🔥🔥🔥 Feminist Dichotomy

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Feminist Dichotomy

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Are men inferior to women? Let's check the data - FACTUAL FEMINIST

Racism is described in the monosexual paradigm as a dichotomy where individuals are either black or white, again nothing in between. The issue of racism comes into fruition in regards to the bisexuals coming out process, where risks of coming out vary on a basis of anticipated community reaction and also in regards to the norms among bisexual leadership, where class status and race factor predominately over sexual orientation. Feminist political theory is a recently emerging field in political science focusing on gender and feminist themes within the state, institutions and policies. It questions the "modern political theory, dominated by universalistic liberalist thought, which claims indifference to gender or other identity differences and has therefore taken its time to open up to such concerns".

Feminist perspectives entered international relations in the late s, at about the same time as the end of the Cold War. This time was not a coincidence because the last forty years the conflict between US and USSR had been the dominant agenda of international politics. After the Cold War, there was continuing relative peace between the main powers. Soon, many new issues appeared on international relation's agenda.

More attention was also paid to social movements. Indeed, in those times feminist approaches also used to depict the world politics. Feminists started to emphasize that while women have always been players in international system, their participation has frequently been associated with non-governmental settings such as social movements. However, they could also participate in inter-state decision making process as men did. Until more recently, the role of women in international politics has been confined to being the wives of diplomats, nannies who go abroad to find work and support their family, or sex workers trafficked across international boundaries. Women's contributions has not been seen in the areas where hard power plays significant role such as military.

Nowadays, women are gaining momentum in the sphere of international relations in areas of government, diplomacy, academia, etc.. Despite barriers to more senior roles, women currently hold Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and In the U. Department of State, women make up 29 percent of the chiefs of mission, and 29 percent of senior foreign positions at USAID. Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to economics. Research under this heading is often interdisciplinary, critical, or heterodox. It encompasses debates about the relationship between feminism and economics on many levels: from applying mainstream economic methods to under-researched "women's" areas, to questioning how mainstream economics values the reproductive sector, to deeply philosophical critiques of economic epistemology and methodology.

One prominent issue that feminist economists investigate is how the gross domestic product GDP does not adequately measure unpaid labor predominantly performed by women, such as housework, childcare, and eldercare. Economics, as it's presented today, lacks any basis in reality as it leaves out the very foundation of economic life. This constitutes women's continuing industry enabling laborers to occupy every position in the work force. Without this fundamental labor and commodity there would be no economic activity. Warrior also notes that the unacknowledged income of men from illegal activities like arms, drugs and human trafficking, political graft, religious emoluments and various other undisclosed activities provide a rich revenue stream to men, which further invalidates GDP figures.

Usually the amount spent on them is merely for the maintenance of their lives and, in the case of those prostituted, some money may be spent on clothing and such accouterments as will make them more salable to the pimp's clients. For instance, focusing on just the U. Proponents of this theory have been instrumental in creating alternative models, such as the capability approach and incorporating gender into the analysis of economic data to affect policy. Marilyn Power suggests that feminist economic methodology can be broken down into five categories. Feminist legal theory is based on the feminist view that law's treatment of women in relation to men has not been equal or fair. The goals of feminist legal theory, as defined by leading theorist Claire Dalton, consist of understanding and exploring the female experience, figuring out if law and institutions oppose females, and figuring out what changes can be committed to.

This is to be accomplished through studying the connections between the law and gender as well as applying feminist analysis to concrete areas of law. Feminist legal theory stems from the inadequacy of the current structure to account for discrimination women face, especially discrimination based on multiple, intersecting identities. DeGraffenreid v General Motors is an example of such a case.

In this instance, the court ruled the plaintiffs, five Black women including Emma DeGraffenreid , who were employees of General Motors, were not eligible to file a complaint on the grounds they, as black women, were not "a special class to be protected from discrimination". In the case of Moore , the plaintiff brought forth statistical evidence revealing a disparity in promotions to upper-level and supervisory jobs between men and women and, to a lesser extent, between Black and white men. The plaintiffs in Payne , two Black females, filed suit against Travenol on behalf of both Black men and women on the grounds the pharmaceutical plant practiced racial discrimination.

The rulings, when connected, display a deep-rooted problem in regards to addressing discrimination within the legal system. These cases, although they are outdated are used by feminists as evidence of their ideas and principles. Feminist communication theory has evolved over time and branches out in many directions. Early theories focused on the way that gender influenced communication and many argued that language was "man made".

This view of communication promoted a " deficiency model " asserting that characteristics of speech associated with women were negative and that men "set the standard for competent interpersonal communication", which influences the type of language used by men and women. These early theories also suggested that ethnicity, cultural and economic backgrounds also needed to be addressed.

They looked at how gender intersects with other identity constructs, such as class, race, and sexuality. Feminist theorists, especially those considered to be liberal feminists, began looking at issues of equality in education and employment. Other theorists addressed political oratory and public discourse. The recovery project brought to light many women orators who had been "erased or ignored as significant contributors". Feminist communication theorists also addressed how women were represented in the media and how the media "communicated ideology about women, gender, and feminism". Feminist communication theory also encompasses access to the public sphere, whose voices are heard in that sphere, and the ways in which the field of communication studies has limited what is regarded as essential to public discourse.

The recognition of a full history of women orators overlooked and disregarded by the field has effectively become an undertaking of recovery, as it establishes and honors the existence of women in history and lauds the communication by these historically significant contributors. This recovery effort, begun by Andrea Lunsford , Professor of English and Director of the Program in Writing and Rhetoric at Stanford University and followed by other feminist communication theorists also names women such as Aspasia , Diotima , and Christine de Pisan , who were likely influential in rhetorical and communication traditions in classical and medieval times, but who have been negated as serious contributors to the traditions. Feminist communication theorists are also concerned with a recovery effort in attempting to explain the methods used by those with power to prohibit women like Maria W.

Theorists in this vein are also interested in the unique and significant techniques of communication employed by these women and others like them to surmount some of the oppression they experienced. Feminist theorist also evaluate communication expectations for students and women in the work place, in particular how the performance of feminine versus masculine styles of communicating are constructed. Judith Butler , who coined the term " gender performativity " further suggests that, "theories of communication must explain the ways individuals negotiate, resist, and transcend their identities in a highly gendered society".

This focus also includes the ways women are constrained or "disciplined" in the discipline of communication in itself, in terms of biases in research styles and the "silencing" of feminist scholarship and theory. Who is responsible for deciding what is considered important public discourse is also put into question by feminist theorists in communication scholarship. This lens of feminist communication theory is labeled as revalorist theory which honors the historical perspective of women in communication in an attempt to recover voices that have been historically neglected.

Feminist theory can be applied to the field of public relations. The feminist scholar Linda Hon examined the major obstacles that women in the field experienced. Some common barriers included male dominance and gender stereotypes. Hon shifted the feminist theory of PR from "women's assimilation into patriarchal systems " to "genuine commitment to social restructuring". These values include honesty, sensitivity, perceptiveness, fairness, and commitment. Technical writers [ who? Men and women will construct different types of structures about the self, and, consequently, their thought processes may diverge in content and form. This division depends on the self-concept, which is an "important regulator of thoughts, feelings and actions" that "governs one's perception of reality".

With that being said, the self-concept has a significant effect on how men and women represent reality in different ways. Recently, "technical communicators' [ who? Deborah S. Bosley explores this new concept of the "feminist theory of design" [92] by conducting a study on a collection of undergraduate males and females who were asked to illustrate a visual, on paper, given to them in a text. Based on this study, she creates a "feminist theory of design" and connects it to technical communicators. In the results of the study, males used more angular illustrations, such as squares, rectangles and arrows, which are interpreted as a "direction" moving away from or a moving toward, thus suggesting more aggressive positions than rounded shapes, showing masculinity.

Females, on the other hand, used more curved visuals, such as circles, rounded containers and bending pipes. Bosley takes into account that feminist theory offers insight into the relationship between females and circles or rounded objects. According to Bosley, studies of women and leadership indicate a preference for nonhierarchical work patterns preferring a communication "web" rather than a communication "ladder". Bosley explains that circles and other rounded shapes, which women chose to draw, are nonhierarchical and often used to represent inclusive, communal relationships, confirming her results that women's visual designs do have an effect on their means of communications.

Based on these conclusions, this "feminist theory of design" can go on to say that gender does play a role in how humans represent reality. Black feminist criminology theory is a concept created by Hillary Potter in the s and a bridge that integrates Feminist theory with criminology. It is based on the integration of Black feminist theory and critical race theory. For years, Black women were historically overlooked and disregarded in the study of crime and criminology; however, with a new focus on Black feminism that sparked in the s, Black feminists began to contextualize their unique experiences and examine why the general status of Black women in the criminal justice system was lacking in female specific approaches.

This disadvantage materializes into "poor responses by social service professionals and crime-processing agents to Black women's interpersonal victimization". Any results or conclusions targeted to Black males were usually assumed to be the same situation for Black females. This was very problematic since Black males and Black females differ in what they experience. For instance, economic deprivation, status equality between the sexes, distinctive socialization patterns, racism, and sexism should all be taken into account between Black males and Black females. The two will experience all of these factors differently; therefore, it was crucial to resolve this dilemma.

Black feminist criminology is the solution to this problem. It takes four factors into account: One, it observes the social structural oppression of Black women. Two, it recognizes the Black community and its culture. Three, it looks at Black intimate and familial relations. And four, it looks at the Black woman as an individual. These four factors will help distinguish Black women from Black males into an accurate branch of learning in the criminal justice system. It has been said [ by whom? In addition to its age, Black feminist criminology has not actively accounted for the role of religion and spirituality in Black women's "experience with abuse". Feminist science and technology studies STS refers to the transdisciplinary field of research on the ways gender and other markers of identity intersect with technology, science, and culture.

The practice emerged from feminist critique on the masculine-coded uses of technology in the fields of natural, medical, and technical sciences, and its entanglement in gender and identity. In the s, the impacts of post-World War II technological development led many women to organise against issues from the toxic pollution of neighbourhoods to nuclear weapons testing on indigenous lands.

This grassroots activism emerging across every continent was both intersectional and cross-cultural in its struggle to protect the conditions for reproduction of Life on Earth. Known as ecofeminism, the political relevance of this movement continues to expand. It is increasingly prominent as a feminist response to the contemporary breakdown of the planetary ecosystem. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. For the journal, see Feminist Theory journal. First Second Third Fourth. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. General variants. Religious variants. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. See also: Feminist movements and ideologies.

This section is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Intersectionality. See also: Feminist language reform , Gender-neutral language , and Category:Feminist terminology. See also: Psychoanalysis and Feminism and the Oedipus complex. Main article: Feminist literary criticism. See also: Gynocriticism. Main article: Feminist film theory.

Main article: Feminist history. Main article: Feminist geography. Main article: Feminist philosophy. Main article: Feminist sexology. Main article: Monosexuality. Main article: Feminist political theory. Main article: Feminist economics. Main article: Feminist legal theory. This section may present fringe theories , without giving appropriate weight to the mainstream view , and explaining the responses to the fringe theories. Please help improve it or discuss the issue on the talk page. Main article: Feminist technoscience. In Worell, J. Washington, D. ISBN Inside the Visible. Women Artists at the Millennium. Art and Thought. Differential Aesthetics. Feminist Theory: A Reader.

Edited by Kolmar, Wendy and Bartowski, Frances. New York: McGraw-Hill, Archived from the original on Retrieved The Grounding of Modern Feminism. Princeton, N. After Tylor: British Social Anthropology, — What is a Woman? And Other Essays. New Scientist. New York: Routledge, Kolmar, Frances Feminist theory : a reader. Mountain View, Calif [u. Women and Gender: A feminist psychology 3rd ed. Jean Baker Miller". Changing the Face of Medicine. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 21 February NY: Columbia University Press, London: Continuum. Columbia University Press. Essays from — , University of Minnesota Press Oxford University Press, London: Virago, Edited by Berenheimer and Kahane, London: Virago, Dark Continents: Psychoanalysis and Colonialism.

Duke University Press. What Does a Woman Want. Johns Hopkins University Press. Rutgers University Press, Constance Penley Routledge, "Archived copy". Indiana University press, Edinburgh University press, In: Armstrong, Carol and de Zegher, Catherine eds. Women Artists as the Millennium. Routledge, Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts. London: Routledge, New Haven: Yale University Press, The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy 3rd ed. London: Routledge. Lesbians in Revolt. Elizabeth Reba Weise. Seattle: Seal Press, Institute for Women's Policy Research. This solidarity is powerful. In this light, the diversity and breadth of the MeToo movement is not a weakness, but a strength. After all, if so many women, with so many different kinds of lives, have experienced the same sexist behaviour from men, then it becomes easier to believe that the problem goes beyond individuals and instead relates to wider cultural forces.

In part, the rift is between visions of how to undertake the feminist project, of which tactics are best: whether through individual empowerment, or through collective liberation. According to the individualist model of feminism, personal responsibility, individual freedoms and psychological adjustments offer a woman meaningful routes out of the suffering imposed by patriarchy, and into equality with men. Many of the most famous western feminists have been working in this tradition. For instance, Betty Friedan, author of the hugely influential s feminist text The Feminine Mystique , argued that sexist cultural codes prevent women from achieving personal happiness. Friedan, a psychologist by training, focused on the inner lives of white, American, middle-class women at midcentury.

More recently, individualist feminism found a high-profile advocate when Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook, published her memoir-cum-manifesto Lean In in Sandberg laments the lack of women in leadership positions, and her book is a how-to manual for women with lofty corporate ambitions. Social feminism has a similarly long, if less well-known, history. As Marxists, they sought to analyse how men as a class related to women as a class. They were less interested in ideas of empowerment and self-actualisation than they were in divisions of labour, living conditions and cold, hard cash. If men did not have these functions performed for them at home, these women argued, they would not be able to return to work and produce effectively.

Male work in the factory relied upon female work in the home. But the movement relied on the understanding that a wage was necessary for work to be seen as work, and for the people who did it to be seen as worthy of dignity and protection. But because sexism beats so many people down, that also meant that there was a community of women who could pull each other up. Those who experience gendered oppression can band together to end it.

MeToo has a less ideological, more ad hoc approach to its analysis of patriarchy. But its gesture proceeds from the assumption that misogyny is structural, and that women have a shared interest in fighting it. The movement has included stories from women of different races, orientations and religions. It has brought testimony from women who are rich and poor, healthy and chronically ill, cis and trans, famous and anonymous. This variety has led to an increasing acknowledgment that misogyny takes different forms, and that not all women have access to the same tools used to mitigate it.

Put very simply, this meant taking into account the ways that oppression looks different for different people, and how individuals experience oppression along more than one axis at once. Intersectionality has given MeToo a more expansive understanding of sexual harassment and assault. Social feminism does not aspire to enable a few women to gain positions of power in patriarchal systems. T his is not a simple proposition.

The real weakness of social feminism is not that it encourages women to be oversensitive about discomforts, but that it is so broad. The call for women to unite can overlook the kinds of pain and conflict that can exist between them. What experiences or conditions, exactly, do we identify as common to all women? It is difficult to generalise about so many people at once, and questions of injustice, inequality and privilege mean that doing so puts us at the risk of ignoring vital differences. Often, these oppressions are enforced by other women.

There are vast gulfs that separate women from one another: gulfs of racism and money, of colonialism, bigotry, history, resentment, defensiveness, ignorance and hurt. It can be very hard to see each other across them. MeToo, however, has made it clear that solidarity among women is possible. But MeToo has transformed that mournful acknowledgment into something much more hopeful. If the MeToo movement has prompted many women to focus on misogynist behaviour with a unifying grief and anger, it has also led many of them to contemplate our shared power and common vision for a different world.

When the social feminists of MeToo call for changes that would make harassment, assault and other forms of misogyny rare, their very act of collective imagining makes such a world more possible: the more we stand together in this demand, the easier it becomes to imagine a world where respect is common, where cruelty is rare, where all of us think with more empathy and intelligence about the lives of others, and where being women will not doom us to suffering or limitation. But why, then, has this clash been framed as generational, when it is clear that the two visions of feminism have been doing battle for decades? Part of it, of course, is ageism and incuriosity — the reflexive tendency to presume that the old are too timid and the young are too reckless.

But another reason why MeToo has been framed as a generational conflict is because the individualist feminists of the anti- MeToo backlash have framed their own resistance to the movement as grounded in wisdom, realism and, above all, maturity. To them, all this talk of a reimagined, recreated new world sounds hopelessly naive. This is a common, but still very strange belief: that the epitome of maturity and personal strength is the resigned acceptance that the world cannot be better than it is, that we cannot be kinder to one another, that male entitlement, crassness and predation are permanent and unchangeable and must be endured.

It is a bizarre conception of strength, one that dismisses as childish weakness any demand for a better world, any hope that things might one day be different. There is a way of thinking that makes this approach by the anti- MeToo feminists seem strong and pragmatic.

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