⌛ Short Story Of Hernando Cortes

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Short Story Of Hernando Cortes



By the end of the 18th century, Short Story Of Hernando Cortes European settlers of American colonies Short Story Of Hernando Cortes to rebel and press Short Story Of Hernando Cortes independence. Your answer does not necessarily have to be right William Wallace Braveheart Hero Quotes wrong because you are presenting your opinion with Short Story Of Hernando Cortes and Red Army Characteristics views Short Story Of Hernando Cortes support it! Archived from Short Story Of Hernando Cortes original on February 9, Denying Short Story Of Hernando Cortes had held back on gold due the crown, he showed that he had contributed more than the quinto one-fifth required. Shortly before the Spaniards came to Peru, the Inca emperor died.

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When you are finished, click the button at the bottom of the form to generate your poem. Copy and paste the results into a word processing program, format it with the size and font style of your choice. I am funny and kind I wonder why humming birds are in such a hurry I hear clouds crashing in the sky I see oceans in the air I want a fluffy dog I am funny and kind. I pretend that I am a world traveler I feel fine on a summer day at the beach I touch the wings of a butterfly I worry that all is not well I cry about nothing at all I am funny and kind. I understand why play is fun I say we should play all the time I dream about fish that fly in the air I try to be artistic I hope my parents live long lives I am funny and kind.

Voyages of exploration were very expensive, as the explorers needed well-equipped ships, which were loaded with food and cannons. They sailed in caravels, which could sail into the wind without oars, which had to be rowed. The caravels could carry heavy cannons, which shot out cannonballs that could do damage from a long distance. Queen Isabella, like other monarchs in Europe, supported voyages of exploration because they wanted the money from trade and the gold that explorers brought back with them.

The new guns and cannons made the Europeans more powerful and they were able to conquer people who did not have these weapons. European countries grew rich from the gold, silver, land and labour they took from people living in other continents around the world. Columbus sailed west in and when he reached land, he thought he was in India. He had in fact reached the Caribbean Islands. He called the Islands the 'West Indies'! He later wrote a letter which said: "There is plenty of gold in this land I had to return to Spain, but the King and Queen can be assured that I shall give them as much gold as desired, enough spice and cotton, also wood and slaves if only they finance another trip.

He did two further trips, in and Columbus had opened the way for more Spanish explorers who became known as 'conquistadors' or conquerors. In , he found land which he believed to be India. In reality he had found what the Barbados Islands in the Americas is today. During the next few years, in which he made more voyages to America, he found most of the major islands in that area as well as part of Central America.

He was still under the impression that it was India. Eventually, the Europeans realised that it was actually a whole new continent unknown until then. They called it the New World. Christopher Columbus was not the only European who 'discovered' America in his search for India. Further European discoveries were made by the Portuguese Pedro Cabral, who landed in Brazil in and by Giovanni da Verrazano, who explored the east coast of North America in the s. Between and , Portuguese voyager Ferdinand Magellan went on a journey to discover a passage to the Pacific Ocean around South America. He and his crew lived with the indigenous people in southern Argentina for a while during one winter. This voyage was the first time that westerners circumnavigated the whole world.

By about most of the eastern coast of South and Central America had been drawn on a map, and it became clear that it would not be so easy to sail to India and the Pacific Ocean by going west. In the meanwhile news of the bounty of gold, silver and other gems had reached the ears of the Europeans, and they became determined to get some of it for themselves. Europeans began to focus on the Americas instead of the route to India. This led to another phase in American history, namely a phase of conquest. Spanish conquistadors conquerors swept through South, Central and part of North America and took control of the land and its people.

The Native Americans were no match for the European horses and firearms. Mexico fell in and Peru in Activity 1. In your school or community library, find as much information as you can on one of the following explorers: — Christopher Columbus — John Cabot — Pedro Cabral — Ferdinand Magellan 2. You may find a lot of information in encyclopedias, books on American history, the history of explorers or the history of Renaissance Europe. You may also use the internet as well, but try to find more books than websites on the person you are investigating. Determine the point of view of each source. Does it put the specific person in a good or bad light, or does it present the facts in a more neutral light?

Do all the sources have the same kind of information, and are all the facts like dates and numbers the same? If you find facts that differ between sources, find out which ones are likely to be accurate. This may be the one that occurs in most of the sources. From all the information that you have gathered, make a summary of what you think are the most important facts. Write a short biography about 1 page long on the person you have investigated, using the information you have gathered. Use the information in your summary. After you have written the biography, give it to somebody who worked on the same explorer. Together you can debate the various issues and decide what to include in your joint effort.

Try to provide some analysis of different opinions. Activity Divide into groups of Discuss the following question among yourselves: Did Christopher Columbus discover America? After your discussion, write your answer down, together with your reasons. To discover something means to be the first to find it. This implies that nobody knew about America, and that no one had ever been there. This was not the case. Not only were there communities living in the Americas for hundreds of years, some long before these "discoverers" arrived, but these societies were large and sophisticated empires.

To talk about 'Native Americans' as a single group or culture is like talking about 'Africans' being all the same. There are many different indigenous groups in Africa, each with its own history, culture and language. This was also the case for the indigenous people of the Americas. A few of the groups that were conquered by Europeans are discussed at below. The name given to Native Americans is a controversial subject. When Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas, he thought that he had found India. When he met the first inhabitants of the land, he quite naturally called them 'Indians'. This is a name that has stuck, and even today people call Native Americans 'Indians'.

This is still a term that is used in the social sciences, like history and anthropology. Many people now agree that the term Indians is derogatory and offensive. In Canada, they are called the 'First Nations', referring to the fact that they were the first people to live there. In South and Central America, the Europeans had to overthrow two major empires before they could colonise the land. These powerful civilisations dominated large areas of the Americas. The Aztec goddess of Coatlicue, mother of earth. Picture source: wikipedia. The Aztecs were a warlike, bloodthirsty people and through their violent conquests of other groups they grew wealthy and powerful.

They demanded that those they conquered pay tribute to them. By the early 16th century, the Aztecs dominated Mexico, especially the southern part. It is believed that the Aztec empire of over 10 million people had a strong military tradition and a well established trading network. Merchants travelled through the whole empire, trading as well as serving as ambassadors, spies and sometimes soldiers. The Aztec monetary system was based on cocoa seeds, and the markets were very well organised. More than 60 people came to the market in the capital daily. When the Spanish came to Mexico and saw these markets, they declared that they had never seen anything like it in Europe. Modern-day Mexico City is situated on the site of the great Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.

The Emperor headed a very complex society that was ruled partly by religion and fear. The Aztecs believed they were the chosen people of the gods. Their chief god was Huitzilpochtli who represented the sun. The victorious sun rose each morning, drove off the moon and stars and captured the daytime sky. But the sun's victory was short-lived. Each afternoon and evening, the sun sank in tired defeat. For the sun to successfully rise each day, it had to be nourished with human blood. This blood was supplied by victims were captured during war.

The Aztecs therefore went to war continuously. Those who were defeated and incorporated into the Empire were never happy with Aztec rule. The Aztec calendar had days. It was used more than years before the Gregorian calendar used in our world today and shows the level of sophistication of Aztec science. The Aztec calendar is recorded as a carving on the Aztec sun stone currently on exhibit in Mexico City. The sun stone is filled with symbols that refer to human sacrifice. At the centre is a sacrificial knife sticking out from the mouth of the central deity and talons on either side of the deity's face which grasp human hearts. The Spanish king sent a general called Hernando Cortes to find the Aztecs.

The Aztecs lived in a fertile valley metres above sea level, the water from the surrounding mountains watered their crops, which included maize, cotton, beans and chili peppers. The capital was at Tenochtitlin today called Mexico City , a vast city with causeways and bridges and huge stone buildings and temples. Their leader at the time that Cortes and the Spanish soldiers arrived, was Montezuma. Montezuma at first welcomed the Spanish as the Aztecs thoughts they might be holy men, but they were soon to realise this was not so.

The Spanish conquistadors were only interested in the gold. Cortes came with 16 horses which the Aztecs had never seen before , 14 cannons, steel swords and crossbows. This made them stronger in battle against the Aztecs. The Spanish were also made stronger by being able to get help from the oppressed enemies of the Aztec Empire who were willing to assist them. They were also helped by an interpreter called Dona Marina. Her birth name was Malinalli. After a battle with Cortes, the defeated Native Americans gave her to Cortes as a peace offering. The Spanish baptised her into the Catholic faith and she was renamed.

She learnt Spanish, lived with Cortes and later gave birth to his son. She could speak the Aztec language and told Cortes everything she knew about the Aztecs. In , after two years of resistance, the Aztec Empire fell to the Spanish. Montezuma was killed, and many Spaniards and Aztecs lost their lives. The Aztecs were influenced by an earlier civilisation, the Toltecs, who ruled the area between and AD. Toltec workers and merchants taught the Aztecs how to make objects from feathers and gold, how to interpret the stars and how to use a calendar. The Aztecs knew how to restore land from the lake — in other words, to dry up sections of the lake in order to expand the islands.

This was done by piling mud onto beds of straw inside wooden fences. In this way, they also built new land areas. They followed a hieroglyphic writing system, and wrote documents on paper made from tree bark. Documents included tax lists, legal documents, religious texts and historical writings. These documents reveal much about the Aztecs. The modern Mexican flag bears an eagle with a snake in its beak. The symbol comes from an Aztec legend. According to this legend, the gods had promised the Aztecs land they would be able to recognise through the presence of an eagle sitting on a cactus, holding a snake in its beak.

They found the eagle on an island in Lake Texcoco, where they settled. According to another Aztec legend, the god Quetzalcoatl had been defeated by an evil god and disappeared into the eastern Atlantic sea. He had foretold that he would return from the same sea, leading a group of white-skinned, bearded men, to defeat his enemies. When the Spaniards came from the east, white-skinned and bearded, the Aztecs did not fear them.

Instead, they welcomed them as their deity and his group of warriors, which made it so much easier for the Europeans to conquer the Aztecs. They believed that when the sun went down, Huitsilopochtli had to do battle against the demons of darkness. For this he needed strength. If he did not get blood, the sun would not have enough strength to rise the next day. When the Aztecs went to war, they tried to capture people alive. Captives were sacrificed on the top of the pyramid temples by cutting their chests open and tearing their hearts out.

The bodies were then thrown down the temple steps. This was indeed horrible, but some victims regarded it as an honour to die in this way. They thought they were serving the god and the community by making sure that the sun would rise again. The church used the Inquisition to deal with people accused of heresy, or revolting against religious authority. They then had a trial, with the testimony of witnesses. A person found guilty was sentenced in public. The punishments ranged from simple prayer and fasting to losing property, imprisonment, and life imprisonment. People who did not cooperate were turned over to the state. The state could carry out the death penalty. The royal rulers exercised almost complete control of the Inquisition and carried it to extremes.

This was a period of terror, cruelty, and religious extremism. It is estimated that about 2, people were burned alive at the stake and more than , Jews were forced to leave Spain. Aztec gold pendant. Regions of central and south America were very rich in gold, an incredibly rare metal in most parts of the world. Gold smithing probably began in central and South America as early as BC. New techniques developed over time and objects, which were made, and have survived, have become some of the world's most outstanding examples of artistic expression.

For people living in the Aztec empire, for example, there was little value in the gold itself as it was relatively easy to obtain. It was usually only after the gold has been transformed by skilled goldsmiths into finished objects that the metal took on a culturally accepted value and significance. The gold objects carried proverbial expressions and spiritual meanings, primarily related to supernatural powers. The indigenous people that the Spanish encountered could not understand why the conquistadors insisted on melting down the gold objects they captured to make them into ingots. Commenting on the destruction of these objects, an indigenous leader commented as follows:. You would be wiser to be in your own country, so far from here, and where there are - you say - so many wise and cultured men, than to come here and fight in a land that is not yours and where we live happily.

Gold is a precious metal and is very rare. It is the colour of the sun, and throughout time, and in all civilisations, it is has been believed to have life-giving force. Some have called it 'the sweat of the sun'. It has many characteristics, for example it is colourful, shines brightly when polished, beautiful to look at, hard to find, can be eaten, soft, but can be shaped and hammered without breaking, reflects heat rays, mixes easily with other metals, a status symbol stands for wealth and power does not rust, tarnish or corrode. They began the expansion of their empire by conquering small groups in what is today southern Peru, and eventually subjugated the entire Andean coast and highlands.

At its height, the Incan empire stretched from modern northern Ecuador to central Chile and included territory in modern-day Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina. The emperor was called 'Inca', and it was believed that he was the son of the sun, the most important Inca god. Society was organised in clans. The Incas had a vast network of roads that crossed the whole empire, altogether about 40 km long. This made it easier for the Inca's officials to travel through the empire to keep an eye on all the clans. However, since they had no horses or wheeled vehicles, all travelling was done on foot. Messages and news were sent across the land in a relay system: there were small buildings called 'tambos' all along the roads.

A messenger would run with his news to the next tambo, where another messenger would take over. The Incas had a system of writing called 'quipo'. It was not an alphabet, but a system of strings and knots. A number of strings hung from a main string, and each one was knotted. Each knot or series of knots represented an event or a number. In Inca society, every person had to work without pay, because labour was seen as a form of tax. Shortly before the Spaniards came to Peru, the Inca emperor died.

This was followed by a civil war between his two sons. The Spaniards, led by Francisco Pizarro, arrived in and were able to exploit the situation and capture the already weakened state. At the age of 14, he was sent to study Latin under an uncle in Salamanca. Later historians have misconstrued this personal tutoring as time enrolled at the University of Salamanca. However, those two years in Salamanca , plus his long period of training and experience as a notary, first in Valladolid and later in Hispaniola , gave him knowledge of the legal codes of Castile that he applied to help justify his unauthorized conquest of Mexico.

By this time, news of the exciting discoveries of Christopher Columbus in the New World was streaming back to Spain. This island is now divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. He spent the next year wandering the country, probably spending most of his time in Spain's southern ports of Cadiz , Palos , Sanlucar , and Seville. He finally left for Hispaniola in and became a colonist. The history of the conquistadores is rife with accounts of rivalry, jockeying for positions, mutiny, and betrayal. The expedition leader awarded him a large estate of land and Indian slaves for his efforts.

This new position of power also made him the new source of leadership, which opposing forces in the colony could then turn to. He stopped in Trinidad, Cuba , to hire more soldiers and obtain more horses. Then he proceeded to Tabasco , where he met with resistance and won a battle against the natives. He received twenty young indigenous women from the vanquished natives, and he converted them all to Christianity.

In July , his men took over Veracruz. In Veracruz, he met some of the tributaries of the Aztecs and asked them to arrange a meeting with Moctezuma II , the tlatoani ruler of the Aztec Empire. The Otomis initially, and then the Tlaxcalans fought with the Spanish in a series of three battles from 2 to 5 September , and at one point, Diaz remarked, "they surrounded us on every side". On November 8, , they were peacefully received by Moctezuma II. Moctezuma gave lavish gifts of gold to the Spaniards which, rather than placating them, excited their ambitions for plunder. On July 1, , Moctezuma was killed he was stoned to death by his own people, as reported in Spanish accounts; although some claim he was murdered by the Spaniards once they realized his inability to placate the locals.

After a battle in Otumba , they managed to reach Tlaxcala, having lost men. During the siege he would construct brigantines in the lake and slowly destroy blocks of the city to avoid fighting in an urban setting. The Mexicas would fall back to Tlatelolco and even succeed in ambushing the pursuing Spanish forces, inflicting heavy losses, but would ultimately be the last portion of the island that resisted the conquistadores. However, there may be more to the picture than this. The influence of Garay was effectively stopped by this appeal to the King who sent out a decree forbidding Garay to interfere in the politics of New Spain, causing him to give up without a fight.

The proclamation of the king says in part:. We, respecting the many labors, dangers, and adventures which you underwent as stated above, and so that there might remain a perpetual memorial of you and your services and that you and your descendants might be more fully honored The grant specifies the iconography of the coat of arms, the central portion divided into quadrants. In the upper portion, there is a "black eagle with two heads on a white field, which are the arms of the empire". Their marriage had been childless. During the Age of Discovery , the Catholic Church had seen early attempts at conversion in the Caribbean islands by Spanish friars, particularly the mendicant orders.

If these people [Indians] were now to see the affairs of the Church and the service of God in the hands of canons or other dignitaries, and saw them indulge in the vices and profanities now common in Spain, knowing that such men were the ministers of God, it would bring our Faith into much harm that I believe any further preaching would be of no avail. He wished the mendicants to be the main evangelists. Your Majesty should likewise beseech His Holiness [the pope] to grant these powers to the two principal persons in the religious orders that are to come here, and that they should be his delegates, one from the Order of St.

Francis and the other from the Order of St. They should bring the most extensive powers Your Majesty is able to obtain, for, because these lands are so far from the Church of Rome, and we, the Christians who now reside here and shall do so in the future, are so far from the proper remedies of our consciences and, as we are human, so subject to sin, it is essential that His Holiness should be generous with us and grant to these persons most extensive powers, to be handed down to persons actually in residence here whether it be given to the general of each order or to his provincials. The conqueror himself was said to have met the friars as they approached the capital, kneeling at the feet of the friars who had walked from the coast.

However, one of the first twelve Franciscans, Fray Toribio de Benavente Motolinia does not mention it in his history. Although as a human he was a sinner, he had faith and works of a good Christian, and a great desire to employ his life and property in widening and augmenting the fair of Jesus Christ, and dying for the conversion of these gentiles Through this captain, God opened the door for us to preach his holy gospel and it was he who caused the Indians to revere the holy sacraments and respect the ministers of the church.

In , year of the Conquest, Charles was attending to matters in his German domains and Bishop Adrian of Utrecht functioned as regent in Spain. The Licentiate then fell ill and died shortly after his arrival, appointing Marcos de Aguilar as alcalde mayor. The aged Aguilar also became sick and appointed Alonso de Estrada governor, who was confirmed in his functions by a royal decree in August Estrada sent Diego de Figueroa to the south. De Figueroa raided graveyards and extorted contributions, meeting his end when the ship carrying these treasures sank.

Denying he had held back on gold due the crown, he showed that he had contributed more than the quinto one-fifth required. He was received by Charles with every distinction, and decorated with the order of Santiago. The noble title and senorial estate of the Marquesado was passed down to his descendants until Although confirmed in his land holdings and vassals, he was not reinstated as governor and was never again given any important office in the administration of New Spain. During his travel to Spain, his property was mismanaged by abusive colonial administrators. He sided with local natives in a lawsuit. The natives documented the abuses in the Huexotzinco Codex. There he concentrated on the building of his palace and on Pacific exploration.

By the early s, he owned 20 silver mines in Sultepec , 12 in Taxco , and 3 in Zacualpan. On his return he went through a crowd to speak to the emperor, who demanded of him who he was. Having spent a great deal of his own money to finance expeditions, he was now heavily in debt. In February he made a claim on the royal treasury, but was ignored for the next three years. Disgusted, he decided to return to Mexico in When he reached Seville, he was stricken with dysentery.

He died in Castilleja de la Cuesta , Seville province, on December 2, , from a case of pleurisy at the age of He left his many mestizo and white children well cared for in his will, along with every one of their mothers. He requested in his will that his remains eventually be buried in Mexico. After his death, his body was moved more than eight times for several reasons. Three years later due to the space being required by the duke, his body was moved to the altar of Santa Catarina in the same church. So in , his body was sent to New Spain and buried in the church of San Francisco de Texcoco, where his mother and one of his sisters were buried. This was delayed for nine years, while his body stayed in the main room of the palace of the viceroy.

Eventually it was moved to the Sagrario of Franciscan church, where it stayed for 87 years. In , it was moved to another place in the same church.

The Spanish soldiers, Short Story Of Hernando Cortes and other adventurers Short Story Of Hernando Cortes conquered these lands were called 'conquistadors', which means conquerors. The slaves were kept in forts Short Story Of Hernando Cortes the African coast before being transported to America. Today, Christianity is the main religion of Latin America and Short Story Of Hernando Cortes Roman Catholic Church Short Story Of Hernando Cortes main church, although Short Story Of Hernando Cortes Chinese Propaganda Poster Analysis practices Second Great Awakening: The Insane exist. The victorious Short Story Of Hernando Cortes rose each morning, drove off the moon and stars and captured the daytime sky. Short Story Of Hernando Cortes Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Short Story Of Hernando Cortes, D.

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