⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Oliver Cromwell In Ireland

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Oliver Cromwell In Ireland



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He was president of the Royal Society from This Day in British History. The Earl of Warwick's army deserts him. Monarch Mayhem. Whose coronation took place on Christmas Day? Retrieved 1 January Cambridge University Press. ISBN Global Terrorism. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. Martin's Griffin. Profiles in Leadership. Prentice Hall Press. Eyewitness to Irish History. Act for the Settlement of Ireland. Constitution Society.

Retrieved April 9, Canadian Journal of History 38 3 : Oxford University Press. Categories : births deaths Alumni of the University of Cambridge English heads of state. Hidden categories: Webarchive template other archives Commons category link is on Wikidata Webarchive template wayback links. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history. Wikimedia Commons. In office 16 December — 3 September Richard Cromwell. In office — Charles I. Tyburn, London. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. Old Noll; [1] Old Ironsides. Cromwell was much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians , some of whom had been his allies in the First English Civil War, than he was to Irish Catholics.

He described the Scots as a people "fearing His [God's] name, though deceived". His appeal rejected, Cromwell's veteran troops went on to invade Scotland. At first, the campaign went badly, as Cromwell's men were short of supplies and held up at fortifications manned by Scottish troops under David Leslie. Sickness began to spread in the ranks. Cromwell was on the brink of evacuating his army by sea from Dunbar.

However, on 3 September , unexpectedly, Cromwell smashed the main Scottish army at the Battle of Dunbar , killing 4, Scottish soldiers, taking another 10, prisoner, and then capturing the Scottish capital of Edinburgh. Cromwell followed them south and caught them at Worcester on 3 September , and his forces destroyed the last major Scottish Royalist army at the Battle of Worcester. Charles II barely escaped capture and fled to exile in France and the Netherlands, where he remained until To fight the battle, Cromwell organised an envelopment followed by a multi-pronged coordinated attack on Worcester, his forces attacking from three directions with two rivers partitioning them.

He switched his reserves from one side of the river Severn to the other and then back again. In the final stages of the Scottish campaign, Cromwell's men under George Monck sacked Dundee, killing up to 1, men and women and children. The northwest Highlands was the scene of another pro-Royalist uprising in —55, which was put down with deployment of 6, English troops there.

Cromwell's conquest left no significant legacy of bitterness in Scotland. The rule of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was largely peaceful, apart from the Highlands. Moreover, there were no wholesale confiscations of land or property. Three out of every four Justices of the Peace in Commonwealth Scotland were Scots and the country was governed jointly by the English military authorities and a Scottish Council of State. Cromwell was away on campaign from the middle of until , and the various factions in Parliament began to fight amongst themselves with the King gone as their "common cause". Cromwell tried to galvanise the Rump into setting dates for new elections, uniting the three kingdoms under one polity, and to put in place a broad-brush, tolerant national church.

However, the Rump vacillated in setting election dates, although it put in place a basic liberty of conscience, but it failed to produce an alternative for tithes or to dismantle other aspects of the existing religious settlement. In frustration, Cromwell demanded that the Rump establish a caretaker government in April of 40 members drawn from the Rump and the army, and then abdicate; but the Rump returned to debating its own bill for a new government.

Several accounts exist of this incident; in one, Cromwell is supposed to have said "you are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament; I will put an end to your sitting". After the dissolution of the Rump, power passed temporarily to a council that debated what form the constitution should take. They took up the suggestion of Major-General Thomas Harrison for a " sanhedrin " of saints. Although Cromwell did not subscribe to Harrison's apocalyptic , Fifth Monarchist beliefs—which saw a sanhedrin as the starting point for Christ's rule on earth—he was attracted by the idea of an assembly made up of men chosen for their religious credentials.

In his speech at the opening of the assembly on 4 July , Cromwell thanked God's providence that he believed had brought England to this point and set out their divine mission: "truly God hath called you to this work by, I think, as wonderful providences as ever passed upon the sons of men in so short a time. However, the revelation that a considerably larger segment of the membership than had been believed were the radical Fifth Monarchists led to its members voting to dissolve it on 12 December , out of fear of what the radicals might do if they took control of the Assembly. After the dissolution of the Barebones Parliament, John Lambert put forward a new constitution known as the Instrument of Government , closely modelled on the Heads of Proposals.

It made Cromwell Lord Protector for life to undertake "the chief magistracy and the administration of government". Cromwell was sworn in as Lord Protector on 16 December , with a ceremony in which he wore plain black clothing, rather than any monarchical regalia. Nevertheless, Cromwell's power was buttressed by his continuing popularity among the army.

Cromwell had two key objectives as Lord Protector. The first was "healing and settling" the nation after the chaos of the civil wars and the regicide, which meant establishing a stable form for the new government to take. Such forms were, he said, "but Cromwell declared, "A nobleman, a gentleman, a yeoman; the distinction of these: that is a good interest of the nation, and a great one! Direct taxation was reduced slightly and peace was made with the Dutch, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. Cromwell soon secured the submission of these and largely left them to their own affairs, intervening only to curb his fellow Puritans who were usurping control over the Maryland Colony at the Battle of the Severn , by his confirming the former Roman Catholic proprietorship and edict of tolerance there.

Of all the English dominions, Virginia was the most resentful of Cromwell's rule, and Cavalier emigration there mushroomed during the Protectorate. Cromwell famously stressed the quest to restore order in his speech to the first Protectorate parliament at its inaugural meeting on 3 September He declared that "healing and settling" were the "great end of your meeting".

After some initial gestures approving appointments previously made by Cromwell, the Parliament began to work on a radical programme of constitutional reform. Rather than opposing Parliament's bill, Cromwell dissolved them on 22 January The House of Commons representatives from the boroughs were elected by the burgesses or those borough residents who had the right to vote in municipal elections, and by the aldermen and councilors of the boroughs. Cromwell's second objective was spiritual and moral reform. He aimed to restore liberty of conscience and promote both outward and inward godliness throughout England. The triers and the ejectors were intended to be at the vanguard of Cromwell's reform of parish worship.

This second objective is also the context in which to see the constitutional experiment of the Major Generals that followed the dissolution of the first Protectorate Parliament. After a Royalist uprising in March , led by Sir John Penruddock , Cromwell influenced by Lambert divided England into military districts ruled by army major generals who answered only to him. The 15 major generals and deputy major generals—called "godly governors"—were central not only to national security , but Cromwell's crusade to reform the nation's morals.

The generals not only supervised militia forces and security commissions, but collected taxes and ensured support for the government in the English and Welsh provinces. Commissioners for securing the peace of the Commonwealth were appointed to work with them in every county. While a few of these commissioners were career politicians, most were zealous puritans who welcomed the major-generals with open arms and embraced their work with enthusiasm.

However, the major-generals lasted less than a year. Many feared they threatened their reform efforts and authority. Their position was further harmed by a tax proposal by Major General John Desborough to provide financial backing for their work, which the second Protectorate parliament —instated in September —voted down for fear of a permanent military state. Ultimately, however, Cromwell's failure to support his men, sacrificing them to his opponents, caused their demise. Their activities between November and September had, however, reopened the wounds of the s and deepened antipathies to the regime.

As Lord Protector, Cromwell was aware of the Jewish community's involvement in the economics of the Netherlands, now England's leading commercial rival. It was this—allied to Cromwell's tolerance of the right to private worship of those who fell outside Puritanism—that led to his encouraging Jews to return to England in , over years after their banishment by Edward I , in the hope that they would help speed up the recovery of the country after the disruption of the Civil Wars. At the Whitehall conference of December he quoted from St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans —15 on the need to send Christian preachers to the Jews. William Prynne the Presbyterian, in contrast to Cromwell the Congregationalist, was strongly opposed to the latter's pro-Jewish policy.

Cromwell pledged to supply France with 6, troops and war ships. In accordance with the terms of the treaty, Mardyck and Dunkirk — a base for privateers and commerce raiders attacking English merchant shipping — were ceded to England. In , Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament as part of a revised constitutional settlement, presenting him with a dilemma since he had been "instrumental" in abolishing the monarchy. Cromwell agonised for six weeks over the offer. He was attracted by the prospect of stability it held out, but in a speech on 13 April he made clear that God's providence had spoken against the office of King: "I would not seek to set up that which Providence hath destroyed and laid in the dust, and I would not build Jericho again".

The event in part echoed a coronation , using many of its symbols and regalia, such as a purple ermine-lined robe, a sword of justice and a sceptre but not a crown or an orb. But, most notably, the office of Lord Protector was still not to become hereditary, though Cromwell was now able to nominate his own successor. Cromwell's new rights and powers were laid out in the Humble Petition and Advice , a legislative instrument which replaced the Instrument of Government. Despite failing to restore the Crown, this new constitution did set up many of the vestiges of the ancient constitution including a house of life peers in place of the House of Lords.

In the Humble Petition it was called the Other House as the Commons could not agree on a suitable name. Furthermore, Oliver Cromwell increasingly took on more of the trappings of monarchy. Cromwell is thought to have suffered from malaria and kidney stone disease. In , he was struck by a sudden bout of malarial fever , followed directly by illness symptomatic of a urinary or kidney complaint. The Venetian ambassador wrote regular dispatches to the Doge of Venice in which he included details of Cromwell's final illness, and he was suspicious of the rapidity of his death.

He died at age 59 at Whitehall on 3 September , the anniversary of his great victories at Dunbar and Worcester. He was buried with great ceremony, with an elaborate funeral at Westminster Abbey based on that of James I, [] his daughter Elizabeth also being buried there. Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard. Richard had no power base in Parliament or the Army and was forced to resign in May , ending the Protectorate. There was no clear leadership from the various factions that jostled for power during the reinstated Commonwealth, so George Monck was able to march on London at the head of New Model Army regiments and restore the Long Parliament.

Under Monck's watchful eye, the necessary constitutional adjustments were made so that Charles II could be invited back from exile in to be King under a restored monarchy. Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey on 30 January , the 12th anniversary of the execution of Charles I, and was subjected to a posthumous execution , as were the remains of John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton. The body of Cromwell's daughter was allowed to remain buried in the Abbey. His body was hanged in chains at Tyburn, London , and then thrown into a pit.

His head was cut off and displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until Afterwards, it was owned by various people, including a documented sale in to Josiah Henry Wilkinson, [] [] and it was publicly exhibited several times before being buried beneath the floor of the antechapel at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge , in Many people began to question whether the body mutilated at Tyburn and the head seen on Westminster Hall were Cromwell's. The stories suggest that his bodily remains are buried in London, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, or Yorkshire. The Cromwell vault was later used as a burial place for Charles II's illegitimate descendants.

During his lifetime, some tracts painted Cromwell as a hypocrite motivated by power. For example, The Machiavilian Cromwell and The Juglers Discovered are parts of an attack on Cromwell by the Levellers after , and both present him as a Machiavellian figure. Several biographies were published soon after Cromwell's death. An example is The Perfect Politician , which describes how Cromwell "loved men more than books" and provides a nuanced assessment of him as an energetic campaigner for liberty of conscience who is brought down by pride and ambition. Clarendon famously declares that Cromwell "will be looked upon by posterity as a brave bad man".

Clarendon was not one of Cromwell's confidantes, and his account was written after the Restoration of the monarchy. During the early 18th century, Cromwell's image began to be adopted and reshaped by the Whigs as part of a wider project to give their political objectives historical legitimacy. John Toland rewrote Edmund Ludlow 's Memoirs in order to remove the Puritan elements and replace them with a Whiggish brand of republicanism, and it presents the Cromwellian Protectorate as a military tyranny. Through Ludlow, Toland portrayed Cromwell as a despot who crushed the beginnings of democratic rule in the s.

I hope to render the English name as great and formidable as ever the Roman was. During the early 19th century, Cromwell began to be portrayed in a positive light by Romantic artists and poets. Thomas Carlyle continued this reassessment in the s, publishing an annotated collection of his letters and speeches, and describing English Puritanism as "the last of all our Heroisms" while taking a negative view of his own era. Oxford civil war historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner concluded that "the man—it is ever so with the noblest—was greater than his work".

During the first half of the 20th century, Cromwell's reputation was often influenced by the rise of fascism in Nazi Germany and in Italy. Harvard historian Wilbur Cortez Abbott , for example, devoted much of his career to compiling and editing a multi-volume collection of Cromwell's letters and speeches, published between and Abbott argues that Cromwell was a proto-fascist. However, subsequent historians such as John Morrill have criticised both Abbott's interpretation of Cromwell and his editorial approach.

Late 20th-century historians re-examined the nature of Cromwell's faith and of his authoritarian regime. Austin Woolrych explored the issue of "dictatorship" in depth, arguing that Cromwell was subject to two conflicting forces: his obligation to the army and his desire to achieve a lasting settlement by winning back the confidence of the nation as a whole.

He argued that the dictatorial elements of Cromwell's rule stemmed less from its military origin or the participation of army officers in civil government than from his constant commitment to the interest of the people of God and his conviction that suppressing vice and encouraging virtue constituted the chief end of government. Davis have developed this theme, revealing the extent to which Cromwell's writing and speeches are suffused with biblical references, and arguing that his radical actions were driven by his zeal for godly reformation.

In , one of the first ships commissioned to serve in the American Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War was named Oliver Cromwell. This includes Cromwell's Bible, button, coffin plate, death mask, and funeral escutcheon. On Tangye's death, the entire collection was donated to the Museum of London , where it can still be seen. In , a statue of Cromwell by Matthew Noble was erected in Manchester outside the Manchester Cathedral , a gift to the city by Abel Heywood in memory of her first husband.

It was unpopular with local Conservatives and the large Irish immigrant population. Queen Victoria was invited to open the new Manchester Town Hall , and she allegedly consented on the condition that the statue be removed. The statue remained, Victoria declined, and the town hall was opened by the Lord Mayor. During the s, the statue was relocated outside Wythenshawe Hall , which had been occupied by Cromwell's troops.

During the s, Parliamentary plans turned controversial to erect a statue of Cromwell outside Parliament. Pressure from the Irish Nationalist Party [] forced the withdrawal of a motion to seek public funding for the project; the statue was eventually erected but it had to be funded privately by Lord Rosebery. Cromwell controversy continued into the 20th century. The suggestion was vetoed by King George V because of his personal feelings and because he felt that it was unwise to give such a name to an expensive warship at a time of Irish political unrest , especially given the anger caused by the statue outside Parliament. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cromwell disambiguation and Oliver Cromwell disambiguation. His Highness. A Samuel Cooper portrait of Cromwell. Elizabeth Bourchier. Robert Cromwell father Elizabeth Steward mother. Old Noll [1] Old Ironsides. Eastern Association — New Model Army — Colonel — bef. Cambridgeshire Ironsides — bef. Main article: English Civil War. Main article: First English Civil War. Dissolution of the Long Parliament. See also: The Protectorate. Cromwell's signature before becoming Lord Protector in , and afterwards. See also: Oliver Cromwell's head. Henry suggested to Sir Richard Williams, who was the first to use a surname in his family, that he adopt the surname of his uncle Thomas Cromwell.

For several generations, the Williamses added the surname of Cromwell to their own, styling themselves "Williams alias Cromwell" in legal documents Noble , pp. A Child's History of England volume 3. Bradbury and Evans. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 23 April Subscription or UK public library membership required. Retrieved 23 December Nationalism and Rationality , Cambridge University Press. Faber and Faber.

ISBN Collective reprisals against the civilian population included forcing them out of designated 'no man's lands' and the systematic destruction of foodstuffs". Retrieved 27 November Archived from the original on 31 July LI, no. The Times. Retrieved 18 January Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches. A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. English Monarchs.

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