⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller

Tuesday, July 06, 2021 9:29:05 PM

Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller



In Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller is a systematic way of saying no Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller disorder, or obediently saying yes Creative Writing: Who Eated Pizza And Ranch? order. Do it! Or is it a mighty pack of mausoleums? So it was necessary to Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller that human beings in Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller did not know what the predictions of psychohistory were and therefore would not tailor their activities to suit. Each of these rulers would claim the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize Adjusting Vs. Non Conforming In The Crucible By Arthur Miller rule. As AI advances and becomes more independent and the Plastic Bottles Research Paper becomes the world in which people live and work, laws for responsibility and accountability of Short Story Of Hernando Cortes actions of AI will need to be made. My seminar was called "Concept Art. We are unique. But the answer, I think, is simple.

The Crucible by Arthur Miller - Summary \u0026 Analysis

Psychohistory also has echoes of modernization theory and of work in the social sciences that by the s would lead to attempts at large-scale social prediction and control such as Project Camelot. Actually, the O. I came up with the word because John Campbell and I were discussing the course I was to take in the Foundation series once I came to him with my initial idea on the subject.

However, I was so intent on history, thanks to Gibbon, that I could think of nothing but psychohistory. In any case, Campbell was enthusiastic about the idea and we were off and running. I modeled my concept of psychohistory on the kinetic theory of gases , which I had been beat over the head with in my physical chemistry classes. The molecules making up gases moved in an absolutely random fashion in any direction in three dimensions and in a wide range of speeds. Nevertheless, one could fairly describe what those motions would be on the average and work out the gas laws from those average motions with an enormous degree of precision.

So I applied that notion to human beings. There were two conditions that I had to set up in order to make it work, and they were not chosen carelessly. I picked them in order to make psychohistory more like kinetic theory. First, I had to deal with a large number of human beings, as kinetic theory worked with a large number of molecules. Neither would work for small numbers. It is for that reason that I had the Galactic Empire consist of twenty-five million worlds, each with an average population of four billion. That meant a total human population of one hundred quadrillion. So it was necessary to suppose that human beings in general did not know what the predictions of psychohistory were and therefore would not tailor their activities to suit.

The kinetic theory assumes that gases are made up of nothing but molecules, and psychohistory will only work if the hosts of intelligence are made up of nothing but human beings. In other words, the presence of aliens with non-human intelligence might well bollix the works. This situation may actually develop in future books of the Foundation series, but so far I have stayed clear of non-human intelligences in my Galactic Empire partly because Campbell and I disagreed fundamentally on what their role would be if they existed and since neither of us would give in.

Eventually, I thought that my psycho history would fade out of human consciousness because the term came to be used by psychiatrists for the study of the psychiatric background of individuals such as Woodrow Wilson, Sigmund Freud, or Adolf Hitler who had some pronounced effect on history. Naturally, since I felt a proprietary interest in the term psychohistory as a predictive study of large faceless masses of human beings, I resented the new use of the word. But then as time went on, I grew more philosophical. After all, it might well be that there could be no analogy drawn between molecules and human beings and that there could be no way of predicting human behavior.

Indeed, the question of whether psychohistory can be worked out or not lies at the center of the novel I have recently completed, Prelude to Foundation, in which Hari Seldon the founder of psychohistory is portrayed as a young man who is in the process of trying to devise the science. Who cares? The concept is more important than I am. It reads as follows, in full:. Then, too, Roger N. However, here is the summary of the article as given at the beginning:. I am also concerned, suddenly, that psychohistory may be developed within the next century. I placed its development 20, years in the future. Is this going to be another case of my science-fictional imagination falling ludicrously short?

Francis Bacon speculated about a genuine science of man. Boole did some work along those lines as well as inventing the symbolic logic which was to be such a major tool in solving the problem. There were the biological, chemical, and physical approaches to man as a mechanism. Comparative historians like Spengler , Pareto , and Toynbee realized that history did not merely happen but had some kind of pattern. Naturally, future histories will aways include wars. At least as long as humans are humans. But there may be other events. If you are trying to write your own future history, legendary SF author Isaac Asimov shows the way. I jest. Asimov did much more than that. Asimov is one of the giants of science fiction and his Foundation trilogy is rightly considered to be one of the best SF series ever written, period.

It has been said it is not quite true that "history repeats itself" , more like "historical situations reoccur. Also remember the old bromide: "Truth is stranger than fiction, because fiction has to make sense. Asimov had another useful innovation in his Foundation trilogy. Part of the background of the first couple of stories was that the Foundation was going to create an "Encyclopedia Galactica" containing the knowledge of the day. So as an author, when Asimov was going to write a new story set in the series, he could get the reader up to speed by giving them a fictious Encyclopedia article from the even further in the future.

This gave the reader " Cliff Notes " on the situation, and what had happened in prior volumes of the saga. This was much easier than that tired old method of one character starting an idiot lecture with "So Tell Me, Professor…" and burying the reader under an indigestible infodump disgused as dialog. If you want to use Rome as a model for your galactic empire but find Gibbon's Decline and Fall a little overwhelming, there is always the Complete Idiot's Guide to the Roman Empire. For a "crossover" science fictional history, read here.

You can use other sources than history. Only instead of Norse gods, it is about futuristic mercenary companies. The mercenary leader Storm is an Odin figure, sending two telepathic flying lizards around to spy in the same way Odin sent Huginn and Muninn. He has robot drone aircraft flying around various battlefields. If they spot some soldier who is valiant, when the soldier is killed the drones swoop down and carry off the body. The soldier is brought back to life by advanced medical techology and given the opportunity to enlist with Storm's mercenary legion, to fight and be reborn forever. This parallels the Norse tales of Valkyries and the undying warriors of Valhalla. If you want a slightly more scientific method, you could take a stab at simulating future history.

Here is an example for you to stretch your authorial muscles a bit. First, read this entertaining account by a historian who goes by the internet handle of John Bull :. Change the timeline from the past into the future. Change the location from Europe and the Mediterranean to a spiral arm of our galaxy. Replace sea-going ships and airplanes with combat starships. Replace fortified islands with orbital fortresses. Change the names of the various factions to new names that sound futuristic.

Instant bizarre, but real, background for your next novel. And most of the background historical events as well. Start customizing it to your novel's needs and quite quickly you will have something special. Further material can be easily found by simple Google searches, or from historical texts. There is even a TV Tropes page. And I'm sure if you ask around among historians, they can point you at other equally bizzare but entertaining historical events that you can mine for your story backgrounds. If you ask me how to shine in the science-fiction line as a pro of luster bright, I say, practice up the lingo of the sciences, by jingo never mind if not quite right. You must talk of Space and Galaxies and tesseractic fallacies in slick and mystic style, Though the fans won't understand it, they will all the same demand it with a softly hopeful smile.

And all the fans will say, As you walk your spatial way, If that young man indulges in flights through all the Galaxy, Why, what a most imaginative type of man that type of man must be. And all the fans will say, As you walk your thoughtful way, If that young man involves himself in authentic history, Why, what a very learned kind of high IQ, his high IQ must be.

Then eschew all thoughts of passion of a man-and-woman fashion from your hero's thoughtful mind. He must spend his time on politics, and thinking up his shady tricks, and outside that he's blind. It's enough he's had a mother, other females are a bother, though they're jeweled and glistery. They will just distract his dreaming and his necessary scheming with that psychohistory. And all the fans will say, As you walk your narrow way, If all his yarns restrict themselves to masculinity, Why, what a most particularly pure young man that pure young man must be. At least, fans who come across a copy think they can embarrass me by referring to it.

Pebble in the Sky , which was to appear eight years later. In both, the situation I pictured on Earth was inspired by that of Judea under the Romans. In telling future-history I always felt it wisest to be guided by past-history. All spacemen have hobbies. There's very little work aboard ship in hyperspace; boredom is the worst enemy. My guns-and-missiles officer, Van Larch, is a painter. Most of his work was lost with the Corisande on Durendal, but he kept us from starving a few times on Flamberge by painting pictures and selling them. My hyperspatial astrogator, Guatt Kirbey, composes music; he tries to express the mathematics of hyperspatial theory in musical terms. I don't care much for it, myself," he admitted.

You know, it's odd; practically everything that's happened on any of the inhabited planets has happened on Terra before the first spaceship. The Eastern Mediterranean at the end of the 3rd century bc was a very complex region. The three empires founded by the successors of Alexander the Great were collapsing. They were locally powerful, but none was a superpower. Usurpers and secessionists complicated their politics. Leagues of city states—the Achaeans and Aetolians in Greece proper, others in Asia Minor—had their own interests. New kingdoms, particularly that of Pergamum, were growing at the expense of their neighbors, and barbarians—both Celtic and Illyrian—were becoming regional powers instead of merely raiding and moving on.

Rome was still in the wings but the violent morass would shortly draw her in, ending both the chaos and her own status as a republic. The region's enormous wealth and complexity, in my opinion, inexorably turned Rome into an empire. I adapted this setting for Paying the Piper. The general background is that of the war between Rhodes and Byzantium, ostensibly over freedom of navigation. It was about as stupid a conflict as you're likely to find, during which the real principals licked their lips and chuckled while well-meaning idealists wrecked their own societies in pursuit of unobtainable goals by improper means. Much of the military detail is drawn from the campaigns of Phillip the Fifth and his allies against the Aetolian League, particularly the campaign of bc which culminated in Phillip's capture of Psophis.

I guess it isn't out of place to add one comment about the study of history. Knowing a good deal about how cultures interacted in the past allows one to predict how they will interact in the present, so I'm rarely surprised by the daily news. But I regret to say that this understanding doesn't appear to make me happier. Star Trek uses a system of warping space to make their ships fly faster than light. Warping space is a long time tradition in SF, and the ensuing battles bear a striking resemblance to the battles between warships. This is no accident. Many space battles are written as though they were sea battles because the readers are familiar with the form, and besides, it's less work for the writers.

In fact, in the original Star Trek series. I know that because I recognized the movie from which they were cribbing their plot. For a good overview of the history of the world in 48 pages, try David Maurer's Explanation of history. If you read the section on Aristocrat Tribal Societies , you will find a plausible explanation of the psychology of the Klingon Empire. This kind of society sometimes has the outward appearance of being an aristocrat peasant society, but in reality the common people have not been reduced to peasant status and are not compelled to deliver large amounts of food to their political leaders.

This means that the common people retain a great deal of personal freedom and independence. These people fully realize that they have much more freedom than the peasants in neighboring societies and are determined to defend it. Most of the men carry weapons most of the time. This group contains quite a large number of different people. The Scottish Highlanders were a member of this group before they were destroyed in the 18th century. Most of these people lived in mountains, deserts, and difficult hill country where it was just not possible to produce a reliable food surplus. They were tough, well armed, and sometimes envious of the wealth that was produced by their more prosperous neighbors. It used to be common for many of them to raid their neighbors for food, women, and moveable wealth.

It was a very macho form of society that admired physical toughness and ability with weapons. These aristocrat tribal societies seem to have a high level of resistance to the transition into modern nation-states. Maurer covers the economic stages a nation goes through, with each stage boiling down to a new answer to the problem of "where is the food going to come from? In other words, the Lord brings home the bacon, and the Lady cooks it. And the Lord's men are loyal because he feeds them. Gladstone , upon hearing of the death of "Chinese" Gordon in Egypt, was reported to have muttered irritably that his general might have chosen a more propitious time to die: Gordon's death threw the Gladstone government into turmoil and crisis.

An aide suggested that the circumstances were unique and unpredictable, to which Gladstone crossly answered: "All crises are the same. He meant political crises, of course. There were no scientific crises in , and indeed none for nearly forty years afterward. Since then there have been eight of major importance; two have received wide publicity. It is interesting that both the publicized crises—atomic energy and space capability—have concerned chemistry and physics, not biology.

This is to be expected. Physics was the first of the natural sciences to become fully modern and highly mathematical. Chemistry followed in the wake of physics, but biology, the retarded child, lagged far behind. Even in the time of Newton and Galileo, men knew more about the moon and other heavenly bodies than they did about their own. It was not until the late 's that this situation changed. The postwar period ushered in a new era of biologic research, spurred by the discovery of antibiotics. Suddenly there was both enthusiasm and money for biology, and a torrent of discoveries poured forth: tranquilizers, steroid hormones, immunochemistry, the genetic code.

By the first kidney was transplanted and by the first birth-control pills were tested. It was not long before biology was the fastest-growing field in all science; it was doubling its knowledge every ten years, Farsighted researchers talked seriously of changing genes, controlling evolution, regulating the mind—ideas that had been wild speculation ten years before. And yet there had never been a biologic crisis. The Andromeda Strain provided the first. According to Lewis Bornheim, a crisis is a situation in which a previously tolerable set of circumstances is suddenly, by the addition of another factor, rendered wholly intolerable. Whether the additional factor is political, economic, or scientific hardly matters: the death of a national hero, the instability of prices, or a technological discovery can all set events in motion.

In this sense, Gladstone was right: all crises are the same. The noted scholar Alfred Pockran, in his study of crises Culture, Crisis and Change , has made several interesting points. First, he observes that every crisis has its beginnings long before the actual onset. Thus Einstein published his theories of relativity in —15, forty years before his work culminated in the end of a war, the start of an age, and the beginnings of a crisis. Similarly, in the early twentieth century, American, German, and Russian scientists were all interested in space travel, but only the Germans recognized the military potential of rockets. The Americans were content to tinker playfully with rockets—and ten years later, this resulted in an American scientific crisis involving Sputnik , American education , the ICBM , and the missile gap.

Pockran also observes that a crisis is compounded of individuals and personalities, which are unique :. In retrospect, Chris found Okie history the least difficult subject to absorb, because the part of it dealing with the early years of the cities, and in particular with what had happened on Earth before the first of the cities had left the ground, was already familiar to him.

Nevertheless he was now hearing it for the first time from the Okie point of view, which omitted great swatches which an Earthman would have considered important, and instead brought to the fore for study many events of which Chris had never heard but which obviously were essential for the understanding of how the cities had gone into space and prospered in it. It was, perhaps predictably, like seeing the past life of the Earth through the wrong end of a telescope. The highest achievement of this phase was the construction of a research and observation station upon Proserpine II, the second satellite of the most remote of all the planets from Sol.

Proserpine Station was begun in ; it was, however, still not completed when it was abandoned temporarily twenty-eight years later. By the beginning of the twenty-first century it was no longer realistically possible to see any difference between the rival cultures, although their outward forms of government continued to be called by different names. Both were police states in which the individual citizen had lost all right to juridical defense, and both operated under a totally controlled economy. The facts of the matter, however, were that neither state was economically either fascist or communist, and that as economic systems neither fascism nor communism has ever been tried in recorded Terrestrial history. The first of these was the Dillon-Wagoner gravitron polarity generator, now known as the spindizzy , which was almost immediately developed into an interstellar drive.

The second was ascomycin, the first of the anti-agathics , or death-postponing drugs. Though no record exists of the fate of this expedition, it is certain that it survived, since the second expedition, more than three hundred and fifty years later, found the planets of the stars of the local group well scattered with human beings speaking recognizable Terrestrial languages. This took place in , and the subsequent Cold Peace provided little incentive for space flight. In MacHinery was assassinated, and Erdsenov proclaimed himself premier and president of a United Earth; however, Erdsenov was himself assassinated in During this same year, an underground Western group calling itself the Hamiltonians succeeded in escaping from the solar system in a large number of small spindizzy-powered craft which they had built from funds collected secretly to finance a supposed new American revolution, thus leaving behind the vast majority of their followers.

No survivors of the Hamiltonian exodus have thus far been found; they succeeded, however, in escaping the Terror, the world-wide pogrom by which a united Earth government was actually established for the first time. The existing colonies on the planets and satellites of the solar system were not evacuated home, but were simply cut off and abandoned. The consolidation of the State proceeded rapidly, and historians generally agree that the fall of the West must be dated no later than the year Thus began a period of systematic oppression and exploitation unmatched on Earth even by the worst decades of the Roman Empire.

In , one such expedition made its first contact with what proved to be a planet of the Vegan Tyranny, an interstellar culture which, we now know, had ruled most of this quadrant of the galaxy for eight to ten thousand years, and was still in the process of expanding. The Vegans were quick to see potential rivals even in these unorganized and badly supplied colonists, and made a concerted attempt to stamp out all the colonies. However, the distances involved were so vast that the first real engagement of the Vegan War, the battle of Altair, did not occur until Other plants followed, and shortly thereafter, whole cities. Many of these were driven to leave as much by the permanent depression which had settled over the Earth as by the long-established political repressions of the Bureaucratic State.

These escaping cities quickly found the earlier Earth colonies among the nearby stars, to which they provided badly needed industrial strength, and with whom they joined forces against Vega. The outcome was both triumphant and shameful. The capital world of the Tyranny, Vega II, was invested in by a number of armed cities, including IMT, whose task it was to destroy the many orbital forts surrounding the planet, and by the Third Colonial Navy under Admiral Alois Hrunta, who was charged with occupying Vega II in the event of its surrender.

Instead, Admiral Hrunta scorched the planet completely, and led the Third Navy off into an uncharted quadrant with the intention of founding his own interstellar empire. The same year Alois Hrunta declared himself Emperor of Space. In the same year there began the police interregnum, a limited government deriving its powers from a loose confederation based roughly upon the ancient United Nations, but without sufficient popular base or industrial support to control the economy.

Realizing, however, that the only hope for the restoration of economic health to Earth lay in the colonists and the free cities, the confederation proclaimed an amnesty for everyone in space, and at the same time instituted a limited but systematic program for the policing of those nomad cities which had begun to prey upon colony planets or upon each other. The poisoning of Alois Hrunta in was followed by the rapid Balkanization of the Hruntan Empire, which was never even at its best highly cohesive, and although there is at present self-styled Emperor of Space, Arpad Hrunta, his realm does not appear to be of any importance.

Effectively, today, law and order in Arm II are provided by the Earth police, and its economy is supported by the migrant cities. Both systems are haphazard and inefficient, and often operate at cross purposes. Once cute trope that pops up occasionally is that in the ultra distant future mankind has spread so far into space for so long that they have forgotten where Terra is. After all, interstellar colonists hungry for the "light of home" will be out of luck if the colony is farther than Beyond that distance, Sol will be dimmer than apparent magnitude 6. Colonists who want to see Sol will need a telescope. For a man 'home' is the place of his birth and childhood—whether that be Siberian steppe, coral island, Alpine valley, Brooklyn tenement, Martian desert, lunar crater, or mile-long interstellar ark.

But for Man, home can never be a single country, a single world, a single Solar System, a single star cluster. While the race endures in recognizably human form, it can have no abiding place short of the Universe itself. This divine discontent is part of our destiny. It is one more, and perhaps the greatest, of the gifts we have inherited from the sea that rolls so restlessly around the world. It will be driving our descendants on toward a myriad unimaginable goals when the sea is stilled forever, and Earth itself a fading legend lost among the stars. Bel Arvardan, fresh from his interview with the press, on the occasion of his forthcoming expedition to Earth, felt at supreme peace with all the hundred million star systems that composed the all-embracing Galactic Empire.

It was no longer a question of being known in this sector or that. Let his theories concerning Earth be proven and his reputation would be assured on every inhabited planet of the Milky Way, on every planet that Man had set foot through the hundreds of thousands of years of expansion through space. These potential heights of renown, these pure and rarefied intellectual peaks of science were coming to him early, yet not easily. He was scarcely thirty-five, but already his career had been packed with controversy. It had begun with an explosion that had rocked the halls of the University of Arcturus when he first graduated as Senior Archaeologist from that institution at the unprecedented age of twenty-three.

The explosion—no less effective for being immaterial—consisted of the rejection for publication, on the part of the Journal of the Galactic Archaeological Society , of his Senior Dissertation. It was the first time in the history of the university that a Senior Dissertation had been rejected. It was equally the first time in the history of that staid professional journal that a rejection had been couched in such blunt terms. To a non-archaeologist, the reason for such anger against an obscure and dry little pamphlet, entitled On the Antiquity of Artifacts in the Sirius Sector with Considerations of the Application Thereof to the Radiation Hypothesis of Human Origin , might seem mysterious.

What was involved, however, was that from the first Arvardan adopted as his own the hypothesis advanced earlier by certain groups of mystics who were more concerned with metaphysics than with archaeology; i. But Arvardan became a force to be reckoned with by even the most respectable, for within the decade he had become the recognized authority on the relics of the pre-Empire cultures still left in the eddies and quiet backwaters of the Galaxy. For instance, he had written a monograph on the mechanistic civilization of the Rigel Sector, where the development of robots created a separate culture that persisted for centuries, till the very perfection of the metal slaves reduced the human initiative to the point where the vigorous fleets of the War Lord, Moray, took easy control.

Orthodox archaeology insisted on the evolution of Human types independently on various planets and used such atypical cultures, as that on Rigel, as examples of race differences that had not yet been ironed out through intermarriage. Arvardan destroyed such concepts effectively by showing that Rigellian robot culture was but a natural outgrowth of the economic and social forces of the times and of the region. Then there were the barbarous worlds of Ophiuchus, which the orthodox had long upheld as samples of primitive Humanity not yet advanced to the stage of interstellar travel.

Every textbook used those worlds as the best evidence of the Merger Theory; i. Arvardan, however, uncovered traces of the early civilization that had preceded the then thousand-year-old barbarism of Ophiuchus and proved that the earliest records of the planet showed traces of interstellar trade. The final touch came when he demonstrated beyond any doubt that Man had emigrated to the region in an already civilized state. It was after that that the J. And now the pursuit of his pet theory led Arvardan to probably the least significant planet of the Empire—the planet called Earth.

Arvardan landed at that one spot of Empire on all Earth, that patch among the desolate heights of the plateaus north of the Himalayas. There where radioactivity was not, and never had been, there gleamed a palace that was not of Terrestrial architecture. In essence it was a copy of the viceregal palaces that existed on more fortunate worlds. The soft lushness of the grounds was built for comfort. The forbidding rocks had been covered with topsoil, watered, immersed in an artificial atmosphere and climate—and converted into five square miles of lawns and flower gardens. The cost in energy involved in this performance was terrific by Earthly calculations, but it had behind it the completely incredible resources of tens of millions of planets, continually growing in number.

It has been estimated that in the Year of the Galactic Era an average of fifty new planets each day were achieving the dignity of provincial status, this condition requiring the attainment of a population of five hundred millions. In this spot of non-Earth lived the Procurator of Earth Lord Ennius , and sometimes, in this artificial luxury, he could forget that he was a Procurator of a rathole world and remember that he was an aristocrat of great honor and ancient family. And the feeling is returned with interest on the part of these Earthmen.

I have as little intolerance in me as any man living. I believe in the oneness of humanity to my very scientific core, and that includes even Earth. And all life is fundamentally one, in that it is all based upon protein complexes in colloidal dispersion, which we call protoplasm. The effect of radioactivity that I just talked of does not apply simply to some forms of human life, or to some forms of any life. It applies to all life, since it is based upon the quantum mechanics of the protein molecules. It applies to you, to me, to Earthmen, to spiders, and to germs. Of course it is much more probable that it will take millions of years. In fact, it is most probable that it will end up never happening. It is now known beyond the shadow of a doubt that several of the crucial steps in the building of life require the absence of radiant energy.

If this strikes you as queer, Procurator, I can only say that photochemistry the chemistry of reactions induced by radiant energy is a well-developed branch of the science, and there are innumerable cases of very simple reactions which will go in one of two different directions depending upon whether it takes place in the presence or absence of quanta of light energy. In the shelter of clouds, or at night, the carbon and nitrogen compounds combine and recombine, in the fashions made possible by the absence of those little bits of energy hurled into the midst of them by the sun—like bowling balls into the midst of an infinite number of infinitesimal tenpins. How did it develop? But the answer, I think, is simple.

Radioactivity, in excess of the minimum required to prevent life, is still not necessarily sufficient to destroy life already formed. It might modify it, but, except in comparatively huge excess, it will not destroy it…You see, the chemistry involved is different. In the first case, simple molecules must be prevented from building up, while in the second, already-formed complex molecules must be broken down. Not at all the same thing. There are thousands of nuclear reactions of sufficient energy to create all sorts of radioactive isotopes.

Why, if we were to suppose that human beings might use some applied nuclear reaction in industry, without proper controls, or even in war, if you can imagine anything like a war proceeding on a single planet, most of the topsoil could, conceivably, be converted into artificially radioactive materials. What do you say to that? But what if someone—or some army—used such weapons before the defense had been worked out? Science fiction authors who just don't know when to quit may create elaborate future histories of alien races. As a general rule authors do not take on such extra work unless the history is the focus of the entire novel.

Busily, I concocted fantastic mass and firepower readings, fanciful descriptions of complex and meaningless enemy maneuvers; and while I held the Over-mind's attention, I searched telepathically —and found its memory vaults. There was the image of a great nest, seething with voracious life—a nest that covered a world, leaped to another, swelled through an ever-increasing volume of space, driven by lusts that burned like living fire in each tiny mote.

I saw the outward-writhing pseudopods of this burgeoning race as they met, slashed at each other with mindless fury—and then flowed on, over every obstacle, changing, adapting to burning suns and worlds of ice, to the near-null gravity of tiny rock-worlds and the smashing forces of titan collapsed-matter stars. The wave reached the edge of its galaxy, boiled up, reached out into the void. Defeated, it recoiled on itself, churning back toward galactic center—stronger now, more ruthless, filled with a vast frustrated rage that shrieked its insatiable needs, devouring all in its path—and coming together at last in an eruption of mad vitality that rent the very fabric of space …. And from the void at the heart of the universe, the wave rolled out again, tempered in the fires of uncounted ages of ravening combat, devouring its substance now in a new upsurge of violence that made the past invasions seem as somnolent as spawning pools.

And again the edge of the galaxy was reached, and there the wave built, poised, while from behind, the hordes arose with the voracity of atomic fires—. And the fire leaped, fell into far space, burned out, and was lost. But pressure built, and again lusting life leaped outward, reaching—. Forces readjusted, adapted, gained new balances. Ferocity was tempered as pressures slackened. But the need was as great as ever. Frantic, the Nest-mind sought for an answer—a key to survival. A million ways were tried, and the nest-motes died, and a million million more methods were attempted, and a million myriads fell, burned to nothingness in uncounted holocausts.

And it bridged the gap to the next galaxy. Over the slim link, life flowed, fighting, slashing, devouring, leaping from new feeding ground to newer, filling the galaxy, boiling up in a transcendent fury of hunger. Again a leap into nothingness—and a new galaxy was reached. Nothing remained in the Nest-mind of its original character. It had become a vast mechanism for growth, a disease of life that radiated outward from a center so distant in the universe that the mind itself in time forgot its beginnings. Units broke free, withered, faded, died. Random islands of the raging vitality consumed themselves, disappeared. A long arm turned back, groped its way along the chains of burned-out worlds, scavenging, growing, to lance in the end into the original nest-place, to devastate it and go on, blind, insensate, insatiable—and finding no new feeding grounds beyond, it turned upon itself ….

Eons passed. Scattered across a volume of space that was a major fraction of the Macrocosm, the isolated colonies burned out their destinies, consumed their worlds, died, turned to dust. New worlds formed from their substance. Gradually, the ancient plague subsided. But in one minor globular cluster, a remnant survived. Nature's vast mechanism of profusion had served its purpose.

In the hot muck-beds of the virgin worlds of this cluster, a purpose grew, stabilized, came to fruition. New life-forms sprang from the purpose, new parameters of existence evolved. Questing fibrils of the mother nest spread out, formed themselves into miniscule spores, set themselves adrift from world to world. By the uncounted billions, they died. But here and there, they found haven, took root, became life—seeding warm seas, spreading out on dead shelves of rock and the familiar muck ….

The life-force had found stability, a pattern of existence; but the primal urge to expansion remained. Expansion required a drive, a lust unsatisfied. A dichotomy came into being. All across the spectrum of reality, a fissure appeared. Existence segregated itself into two categories, inherently opposed. Conflict renewed; pressure built; expansion resumed. Again, life was on the march toward its unimagined destiny. On every world where the opposed forces met, the struggle was joined. Each force knew the other, instinctively recognized the ancient enemy. Each side called itself by a name, and the antagonist by another. One name was Good , and the other Evil. A variety of symbols came into being, and across the worlds, the struggle swayed, reaching ever outward ….

And a time came on a remote, isolated world, when traitorous Good met treacherous Evil and joined, against all nature, in a new formula of existence. Now, in this unholy amalgam, the ancient drives met and mingled, fought and struck a balance. A transcendent value-scale evolved—new abilities, unheard-of in the galaxy; an empathy possible only to a monstrous hybrid; an unnatural negation of the primal drive, a perversion of that terrible energy into new channels. Under the stimulus of internal stresses, minds of undreamed-of power sprang into being.

At every level from the cellular upward, death conflicted with life; sloth with vaulting ambition; greed with instinct for asceticism. And out of the synthesis of opposites, a cancerous growth called Beauty came into being; obscene antisurvival concepts named Loyalty , Courage , Justice were born into the universe. Wherever the elemental Purities encountered this monstrous hybrid, a battle of extermination was joined. Good could compromise with Evil, but neither could meet with the half-breed, Art. A new war raged across the minor galaxy and left annihilation in its wake. So it went for ages, until a lone, surviving pocket of hybrids was discovered the human beings of Terra. The instinct to destroy the Unnatural Ones raged strong—but the race-lesson of restraint and exploitation was stronger.

Guarding their secret find, the Pure ones took specimens, sampled their capabilities, needs, drives. Here were minds of great power—computers of magnificent compactness and ability—a resource not to be wasted. A decision was reached: the anomalies would be nurtured, allowed to evolve a primitive social organization—and then harvested, pressed into the service of the Pure. Sometimes the thought came that such a race, released, might rip asunder the ancient contours of the universe …. But this was a nightmare concept, to be passed over with a shudder. Control was complete. There was no danger. The hybrids were securely enslaved …. I withdrew from the Over-mind, and for a moment I held the long perspective of that view—saw my world as the insignificant scintilla that it was among the stars, my race a sinister tribe of barbaric freaks, harvested like wild honey ….

This section is about the theory that civilizations and cultures undergo well defined steps in their lifetime. This theory is somewhat controversial as you can imagine. However, it comes in real handy for a science fiction author trying to craft a future history. Just fill in the outline with the names of your galactic empires. Be sure to see the Cyclical Governments section of the Interstellar Empire page.

That is concerned with multiple cycles of difference government types a given culture may go through during its lifetime. Social cycle theories are among the earliest social theories in sociology. Unlike the theory of social evolutionism , which views the evolution of society and human history as progressing in some new, unique direction s , sociological cycle theory argues that events and stages of society and history are generally repeating themselves in cycles. Such a theory does not necessarily imply that there cannot be any social progress.

In the early theory of Sima Qian and the more recent theories of long-term "secular" political-demographic cycles as well as in the Varnic theory of P. Sarkar an explicit accounting is made of social progress. Interpretation of history as repeating cycles of Dark and Golden Ages was a common belief among ancient cultures. The more limited cyclical view of history defined as repeating cycles of events was put forward in the academic world in the 19th century in historiosophy a branch of historiography and is a concept that falls under the category of sociology. The Saeculum was identified in Roman times. In recent times, P.

Sarkar in his Social Cycle Theory has used this idea to elaborate his interpretation of history. Among the prominent historiosophers, Russian philosopher Nikolai Danilewski — is important. He wrote that each civilization has a life cycle, and by the end of the 19th century the Roman-German civilization was in decline, while the Slav civilization was approaching its Golden Age. A similar theory was put forward by Oswald Spengler — who in his Der Untergang des Abendlandes also argued that the Western civilization had entered its final phase of development and its decline was inevitable.

The first social cycle theory in sociology was created by Italian sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto — in his Trattato di Sociologia Generale He centered his theory on the concept of an elite social class , which he divided into cunning 'foxes' and violent 'lions'. In his view of society, the power constantly passes from the 'foxes' to the 'lions' and vice versa. Sociological cycle theory was also developed by Pitirim A. Sorokin — in his Social and Cultural Dynamics , He classified societies according to their 'cultural mentality', which can be ideational reality is spiritual , sensate reality is material , or idealistic a synthesis of the two. He interpreted the contemporary West as a sensate civilization dedicated to technological progress and prophesied its fall into decadence and the emergence of a new ideational or idealistic era.

Alexandre Deulofeu — developed a mathematical model of social cycles that he claimed fit historical facts. He argued that civilizations and empires go through cycles in his book Mathematics of History in Catalan , published in He claims that each civilization passes through a minimum of three year cycles. As part of civilizations, empires have an average lifespan of years. He also stated that by knowing the nature of these cycles, it could be possible to modify the cycles in such a way that change could be peaceful instead of leading to war. One of the most important recent findings in the study of the long-term dynamic social processes was the discovery of the political-demographic cycles as a basic feature of the dynamics of complex agrarian systems.

The presence of political-demographic cycles in the pre-modern history of Europe and China , and in chiefdom level societies worldwide has been known for quite a long time, and already in the s more or less developed mathematical models of demographic cycles started to be produced first of all for Chinese " dynastic cycles " Usher At the moment we have a considerable number of such models Chu and Lee ; Nefedov , , , ; S.

Malkov, Kovalev, and A. Malkov ; S. Malkov and A. Malkov ; Malkov and Sergeev , a, b; Malkov et al. Recently the most important contributions to the development of the mathematical models of long-term "secular" sociodemographic cycles have been made by Sergey Nefedov, Peter Turchin , Andrey Korotayev , and Sergey Malkov. What is important is that on the basis of their models Nefedov, Turchin and Malkov have managed to demonstrate that sociodemographic cycles were a basic feature of complex agrarian systems and not a specifically Chinese or European phenomenon.

It has become possible to model these dynamics mathematically in a rather effective way. Note that the modern theories of political-demographic cycles do not deny the presence of trend dynamics and attempt at the study of the interaction between cyclical and trend components of historical dynamics. Modern social scientists from different fields have introduced cycle theories to predict civilizational collapses in approaches that apply contemporary methods that update the approach of Spengler , such as the work of Joseph Tainter suggesting a civilizational life-cycle.

In more micro-studies that follow the work of Malthus , scholars such as David Lempert have presented "alpha-helix" models of population, economics, and political response, including violence, in cyclical forms that add aspects of culture change into the model. Lempert has also modeled political violence in Russian society, suggesting that theories attributing violence in Russia to ideologies are less useful than cyclical models of population and economic productivity. What kind of creature is this? In the morning it's angry and full of ambition, but also brave and with sharp teeth, so it can take everything it desires. At high noon it lies on its treasures, peaceful and wise, but still as strong and brave as before.

At the sunset its teeth are no longer sharp and it becomes mad, squandering all of its treasures, forgetting its wisdom, strength and brave heart, to live only for pleasure. When night falls, it lies down in agony, rotting alive. But if neither predator nor scavenging worm feasts on its body until sunrise, it heals and rises again, rejuvenated and strong. What is this? Let's explain. The "Imperial Cycle" of history is a model that is put forth to try and explain the history of empires or other great states. It should be noted that this model is highly simplified and somewhat hidebound so that it can't fully fit every empire that has existed, but it is still an elegant and relatively accurate model, and highly influential in culture especially Chinese and other culture in the Sinosphere.

According to the theory, the History of every empire, real life or fictional, can be divided in four parts:. Phase One: Expansion. During this phase the Empire is still young and rising , many of its rulers are ambitious, and those with money often give them the loans they need to conquer their enemies. These days see the Empire established by military expansion, and also the most betrayals and civil wars, as many great leaders may turn against each other in their desire to take the throne for themselves. The Empire racks up massive debts from all this warfare, and its economy is likely totally devastated, but with its borders secure it'll probably be able to pay off its debts over the next few generations.

The ruler of this era is The Conqueror and Founder of the Kingdom. Serving him are The Good Chancellor or Evil Chancellor depending on moral allegiance usually , fathers to their men , and just heroes of legend and lore. Opposing him are Feudal Overlords clinging to their old crumbling castles, warlords and barbarian chiefs, for whom Authority Equals Asskicking and Might Makes Right , opposing would-be empires and claimants to be met in climatic struggle, and hardline devotees of a previous empire, who want to preserve what little is left of it.

This era ends when there is either nothing left to conquer worth conquering, or when everyone is just so indebted or exhausted that there is literally no money left to be loaned or taxed and The Empire can't afford to fight anymore. With long awaited peace the second phase begins. It may also involve a purge of hotheads who still think in terms of brute force, which is a significant source of internal conflict during this era.

While not as aggressive as their precursors, rulers of this phase know war very well, having learned from conqueror's experience. Conquest may still occur, but the empire is more focused on protecting what they already have and use it to become stronger in cultural, administrational and economical sense, becoming a Hegemonic Empire. The ruler of this era can be a Reasonable Authority Figure , though they can also be a Totalitarian Utilitarian control freak. After the administrators' work is done, with debt down to manageable levels and no serious outside threats remaining, comes a time of economic growth and real prosperity. This may or may not involved a population high as well, which is a problem because agriculture can only support so many people in the long-term - meaning that many people will starve and die in times of famine until the population falls to sustainable levels again.

The biggest problem facing The Empire is that more and more wealth and power is concentrated in private hands and not those of the state - the nobles and merchants become more and more powerful, and the central government has more and more trouble getting local and regional governments to cooperate. The increasingly delicate balance of power is easily disrupted if just one Spoiled Brat inherits the throne and lets this weakening of the state happen. Even if there aren't any, the new generations of rulers take little pride from the administrators and think of their conquerors' heritage instead, often wasting state money on expensive military campaigns to expand the Empire just for the sake of conquest.

They tend to spend their life on never-ending consumerism or hedonism, wasting what previous generations left for them instead of trying to secure or multiply it through 'boring' things like building infrastructure, re-organising the taxation system, or establishing new trade missions. The ruler of this era can be The Caligula , an Adipose Rex , or a possible well-meaning but inept ruler, Unfit for Greatness , who will only make things worse with their reforms; helping or hindering him are a cabal of obstructive and corrupt bureaucrats and the whole Deadly Decadent Court , some of whom are on the payroll of a Corrupt Corporate Executive or two. Such an empire can already be called vestigial ; it may not yet suffer loss of territories, but its influence is waning.

The fate of Empire that enters this phase is to fall; the point of no return is already past, and no matter how gilded is the empire's facade, its structure is rotting, and the only way to stop it is a top-down revolution , that is, to tear everything down and rebuild from scratch think Meiji or Peter the Great. The Empire exists in name only at this stage. It is now a failed state, a gray zone of squabbling independent shards or sub-factions. The dissipation of The Empire's power to rich and powerful individuals oligarchs is complete, with many families and even regions now only paying lip-service to The Empire and its supposed rulers.

The Empire's fiscal situation is a mess because very little money will be coming in thanks to disloyalty and corruption, even though the state's debts haven't gone away - the debt might even be growing. This will be the case regardless of whether The Empire itself is still experiencing economic growth or not, but it's very likely that The Empire is also experiencing economic contraction due to the increasing concentration of wealth in the hands of fewer and fewer people note Consumption drives economic activity, and the concentration of wealth reduces consumption because the wealthy have 'spare' money that they don't use to consume things and the poor can't afford to consume as many things. Wealthy people can only buy so much stuff - they tend to invest their money into making even more money chiefly by buying land.

Long-term population decline is also likely, mostly due to the unsustainability of the previous population high - i. Only a small part of the former empire's territories, half or less, give money to or actually take orders from the former capital; this is called a rump state, or a late, actually Vestigial Empire , where utter ignoramuses try to simulate the old Empire in a Cargo Cult -ish fashion, dressing in the robes of long-dead emperors and spouting bombastic orders no one actually listens to. The decadence of the old Empire is now concentrated around a few select oligarchs and their surroundings, possibly a rich city or two, and the rest of the populace is struggling hard to get something to eat.

The majestic and titanic monuments of the previous imperial eras turn into ruins or are resettled by bandit gangs, marauders or folks more sinister still. A Vast Bureaucracy may form, stifling any and every positive idea and pilfering away budgets. The peripheries, which the rump state no longer controls, are home to Feudal Overlords clinging to their old crumbling castles, warlords and barbarian chiefs, for whom Authority Equals Asskicking and Might Makes Right , and yet more Small Name, Big Ego dictators, who are pleasantly surprised that they don't have to kowtow to anyone any longer. However, in one or more sub-factions, intelligent leaders may arise and plan a new Empire; a new Expansion begins when one of them emerges openly, unambiguously triumphant.

Adjacent empires can see the rotting carcass of the empire ripe for plundering; they may directly intervene, send troops and partition the dead empire into colonial or semi-colonial pieces, or they can use hegemonism and make the petty states of the ex-empire their puppets. Eventually, the Long Night ends with either total disappearance of the empire, its shards growing from petty and self-proclaimed to true distinct nations, or fading culturally and becoming just governorates of neighboring nations, or a climactic Civil War in which it is reforged in fire and steel and re-enters Stage One. In fiction the border between phases are mostly clear, but in Real Life it wasn't always so clear - neither Caligula nor Nero brought the Decay stage upon Roman Empire, because when the empire is mighty, the occasional tyrant don't hurt it much.

It wasn't also uncommon to have rulers more fit for second phase to appear in first or third, trying to stabilize the situation. They can even pop up in the fourth phase, bringing the rump state back from failed to just decayed. However, it does not appear possible to restore the former regime to its full glory without serious reforms; even if such a restoration happens it usually either comes back wrong and is already in the decay phase , or is too fundamentally different to be considered the same Empire such as being brought back to the expansion or stabilization phase but speaking a different language, functioning with a different form of government and a different economic model, practicing a different religion with different morals, and sometimes ruling completely different territories.

To truly restart the cycle, new ideas and institutions are required. Supertrope to Standard Sci-Fi History. Since the latter part of the Nineteenth Century [Common Era], historians have been dividing cultures into "epochs. All the cultures in the Local Group have undergone a careful examination and classification by the Janet Leader Foundation on Arbest. These classification codes help the traveler to determine what the import and immigration restrictions are. Manly Wade Wellman comes immediately to mind; I enjoyed his petal-headed Martians and their varying relationships with humankind. However, beyond any doubt, the really seminal future history was that of Robert A.

He has remarked that he got the idea from Sinclair Lewis , who created an entire American state, Winnemac , and its chief city, Zenith, as part of the settings of a number of realistic novels. Sometimes characters in one appeared in another, usually briefly, yet giving all the books an extra dimension. Elsewhere I have read that Lewis was so meticulous a craftsman that he would even make architect's models of the homes of his characters. Perhaps he in his turn had been inspired by the example of Balzac.

Another was his own essential realism. Here, for the first time since Wells and Kipling , was a science-fiction writer at least, in the English language who understood politics, organizations, economics, strategy, tactics, all the ways in which a people try to cope with public business. A third element was the fact that here was not just a background, essentially static, shared by different stories.

It was a history. Things changed; the past was remembered, the future anticipated; the society as a whole became a kind of ongoing protagonist. I was enchanted and enlightened. Isaac Asimov's Foundation series , though not precisely the same thing, reinforced my impression of the power of this approach. Rather soon after my own writing career began, I decided to attempt something similar. It would not be what I did exclusively, of course; nor did it seem feasible to give the undertaking a private byline.

What mattered was to get started on it. So I drew up a big chart similar to Heinlein's, planned what events on it should be related, and from time to time over a stretch of several years would write one of them. This partial list is in order of fictional chronology, not publication. Basically, I wanted to trace the evolution of human civilization from the present day to the beginnings of exploration and settlement beyond the Solar System. Alas, real life caught up with me. For instance, World War Three did not come off on schedule. I could live with that a good deal easier than with the appearance of scientific discoveries and techno logical developments which I had not foreseen.

He searches for development of individual morality, but is struck dry by the restrictive society, by which he is forced to be, think, and live like everyone else, average and accepting. What this tells us is that due to the inherent flaws and bias of our brain what we think we know or as it were what we think we think is often untrue and inapplicable in reality. Given all of the above it would appear to be obvious that attitude is an inaccurate and at times wholly unreliable behavioural. So each day, my choice to be honorable means more than a lack of menial lies, rather it encompasses my identity and leads me to believe in the strength of my abilities as well the power of accepting my flaws as a part of being honest with.

The study of ethics is learning how other people think and make decisions and to see what moral standards they follow. It is also comparing ethics of the past to the present, and from one culture to another. As well as, seeing if people follow the ethical standards that they say they do. Ethics are in the everyday life, we make decisions based on what we believe. We ask ourselves if it is right or just or does it benefit us.

We make them at school, deciding if cheating on a test is fine, or when we get older in politics, are we going to be democratic or republican. We need to have a base of what we believe ethically, so when future issues come up, we can decide if we believe it or not. Our ethics also determine how we respond to our surroundings, …show more content… America is different from countries in Europe, everyplace is different. There are even different ideas within the larger group, such as America.

We have states and cities, but most of the main overall ethics are in the large group. Examples are, murder. The government punishes people for murdering, but someone may grow up where that is fine, just a different background and views on …show more content… James Rachels is quoted in the book on this topic. He had the insight of the cow. The culture doesn 't eat cows, but the reason behind it is the real breakdown of the culture. Is this common that relativist are as self-contradictory as this? He later explains that yes, almost all of the view is that way. That is an argument used against them. They are inconsistent with almost everything. They say there is no truth and yet they believe in absolute relativism.

The word absolute means truth. The only argument for relativists is their tolerance for everyone, but even this is a weak argument. The raising generation, is known for toleration, it is a worldview. Toleration can be good, we can understand and see other cultures, but if we are to tolerant then we lose our worldview and what we believe because we adapt other cultures. This is the reason people believe culture relativism, every culture is different and we don 't always have believe what other cultures. Show More. Multiculturalism In Addiction Counseling Words 4 Pages Although one comportment or disorder might be regarded as norm in one culture, it could be regarded as abnormal in another culture, and thus making therapy less equal in altered populations.

Read More. Nietzsche Skepticism Analysis Words 4 Pages This conversation appears to be good in many ways, however, the science has simply created another belief system - one just as intolerant. Argument Against The Cogito Words 7 Pages Descartes reflects in the passage that he has often found himself to be mistaken about matters that he formerly thought were certain and indisputable.

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