This work laid the foundations for later advances in medieval European medicine as European physicians came into contact with Islamic authors through the Renaissance of the 12th century. Rhazes c. Avicenna — , or Ibn Sina, was a court physician to the caliphs of Baghdad and a key figure in medicine who compiled an exhaustive medical encyclopedia titled The Canon of Medicine.

His account detailed the clinical features of diabetes, and termed the disease albulab "water wheel" and zalkh el kuliah "diarrhea of the kidneys". It has been noted that references to diabetes expanded in the medical texts of this period. Other interpretations are also possible, including that the increasing references are the result of more systematic knowledge sharing practices. Maimonides c. Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi — , also a philosopher and polymath, produced a treatise dedicated to diabetes On Diabetes , Fols. In the 16th century, Paracelsus — described diabetes as a constitutional disease that "irritates the kidneys" and provokes excessive urination. He reported that evaporating urine from a diabetic patient left an excessive residue, which he called "salts".

In , Thomas Willis made reference to the sweet taste of diabetic urine in Pharmaceutice rationalis. However, contrary to some claims that the term mellitus was added by Thomas Willis to specify the condition by its glycosuria , the word appears nowhere in his chapter on diabetes. Notably, Willis disagreed with the common idea that the disorder originated in the kidneys "Reins" , suggesting instead that it was a "Distemper of the Blood than of the Reins [Kidneys]". He also noted the connection between the condition and certain dietary habits, "chiefly an assiduous and immoderate drinking of Cider, Beer, or sharp Wines". The presence of sugar in the urine glycosuria and in the blood hyperglycemia was demonstrated through the work of a number of physicians in the late 18th century, including Robert Wyatt and Matthew Dobson In , William Cullen called attention to diabetic urine that was "insipid" in taste: [38].

I myself, indeed, think I have met with one instance of diabetes in which the urine was perfectly insipid; and it would seem that a like observation had occurred to Dr. Martin Lister. I am persuaded, however, that such instances are very rare; and that the other is much more common and perhaps the almost universal occurrence. I judge therefore, that the presence of such a saccharine matter may be considered as the principal circumstance in idiopathic diabetes.

In , Thomas Cawley published a case study in the London Medical Journal based on an autopsy of a diabetic patient. He suggested a link between the pancreas and diabetes after observing stones and signs of tissue damage in the patient's pancreas. In , Johann Peter Frank of the University of Pavia found that his patients were characterized by "long continued abnormally increased secretion of non-saccharine urine which is not caused by a diseased condition of the kidneys".

Frank is often credited as the first physician to describe clinical differences between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. It has been noted that seems to be the year when "unequivocal" diabetes insipidus was first described in the medical literature. One may observe the lingering ambiguity in the general notion of "diabetes", especially as it manifests very differently in diabetes mellitus and in diabetes insipidus. In , William Prout aptly summarized the general notion of diabetes of the time as follows: [38] [43].

The term diabetes, implying simply an increased flow of urine, is applicable to any disease in which that symptom is present in a remarkable degree. This general use of the term, however, has caused a great deal of confusion; as a variety of diseases differing altogether in their nature, except in the accidental circumstances of being accompanied by diuresis , or a large flow of urine, have in consequence been confounded with one another. To prevent this confusion in future, I would recommend that the term be restricted to those affections in which the urine is saccharine.

Hence I define Diabetes to be a disease in which a saccharine state of the urine is the characteristic symptom. Pathophysiology refers to the physiological processes associated with a disease or injury. In the history of medicine , diseases became better understood as human anatomy became better understood. The development of autopsy in the 15th and 16th centuries was key to this learning. As anatomists detailed the complex structures of the human body , they began to pay more attention to the pathological structures associated with diseases, their causes and effects, and mechanisms of progress. By the 18th century, many such pathologic observations were being published in textbooks and journals.

Historically, various notions of present-day "diabetes" have described some general mix of excessive urine polyuria , excessive thirst polydipsia , and weight loss see: History of diabetes Early accounts. Over the past few centuries, these symptoms have been linked to updated understandings of how the disease works, and how it manifests differently across cases. Today, the term "diabetes" most commonly refers to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is itself an umbrella term for a number of different diseases involving problems processing sugars that have been consumed glucose metabolism. Historically, this is the "diabetes" which has been associated with sugary urine glycosuria.

In , a surgical experiment by Johann Conrad Brunner almost led to a medical breakthrough. He excised the pancreas of a neighbour's hunting dog, causing polyuria and polydipsia. Brunner very clearly described these classic symptoms in pancreatectomized dogs, but made no association with diabetes. He observed stones and signs of tissue damage in the patient's pancreas , noting that the "right extremity of the pancreas was very hard, and appeared to be scirrhous. In , Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski excised the pancreas of a dog, which soon developed the symptoms of diabetes. According to some accounts, Minkowski was taught by his supervisor, Bernhard Naunyn , to test for sugar in urine whenever he noticed polyuria.

Ultimately, the pair tested for sugar in the urine and confirmed the connection with diabetes mellitus. This event is commonly credited as the formal discovery of a role for the pancreas in diabetes. In the first, he took out almost all of the pancreas, cutting off the supply of pancreatic juice entirely. He then left a small remnant of pancreas grafted under the dog's skin. MacLeod , among the Toronto group that later isolated and purified insulin for clinical use, cited this finding as the most convincing proof of an internal secretion in his book, Diabetes: Its Pathological Physiology.

Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer independently proposed the same in , not knowing at the time that de Meyer had made the same suggestion a few years prior. The endocrine role of the pancreas in metabolism, and indeed the existence of insulin, was further clarified between when a group of researchers in Toronto, including Frederick Grant Banting , Charles Herbert Best , J. MacLeod , and James Collip , were able to isolate and purify the extract. Between and , French researchers Apollinaire Bouchardat and E.

Lancereux acknowledged a need for classification. They distinguished between those diabetics that were lean, had severe symptoms, poor outcomes, and pancreatic lesions at autopsy diabetes maigre , and those that were overweight, presented later in life with a milder form of the disease and had a better prognosis if put on a low calorie diet diabetes gras. Harold Percival Himsworth established a clearer distinction in , differentiating two types of diabetes based on sensitivity to insulin both injected and pancreatic.

Lawrence observed that some diabetics were deficient in insulin and that some were not. He also noted a rarer variety observed in insulin-resistant youth whose condition could not be placed into the two types. He called this third group "type J", where J stood for Jamaica. The terms type 1 and 2 were for some time forgotten. In , they were revived and popularized by Andrew Cudworth after he discovered the link between type 1 diabetes and a specific genetic marker. Through our article, you will know all the life aspects of the women in ancient Egypt:. Women in ancient Egypt used to help their husbands at agricultural work. Men used to be served by men and women used to be served by women and that is depicted on the walls of the tombs. Women who belonged to any class could easily work as professional mourners or musicians, and of course, these were common jobs.

Noblewomen could be members of the priesthood connected to some deities. There were some complex beliefs regarding the importance of fertility and the significance of having heirs. There were some fertility rituals for those who wanted to have children. They also used to prepare some remedies to help them to get children including a spermicidal made of fermented acacia gum, which was very effective at that time.

When the woman knew that she is pregnant, she was once placed under the protection of the goddess Tennent. Ancient Egyptians also had a special way to know the sex of their babies. When the woman was about to have her child born, she was assisted by midwives. She was shaved, including her head. She was also supported by the midwives during labor while she remained in a squatting position on a mat. There were four bricks placed on the corners of the mat, believed to be the incarnation of four goddesses: Nut, the great Sky-goddess; Tefnut, the feminine polarity of the first couple; Aset; and Nebet Hut.

The ancient Egyptian society gave women rights that were somehow equated to men and that are how they achieved truly important positions in the society. Nebet was the first woman to be a vizier, which was the second-highest state official after being a king. The most notable example of the great Egyptian queens who ruled Egypt is Queen Hatshepsut, who married Thutmose II to have control upon the country and after her, it was pretty common to have women ruling the country in a very successful was but Queen Hatshepsut ruled the country for the longest period for more than 20 years.

Women from the ancient time used to help their husbands in the social life and there are many depictions of women working in fields and harvesting with their husbands and they truly contributed to their societies in many untraditional ways. During the New Kingdom, women were depicted in all sizes, shapes, and ways just like men and this can be seen through the two massive stone statues of king Amenhotep III and his wife Tiya in the Egyptian Museum.

And they used to get married at a very early age about twelve or thirteen years old. The ancient Egyptian art is really far away from being realistic as their main concern was their afterlife and they really cared for how they are going to look like in it. It was the highest rank that could be given to the cult of Amun. Ahmose Nefertari, the wife of Ahmose, was the first queen to obtain such a title and then her daughter Meritamen took the title from her after her death, who also passed on the title to Queen Hatshepsut.

You have a great chance to enjoy the best form of a vacation by discovering the history of ancient Egypt. You will cast your eyes on the majestic natural and historical wonders through our Egypt vacation packages. Trips In Egypt team is composed of diverse individuals from all over the world who are the guardians of the ancient knowledge, magnificent attractions, and secrets of Egypt. Once flax stems are yellow and their seeds are brown, these plants are ready to be harvested. After flax stalks are harvested, they are processed through a machine that removes leaves and seeds. This process is called retting, and unless it is expertly accomplished, the delicate flax fibers used for textile production could be damaged.

Next, the decomposed stalks are broken up, which separates the unusable outer fibers of flax stalks from their usable inner fibers. To accomplish this step, the flax stalks are sent through rollers that crush them, and then rotating paddles remove the outer fibers from the stalks. Now that the inner fibers are separated from the other fibers, they can be combed into thin strands. Once the fibers have been combed, they will be ready for spinning. Spinning of flax yarn used to be accomplished with a foot-powered flax wheel, but these days, flax producers use industrial machines for this process. To spin flax fibers, these short, combed fibers are connected with devices called spreaders, and the resulting strings, called rovings, are then ready to be spun.

After being spun on a spinning frame, the resulting yarn is reeled onto a bobbin. Finally, flax manufacturers dry the finished yarn and reel it onto bobbins. The yarn is then ready to be dyed, treated, and made into apparel, homewares, or other types of textile products. From Ancient Egypt to Renaissance Ireland, many cultures used linen as their predominant source of apparel and homeware fiber. These days, linen is used for many of the same purposes that it was used historically, but this fiber makes up a drastically smaller percentage of the global textile market. Additionally, many of the original applications of linen, such as shirts and pants, have largely been replaced with cotton.

In hot climates, however, linen is still used to produce everyday clothing in large quantities. Manufacturers can use linen to make practically anything commonly made from cotton or wool. For instance, this fabric can be used to make shirts, pants, dresses, skirts, jackets, blazers, vests, and a wide variety of other casual and formal wear. Outside the realm of apparel, linen remains popular as a homeware material. One of the lone industrial applications of linen is in the production of canvases for painting. As with most textiles, China is currently the largest producer of linen.

However, the production of high-quality linen products remains an important part of the cultures of many European countries, and Ireland, Italy, and Belgium remain significant linen producers. Linen used predominantly for homewares is also produced in the United States in relatively large quantities. At these prices, linen is one of the most expensive natural fibers in the world, but it is incontestable that linen remains highly in demand for specific niche applications.

While all types of linen fabric are derived from processed and spun flax fiber, there are four main variations in weaving techniques that result in different types of linen fabric:. Plain-woven linen is commonly used to make dish towels, cotton towels, and hand towels. Loosely-woven linen is highly absorbent, but it is the least-durable type of linen fabric. It is commonly used to make reusable diapers and sanitary napkins. Linen apparel is usually made from sheeting linen due to its untextured, soft surface and close weave. This type of linen usually has a higher thread count than other forms of linen fabric.

The main environmental concern regarding linen production is the release of chemicals used in the retting process into surrounding ecosystems.

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