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Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology



The simple act Mens Roles In Mayan Society retrieving Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology common Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology is more Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology for bilinguals than Classic Character Foils In William Shakespeares Othello due to the competition Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology the two languages. Bialystok [27] and others [40] have echoed Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology idea Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology the greater ability of Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology to selectively attend to important conceptual Demonstration Speech On How To Clean Silver of a stimulus may stem from the bilinguals' constant need to inhibit Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology labels in their two languages for one Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology according to the currently relevant language. In addition, we will discuss Brain Computer Interfaces and consider Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology ways in Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology cognitive neuroscience techniques are being Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology in assistive healthcare. This results in Essay On Nose using words like courrier Personal Narrative: I Am Cassidy Briann Norton literally mail that is black in Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology, instead of the proper word Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology blackmailchantage. However, the Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology must be well-versed in both languages and also Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology techniques for teaching a second language. Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology study on bilinguals has marked Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology slower language processing than monolinguals Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology only in second language L2 but also in first language L1[32, 48]. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Archived from the original on 30 May

The neuro-cognitive consequences of bilingualism - Dr Mirjana Bozic

Most Czechs and Slovaks understand both languages, although they would use only one of them their respective mother tongue when speaking. For example, in Czechoslovakia, it was common to hear two people talking on television each speaking a different language without any difficulty understanding each other. This bilinguality still exists nowadays, although it has started to deteriorate after Czechoslovakia split up. With emerging markets and expanding international cooperation, business users expect to be able to use software and applications in their own language. Translating the user interface is usually part of the software localization process, which also includes adaptations such as units and date conversion.

Many software applications are available in several languages, ranging from a handful the most spoken languages to dozens for the most popular applications such as office suites , web browsers , etc. Due to the status of English in computing , software development nearly always uses it but see also Non-English-based programming languages , so almost all commercial software is initially available in an English version, and multilingual versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on the English original. The Multilingual App Toolkit MAT [72] was first released in concert with the release of Windows 8 as a way to provide developers a set of free tooling that enabled adding languages to their apps with just a few clicks, in large part due to the integration of a free, unlimited license to both the Microsoft Translator machine translation service and the Microsoft Language Platform service, along with platform extensibility to enable anyone to add translation services into MAT.

Nelson, and Camerum Lerum have continued to drive development of the tools, working with third parties and standards bodies to assure broad availability of multilingual app development is provided. According to Hewitt entrepreneurs in London from Poland, China or Turkey use English mainly for communication with customers, suppliers, and banks, but their native languages for work tasks and social purposes. Even in English-speaking countries immigrants are still able to use their mother tongue in the workplace thanks to other immigrants from the same place.

Kovacs [74] describes this phenomenon in Australia with Finnish immigrants in the construction industry who spoke Finnish during working hours. But even though foreign languages may be used in the workplace, English is still a must-know working skill. Mainstream society justifies the divided job market, arguing that getting a low-paying job is the best newcomers can achieve considering their limited language skills. With companies going international they are now focusing more and more on the English level of their employees. Especially in South Korea since the s, companies are using different English language testing to evaluate job applicants, and the criteria in those tests are constantly upgrading the level for good English. In India, it is even possible to receive training to acquire an English accent, as the number of outsourced call centers in India has soared in the past decades.

Meanwhile, Japan ranks 53rd out of countries in EF English Proficiency Index , amid calls for this to improve in time for the Tokyo Olympics. Within multiracial countries such as Malaysia and Singapore , it is not unusual for one to speak two or more languages, albeit with varying degrees of fluency. Not only in multinational companies is English an important skill, but also in the engineering industry, in the chemical, electrical and aeronautical fields. A study directed by Hill and van Zyl shows that in South Africa young black engineers used English most often for communication and documentation. However, Afrikaans and other local languages were also used to explain particular concepts to workers in order to ensure understanding and cooperation.

In Europe, as the domestic market is generally quite restricted, international trade is a norm. Languages, that are used in multiple countries, include:. English is a commonly taught second language at schools, so it is also the most common choice for two speakers, whose native languages are different. However, some languages are so close to each other that it is generally more common when meeting to use their mother tongue rather than English.

These language groups include:. Many minor Russian ethnic groups, such as Tatars , Bashkirs and others, are also multilingual. Moreover, with the beginning of compulsory study of the Tatar language in Tatarstan , there has been an increase in its level of knowledge of the Russian-speaking population of the republic. Continued global diversity has led to an increasingly multilingual workforce. Europe has become an excellent model to observe this newly diversified labor culture. The expansion of the European Union with its open labor market has provided opportunities both for well-trained professionals and unskilled workers to move to new countries to seek employment.

Political changes and turmoil have also led to migration and the creation of new and more complex multilingual workplaces. In most wealthy and secure countries, immigrants are found mostly in low paid jobs but also, increasingly, in high-status positions. It is extremely common for music to be written in whatever the contemporary lingua franca is. If a song is not written in a common tongue, then it is usually written in whatever is the predominant language in the musician's country of origin, or in another widely recognized language, such as English, German, Spanish, or French.

The bilingual song cycles "there Songs with lyrics in multiple languages are known as macaronic verse. Multilingual stories, essays, and novels are often written by immigrants and second generation American authors. I will no longer be made to feel ashamed of existing. I will have my voice: Indian, Spanish, white. I will overcome the tradition of silence. However, in her later novel Americanah , the author does not offer translations of non-English passages.

American novelists who use foreign languages outside of their own cultural heritage for literary effect, include Cormac McCarthy who uses untranslated Spanish and Spanglish in his fiction. Multilingual poetry is prevalent in US Latino literature where code-switching and translanguaging between English, Spanish, and Spanglish is common within a single poem or throughout a book of poems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bilingual disambiguation. For the alleged early medieval heresy, see Trilingual heresy. Use of multiple languages. Main article: Passive speakers language. For other uses, see Polyglot disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Cognitive effects of multilingualism. Main article: List of polyglots. Main article: Neuroscience of multilingualism. Further information: List of multilingual countries and regions. Main article: Languages used on the Internet. Play media. Further information: List of multilingual bands and artists. Retrieved 8 May Linguistic Society of America. Retrieved 7 September European Commission. Archived PDF from the original on 5 February Retrieved 15 November Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 16 September Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.

Retrieved 10 July Introduction to language development. ISBN OCLC PMID Archived from the original on 22 October International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. S2CID Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. Hodder Education. Archived from the original on 21 April Europe Language Jobs. Retrieved 22 December Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. PMC Bilingualism and Second-Language Learning. Archived from the original on 15 October The Relationship between age and second language productive ability.

Language Learning. In Peitzman, Faye; Gadda, George eds. Psychology Today: Life as a Bilingual. Archived from the original on 18 April Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 24 February International Journal of Educational Development. The Economist. The Economist subscription required. Research demonstrates that children learn more when they are taught in their mother tongue than they do when they are taught in any other language. In a study of children in the first three years in 12 schools in Cameroon, those taught in Kom did better than those taught in English in all subjects. Parents might say that the point is to prepare children for the workplace and that a grasp of English is more use than sums or history.

Yet by year five, the children taught in Kom outperformed English-medium children even in English. Perhaps this is because they gain a better grasp of the mechanics of reading and writing when they are learning the skills in a language they understand. Archived from the original on 6 September Free Press. Applied Linguistics, 35 1 , Second Language Research. Dev Sci. Is the mind one big homogenous thing, or is it made up of smaller interacting components? If it has components, what sort are they and how are they interrelated? What aspects of our minds are uniquely, or distinctively human?

What is the cognitive basis for such capacities as our capacity for language, rationality, science, mathematics, cultural artefacts, altruism, cooperation, war, morality and art? To what extent are the concepts, rules, biases, and cognitive processes that we possess universal features of all human beings and to what extent are they culturally or otherwise variable? Do infants non-human animals, and individuals with cognitive deficits have minds, and if so, what are they like? To what extent are these capacities learned as opposed to innately given? How important is evolutionary theory to the study of the mind? What is the Self? What are concepts? Is all thought conceptual?

Is all thought conscious? What is consciousness? This course will discuss a selection of these and related issues by looking at the work of philosophers, psychologists, and others working within the cognitive sciences more generally. This module explores the relationship between psychological theory and experience. Students drawn to the study of psychology are presented with a curriculum comprising subjects memory, perception, language, cognition, development, emotion they have spent a lifetime experiencing.

Hence psychology as a scientific study presents a unique experience for the student, learning what in an experiential sense is already known. This module introduces reflective models of inquiry in which psychological understanding is sought through the exploration of preconceptions transmitted within psychology and psychological education. This module also explores psychological approaches that illuminate different orientations to childhood experience and the implications for these different approaches for the knowledge generated. The module explores understandings about how people learn, and implications that these understandings have for how we conduct key social practices, including teaching, caring for children, assessing learning, and on educating generally.

We will also look 'beneath' understandings of learning to the worldviews on which they stand, particularly 'realist' and 'constructivist' positions. This matters because 'realism' and 'constructivism' carry implications for how we conceptualise things we take for granted: the nature of truth, the process and products of science, the basis for ethics, the outcomes of research, and assumptions about what is. The module will explore these challenging issues. This unit investigates the causes and consequences of atypical brain development and degeneration. It specifically focuses on neurodevelopmental disorders and stroke.

For each topic i. Each disorder will also be set in context, explaining the support which may be required, including family support and intervention strategies. The module will examine recent and current research into human neurodegenerative disease including Huntington's, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and motor neuron disease. In addition, reference may be made to the spongiform encephalopathies, frontal dementias and Lewy body disease, with emphasis on their inter-relationships and commonalities. The genetic and non-genetic aetiological influences, defining pathology and pathophysiology and current understanding of the underlying biology will be examined by a detailed consideration of current research in these areas. The module will also include discussion of the prevention and treatment of the diseases, highlighting possible therapies which may be useful in several pathologies.

The broad aim of this module is to introduce students to the link between academic evidence and clinical practice when delivering evidence-based psychotherapies. The more specific aim is to introduce principles and practice of cognitive behavioural therapy, as applied to the treatment of eating disorders, linking evidence and practice explicitly. The module will commence with an introduction to cognitive-behavioural models of eating disorders.

It will then address the evidence that supports those models and the effectiveness of the therapy overall. Subsequent lectures will introduce and demonstrate therapist skills and impact on patients e. This unit provides an overview of the field of cognitive neuroscience, which is aimed at the understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in cognitive processes. Teaching will focus on methods and techniques, and the way in which these techniques have been used to help us understand aspects of cognition. Focus will be on perception, attention, and the neural underpinnings of certain neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism spectrum conditions and ADHD. In addition, we will discuss Brain Computer Interfaces and consider practical ways in which cognitive neuroscience techniques are being used in assistive healthcare.

A strong focus of the course will be in understanding the way in which EEG is used in Psychology research. This module will introduce students to the psychological aspects of criminal behaviour. Developmental, social, biological, and genetic perspectives on the origins criminal behaviour will be considered. Different types of crimes, including homicide, crimes against children, crimes committed by gangs, and sexual and intimate partner violence, will be introduced and research in those areas will be critically evaluated. The module focuses on important aspects of criminal psychology, but no prior knowledge of criminal psychology is assumed.

This module will introduce students to controversial issues related to addiction from a psychological perspective. Topics will cover the nature of addiction, its determinants, underlying neurological basis, treatment, and prognosis. During each lecture, the controversial topic will be introduced before relevant evidence is described and critically evaluated. Topics covered may vary from year to year as new controversies emerge, but are likely to include critical appraisals of the brain disease model of addiction, and the roles of compulsion and habit.

This module presents key concepts and research in Health Psychology as they relate to major topics within the field: health behaviours and stress. The module builds on and expands PSY Social, Health and Environmental Psychology module content introducing Heath Psychology, with lectures covering key theories and research on the interaction of psychological, social, and biological biopsychosocial factors in health and illness.

Topics covered include stress and coping, personality and health, and health-promoting and health-compromising behaviours. Laboratory sessions aid in developing critical research skills in Health Psychology by providing hands -on experience in qualitative analysis and applied analysis of core concepts. The aim of the course is to explain current research, both experimental and theoretical, into the brain mechanisms that underlie basic forms of reward processing, associative learning and the formation of episodic memories.

The lectures first cover the neural responses to pleasurable stimuli, including drugs of abuse. Next, the main characteristics of classical conditioning are outlined, followed by an account of cerebellar anatomy and physiology: a necessary basis for the evaluation of models of cerebellar function as applied to classical conditioning. Then, the anatomy and physiology of the hippocampus and its involvement in learning and memory will be described. Focus will be on episodic memory and how neural coding in the hippocampus might be used to store and recall memories. To introduce and explore psychological issues in work settings, examining people's behaviour, thoughts and feelings related to their work.

The course also focuses on some key organisational practices and processes, such as training and development, and leadership. The module provides an overview of the neural basis of sleep and the changes in the brain which occur during various stages of the sleep cycle. It will also cover the reasons why we sleep and the functions of sleep, with examples from Cognitive Psychology. In addition to this, some of the most common sleep disorders will be examined, including explanations regarding their underlying aetiology and current available treatments. This module is broad and will make references to different areas of Psychology, including elements of Neuroscience, Clinical, Cognitive and Health Psychology.

This module will cover key theories and empirical research on the psychology of eating behaviours and weight management. We will consider the main drivers of eating behaviours and strategies to reduce overconsumption, as well as considering effective strategies for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Throughout the course, we will consider why some individuals are more susceptible to overconsumption and weight gain compared to others. We will also cover the stigma that people with obesity experience and consider stigma-reducing strategies. You will learn about the methods used and the challenges faced by researchers in this area. The module will be delivered via lectures.

This richness in linguistic diversity not only adds to the socio-cultural tapestry, but has implications for our understanding of neurological as well as cognitive-linguistic development. Drawing upon behavioural and neurological evidence from bilingual children, bilingual adults and bilingual patients with aphasia, this unit will: a examine current issues related to the definition of bilingualism as well as methodological issues; b examine language acquisition and language representation in the bilingual brain; c examine the effects of bilingualism on brain structural plasticity, and language control and selection mechanisms.

Additionally, the unit will discuss the cognitive benefits of bilingualism and the implications for educational attainment and practice. The content of our courses is reviewed annually to make sure it's up-to-date and relevant. Individual modules are occasionally updated or withdrawn. This is in response to discoveries through our world-leading research; funding changes; professional accreditation requirements; student or employer feedback; outcomes of reviews; and variations in staff or student numbers. In the event of any change we'll consult and inform students in good time and take reasonable steps to minimise disruption.

We are no longer offering unrestricted module choice. If your course included unrestricted modules, your department will provide a list of modules from their own and other subject areas that you can choose from. In split visual field technique, the visual objects are projected laterally. When the objects are presented to the left visual field LVF , the visual data is transmitted to the RH and when the stimuli are presented to the right visual field RVF , the visual data is transmitted to the LH.

In this technique, the visual field is virtually divided into left and right as if the brain is also divided[72]. Dichotic Listening Technique: In dichotic listening technique when the auditory stimuli are played simultaneously in both ears it reaches both hemispheres through ipsilateral and contralateral pathways[72]. This technique is used to evaluate the accuracy of word recognition through right and left ears. Whereas in visual test the pictures are projected for a short time then the accuracy of correct responses and interval duration are measured. Studies The study of bilingualism was conducted in the early s, both experimentally and clinically[2, , ]. Basically, earlier studies through the use of dichotic listening paradigm have concluded that the LH is dominant for speech and language[20, 21, 70, ].

In addition, further studies have been conducted on language laterality in Native American children. Both studies have been administered with dichotic consonant-vowel task. Results concluded that Navajo children are more accurate in identifying left ear stimuli, which refers to the fact the Navajo has greater RH mediation of language, while the Anglo children were more accurate in identifying right ear stimuli, that refers to the greater LH mediation of language[63]. In a visual test, laterality dissimilarity for word identification in bilinguals was examined. The study concluded that LH advantage was observed for processing of both Spanish and English, irrespective of which language was learnt first[]. Behavioural, neurological and imaging studies have significant role in language process[6].

Researches from variety of areas also proposed that RH is dominant for language processing. Similarly, other studies have documented that RH is relatively more involved in language processing[67]. Current studies have proved that RH is involved in language comprehension[28]. Another study on bilinguals has marked a slower language processing than monolinguals not only in second language L2 but also in first language L1[32, 48]. In clinical evidences researchers have mentioned that both languages of bilinguals are served by the LH in the same area of the monolinguals whereas experimental studies have reported no significant difference in lateralisation between bilinguals and monolinguals[83]. A further study revealed that LH is superior for verbal functions whereas RH is superior for visuospatial abilities configuration based face processing[ 56].

A study was conducted to assess the differential processing efficiency of the cerebral hemispheres in right and left-handed adults by using behavioural laterality tasks with linguistic stimuli. They concluded that, the LH is superior in the task, whereas RH was more involved in reading process[]. Further study examined the role of RH in the comprehension of speech. The numbers of participants were The result of this experiment showed that, RH supports in comprehension of speech and deals with the intention of the speaker[59]. To investigate the differences between RH and LH a cross modality study auditory and visual was conducted, using message-level sentences.

The result revealed that RH is dominant for message level information in sentences[49]. Recent study showed that emotional words positive and negative are processed faster than neutral words[74]. In a study sixty five behavioural studies were compared, with 24 monolingual groups and 51 bilingual groups. The variables of the experimental paradigms are coded as; dichotic listening DL , visual preferences V , age of L2 acquisition early and late and level of L2 proficiency proficient and non-proficient.

The study concluded that late bilinguals and monolinguals are LH dominant in language tasks regardless of the proficiency[61]. A recent meta-analysis has examined the behavioural laterality studies of the bilinguals and monolinguals. They concluded that early bilinguals have bilateral involvement for both languages, where as monolinguals and late bilinguals have LH dominance for both languages[62]. By using concurrent activities paradigm, a study was conducted on language lateralisation task and the study concluded that, LH superiority is observed in both groups.

The total numbers of participants were- Sixteen male bilinguals Portuguese - English between ages years with a mean of Similarly other sixteen male monolinguals English who participated in this study were between years with a mean age of All participants were strong right handers, as determined by a short questionnaire[22, 81]. The bilingual subjects, who had taken part in the study, were selected for equal and high fluency in Portuguese and English.

Their fluency was examined by a questionnaire in which the subjects rated their fluency in reading, writing, speaking and understanding of Portuguese and English. The participants in this study were adult-right handed males Portuguese- English bilinguals and English speaking monolinguals. The task includes two experiments. In experiment-1, the words of bilinguals of both languages were presented in a mixed blocks. In experiment-2, the words were presented in a separate block. Furthermore, a study on Portuguese - English bilinguals and a group of English monolinguals with concurrent activity and time task paradigm was conducted and the result revealed that there were no lateralisation differences among bilinguals and monolinguals[96].

In further study researchers have examined the preferences for English words among native Hebrew speakers by using visual studies. They concluded that LVF superiority was observed in the early bilingual group and the RVF superiority was present in the late bilingual group. The study showed that there is a RH relevant for the early stage of language acquisition[94]. Whereas late bilinguals marked no visual field differences and early bilinguals marked LVF superiority, in semantic task[]. In addition research on normal adults reported that the RVF advantage is less for concrete words. The findings suggested that concrete words are more prevalent to the RH[23].

A study was conducted on Kannada-English bilingual adults with concrete nouns by using tachistoscopic study. The stimuli were presented bilaterally and the result concluded that subjects responded more words correctly in LVF[8]. A similar study was conducted on abstract and concrete nouns in Kannada with monolingual Kannada adults, with the help of tachistoscopic test. The result revealed that no visual field differences were found in concrete and abstract nouns[88]. Further study on monolingual Kannada children and bilingual Kannada - English children were conducted with a tachistoscopic technique to investigate the hemispheric superiority of either Kannada or English by using concrete nouns from both the languages.

Ten monolinguals and bilinguals each were selected who were studying Kannada and English. Bilingual groups were examined for their fluency, comprehension and expression in the second language English. All participants were right handed. Another study concluded that language differences and script differences may depend on the two hemispheric differences[55]. A laterality study on the orthographic writing and spelling system of language cue with French-English bilinguals was conducted.

For this study sixteen French-English late bilinguals performed a speeded language recognition task on lateralised words that were either marked or unmarked. When the words were presented in the LVF, the response latency was faster to orthographically marked than unmarked words, particularly in second language English. In addition, L2 marked words were responded to, faster than L1 marked words. The study suggested that RH is associated with orthographic cues in recognition of language[].

A recent study was conducted by using fMRI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to identify primary factors that deal with semantic and orthographic processing of bilinguals in Chinese-English bilinguals. The researchers used both tasks, such as Chinese characters L1 and English words L2. They concluded that L2 English is more responsible for activation for RH than native language Chinese [36]. Bilinguals are capable of managing and controlling attention than monolinguals. Research on bilingualism [12, 14, 16, 41] have concluded that, bilingual peers are more prone to attentional control than monolinguals, while performing non verbal and linguistic tasks. The stroop paradigm has been used by many researchers[87].

The paradigm mainly deals with measuring the cognitive control mechanism of bilinguals and monolinguals. It is mainly concerned with attention[]. The study divides bilinguals as, early bilingual, late bilingual, and monolingual but the researcher tested only late Chinese-English bilinguals with stroop paradigm. The study concluded that LH is dominant for Chinese character processing[85]. Recent research show dissimilar result in semantic processing mechanism due to different language processing of L1 and L2, for e. Another also study supported that LH produced the activation of both L1 and L2 where as RH is related with the non-literal or figurative language processing of L1 and literal accessible of L2[ In a hemispheric lateralisation study of Mandarin tone, four groups were tested Native Mandarin listeners, English—Mandarin bilinguals, Norwegian listeners having experience with Norwegian tone and American listeners having no tone experience by using dichotic technique to examine or identify which tone they have heard in both ears.

They noticed that there is no ear advantage observed in Norwegian or American listeners. They also concluded that LH is dominant for native and proficient bilingual listeners Mandarin tone and no lateralisation was found for the non-native listeners, in spite of acquaintance with lexical tone[]. Another study also mentioned that RH is more dominant for language processing of L2 than L1[1]. Similarly other studies also cited the greater involvement of RH than LH during the processing of language[40]. Generally it is found that LH is more relevant in understanding and creating verbal language of human brain.

The study examined by dichotic paradigm with words of L1 and L2. The result concluded that LH is dominant in number of responses for both languages and both groups. Moreover the LH was more relevant for processing of English language in German group[30]. Discussion Both the languages L1 and L2 of bilinguals are not separate, but they co-exist and rely on a common underlying proficiency CUP. This characteristic will be beneficial for the proficiency in the first language L1 as well as second language L2 for bilinguals[45]. Numbers of studies have concluded that cognitive psychology not only reveals the cognitive flexibility of bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but also language processing of bilinguals and monolinguals[16, 57, 73, 90, 98, 53, 63, 75, 76].

Thus this may be responsible for variation of results among bilinguals and monolinguals. Other studies have mentioned that during processing of language bilinguals are slower than monolinguals in L1 and L2[32, 48]. Another study mentioned that monolinguals are better performed than bilinguals in L1[22]. These above studies reveal that the age of language acquisition L1 and L2 may lead to different results among bilinguals and monolinguals. In a study it is found that RH is associated with orthographic cues in recognition of language[, 36]. This may occur due to the particular writing system or style script of the language, leads to the different hemispheric involvement of both groups. Furthermore studies have discussed on the superiority of LVF and RVF regarding the language processing among bilinguals and monolinguals[94, 96, 25].

In addition many evidences on hemispheric involvement on processing of language have showed that some have greater level of language dominance which is observed in LH where as others mentioned dominance of RH among both groups bilinguals and monolinguals [66,28,60 ,49,61,96]. On the other hand, studies have also mentioned that there are no lateralisation differences found among bilinguals and monolinguals[83]. Similarly, another study cited that there is no visual field differences were observed among bilinguals and monolinguals[88], which may be attributed to the extraneous variables, such as age, gender, language proficiency, and handedness.

Hence these studies have committed inaccuracy in statistical analysis. In a stroop paradigm, it is proved that the characteristics of bilinguals such as early bilinguals or late bilinguals are also related to language processing of bilinguals[85]. Conclusions However by reviewing many evidences in bilingualism and monolingualism, it can be concluded that there are no clear concepts or evidences on hemispheric dominance for language in bilinguals and monolinguals. It is suggested that more researches could be conducted to clarify the hemispheric superiority in LH and RH among bilinguals and monolinguals in language processing.

The current paper also concludes that bilingualism has a significant benefit in cognitive, social and academic areas in comparison to monolinguals. This suggests that future studies should identify the usefulness of these advantages in different fields. Besides, future studies should clarify the characteristics of the participants such as age, gender and language proficiency. Lastly, behavioural paradigms have manifested mixed results on bilingualism and monolingualism. I would like to thank my family and friends for their best support and understanding in publishing this paper in International Journal of Applied Psychology.

References [1] Ahlsen, E. Introduction to Neurolinguistics. Amesterdam: John Benjamins. The bilingualism brain: psychological and neurolinguistic aspects of bilingualism. New York: Academic Press, Cognitive development of children in an additive-bilingual program : The third report. Cognitive and language development in an additive- bilingual program: Report after four observations. Spanish - immersion children in Washington State: Fourth year of a longitudinal study. The divided visual field technique in laterality and interhemispheric integration. Hugdahl Ed. Experimental methods Neuropsychology , Boston: Kluwer. Communicative interactions, knowledge of a second language, and theory of mind in young children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, , A tachistoscopic on bilingual adults.

Unpublished masteral dissertation. University of Mysore, Mysore. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, Levels of Bilingualism and Levels of Linguistic Awareness. Developmental Psychology, 24 , Child Development, 70, Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition. Craik, F. Psychology and Aging, 19 , Consequences of Bilingualism for Cognitive Development. In Kroll, J. Journal of Neurolinguisticst, 21, — Age and second language acquisition and processing. Indefrey Eds. The influence on some linguistic and cognitive skills of the early learning of a foreign language. Rassegna Italiana Di Linguistica Applicata, 25 , Journal of Experimental Psychology , 47, Ear preference in auditory perception.

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65 , Measuring handedness with questionnaires. Neuropyschologia, 15 , Different modes of word recognition in the left and right visual fields. Brain and Language, 33, Hemispheric asymmetries in processing L1 and L2 idioms: Effects of salience and context. Brain and Language, , — Journal of Memory and Language. Right hemisphere sensitivity to word-and sentence- level context: Evidence from event-related brain potentials, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 31, Eureka Bilingualism and insightful learning.

Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology various times in the year we run online taster sessions to help Year Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology students experience what it is like to study at the University Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology Sheffield. I met Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology who I will never forget and have learned valuable lessons on how to interact with people with mental health problems Charlotte Pritchard BSc Psychology Charlotte The Little Mermaid Gender Roles to Sri Lanka this summer to gain practical psychology Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology experience with SLV Global, working Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology remove the prejudice Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology negative connotations that Bilingualism In Cognitive Psychology mental Fort Fisher Battle Analysis and promote positive mental health in the country. It relates Copper Cycle Lab Report different fields of studies, namely anthropology, linguistics, psychology and neuroscience[31]. This module will introduce students to controversial issues related to addiction from a psychological perspective. Various aspects of multilingualism have been studied in the field of neuroscience.

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